How is Global Warming Forming?• According to scientist, human activities is the major contribution to Global Warming. With our excessive use of Non-Renewable Energy we have caused Greenhouse Gases to produce Global Warming.
What cause the temperature of the atmosphere to go up?• There are many possible mechanisms that can cause the warming of the atmosphere, for example: – Natural variation – the climate becomes warmer by internal chaotic dynamics of the earth-atmosphere system (that is, no external influence). – Solar activity – either direct increase of solar energy output or indirect “trigger” mechanisms due to solar activity (though nobody knows how) may cause the surface temperature to go up. – Greenhouse effect – increasing “greenhouse” gases such as CO2, CH4, NO, CFC,…etc. (actually H2O is very efficient, too, but at present it is assumed to be in steady state).• The last one is presently thought to be the most likely cause of the global warming and hence we will examine it here in this chapter..
The (Atmospheric) Greenhouse Effect• Examples of greenhouse gases: H2O, CO2, CH4, CFC.• Currently, CO2 is the main suspect of causing the global warming since the 20th century because combustion of fossil fuel naturally injects CO2 into the atmosphere and it has increased dramatically since last century.
Number Ten• There is a scientific consensus that human activities are very likely to affect global climate
Number Nine • There is some chance that, due to the uncertainties of complex models and the assumptions used to drive them, the consensus is wrong.
Number Eight• Ignoring the potential implications of climate change is taking a big risk with a valuable asset. – The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recommends that we avoid “dangerous human interference” with global climate systems.
Number Seven• In order to avoid dangerous interference, IPCC estimates that we need to hold global emissions about steady.
Number Six • Since the developing world would still like to develop, the developed world must make substantial emissions reductions. – IPCC says 70-80 percent of current levels must be reduced by 2040- 2050.
Important Data8.00E+097.00E+096.00E+095.00E+094.00E+093.00E+092.00E+091.00E+090.00E+00 World USA OECD Asia Population Total Carbon Emissions
More Important Data6543210 World USA OECD Asia Per Capita Carbon Emissions
Number Five• The Kyoto Protocol will result in only modest emission reductions – The US has not yet ratified this treaty
Number Four • We have 30-40 years to transform industrialized society – Reducing emissions by 70-80 percent is a substantial challenge
US Greenhouse Emissions HFCs, PFCs, SF6 N2O 2% 6% CH4 9% CO2 83%
US CO2 Emissions Everything Else 3% Fossil Fuel 97%
US Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Commercial Residential 4% 7% Industrial Electricity Generation 17% 40% Transportation 32%
Number Three• We already have technologies that can help us on the way – Efficiency – Renewable Energy – Coal-gasification with carbon sequestration
Number Two• The behavioral challenges are much more daunting than the technological ones.
Number One• Climate change isn’t likely to affect our generation.• We need to make changes for subsequent generations.