Principles of Multimedia and Contiguity Cory Plough
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Target Learners: Online instructors at the secondary level </li></ul><ul><li>After completing ...
Multimedia Principle in  E-learning <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Include graphics and words rather than text alon...
Positives of Following the Multimedia Principle <ul><li>Students participate in  active learning  because they are making ...
Examples of MM Principle Used Beneficially Using video demonstrations to explain a new tool or concept. Graphic Types: Tra...
Good Examples cont. Using screen captures with text to demonstrate a  procedure.  Graphic Type: Representational
Good Examples cont. Visuals that show a relationship among concepts or information Graphic Types: Organizational or Relati...
Examples of Not Using MM Principle Correctly Lesson Page is text based only with no graphics Graphic Type: None
Incorrect Usage Examples cont. Graphics that decorate the page,  but do not enhance the information being taught. Graphic ...
Contiguity Principles in  E-learning <ul><li>Graphics and text should be placed near each other on the screen. </li></ul><...
Contiguity Principle 1 Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Do : When a graphic is showing instructions, steps, descriptions, or action...
Contiguity Principle 2 Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Do :  When a graphic is showing a task, an action, or a description, the na...
Examples of Using Contiguity Principles Correctly Use brief descriptions under or within the pic to provide information an...
Correct Examples cont. Use tools such as Voicethread or PhotoStory that  allow you to record audio on top of graphics. Thi...
Correct Example cont. Feedback should be given on same page as the student answer. Whether you are using Flash or A Web 2....
Examples of Using Contiguity Principles Incorrectly Animation should include spoken words or written words that help expla...
Incorrect Usage Examples cont.
Incorrect Usage Examples cont. Graphic included but instructions that accompany it are actually so far down the page, they...
Review Question 1 <ul><li>Please select the best definition for the Principle of Multimedia. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure g...
Question 1 Answer <ul><li>Please select the best definition for the Principle of Multimedia. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure g...
Question 2 <ul><li>Which is a better example of the Principle of Multimedia? </li></ul>
Question 2 Answer <ul><li>Which is a better example of the Principle of Multimedia? </li></ul>Figure 2 is correct, it incl...
Question 3 <ul><li>Please select the best definition for the Principle of Contiguity. </li></ul><ul><li>Include graphics a...
Question 3 Answer <ul><li>Please select the best definition for the Principle of Contiguity. </li></ul><ul><li>Include gra...
Question 4 <ul><li>Which figure best demonstrates the Principles of Contiguity? </li></ul>
Question 4 Answer <ul><li>Which figure best demonstrates the Principles of Contiguity? </li></ul>Figure 1 is correct.  The...
SOURCES <ul><li>All images and example text were taken from materials used in the online courses I teach.  This includes g...
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Principles of Multimedia and Contiguity for E-learners

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This presentation was designed to demonstrate the principles of Multimedia and Contiguity to a targeted audience of online instructors.

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Principles of Multimedia and Contiguity for E-learners

  1. 1. Principles of Multimedia and Contiguity Cory Plough
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Target Learners: Online instructors at the secondary level </li></ul><ul><li>After completing this presentation, the learner will be able to correctly define the multimedia and contiguity principles. </li></ul><ul><li>After completing this presentation, the learner will be able to identify key elements of these principles in example problems. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Multimedia Principle in E-learning <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Include graphics and words rather than text alone on course pages and presentations. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics = still pictures, animations, videos </li></ul><ul><li>Words = text or sounds </li></ul>
  4. 4. Positives of Following the Multimedia Principle <ul><li>Students participate in active learning because they are making connections between graphics and text </li></ul><ul><li>Active learning leads to engaged learning which can increase motivation and academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Active learning leads to knowledge construction rather than information acquisition which involves more profound cognitive processing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Examples of MM Principle Used Beneficially Using video demonstrations to explain a new tool or concept. Graphic Types: Transformational or Interpretive
  6. 6. Good Examples cont. Using screen captures with text to demonstrate a procedure. Graphic Type: Representational
  7. 7. Good Examples cont. Visuals that show a relationship among concepts or information Graphic Types: Organizational or Relational
  8. 8. Examples of Not Using MM Principle Correctly Lesson Page is text based only with no graphics Graphic Type: None
  9. 9. Incorrect Usage Examples cont. Graphics that decorate the page, but do not enhance the information being taught. Graphic Type: Decorative
  10. 10. Contiguity Principles in E-learning <ul><li>Graphics and text should be placed near each other on the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken words and graphics should be presented simultaneously. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Contiguity Principle 1 Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Do : When a graphic is showing instructions, steps, descriptions, or actions make sure the printed words are right next to it on the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t : When scrolling, text should never be separate from the graphic above or below it. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t : Never put feedback on a separate page from a student answer </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t : Directions should not appear on a separate page from their application </li></ul>
  12. 12. Contiguity Principle 2 Do’s and Don’ts <ul><li>Do : When a graphic is showing a task, an action, or a description, the narration should be presented at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t : Present a segment of narration that comes first and is followed by the video or animation second. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t : Provide an icon or link for the narration that is separate than the icon or link for the graphic. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Examples of Using Contiguity Principles Correctly Use brief descriptions under or within the pic to provide information and even instructions. Note: if text is located below the pic it should be VERY close.
  14. 14. Correct Examples cont. Use tools such as Voicethread or PhotoStory that allow you to record audio on top of graphics. This provides the student with audio and graphics simultaneously.
  15. 15. Correct Example cont. Feedback should be given on same page as the student answer. Whether you are using Flash or A Web 2.0 based tool for assessment, provide feedback near student response.
  16. 16. Examples of Using Contiguity Principles Incorrectly Animation should include spoken words or written words that help explain within the presentation. Be careful of selecting tools that do not such as this program.
  17. 17. Incorrect Usage Examples cont.
  18. 18. Incorrect Usage Examples cont. Graphic included but instructions that accompany it are actually so far down the page, they are not visible to the student so the graphic becomes irrelevant and maybe even confusing.
  19. 19. Review Question 1 <ul><li>Please select the best definition for the Principle of Multimedia. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure graphics and text are close to each other on the page </li></ul><ul><li>Include graphics and text rather than words alone on course pages and presentations. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Question 1 Answer <ul><li>Please select the best definition for the Principle of Multimedia. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure graphics and text are close to each other on the page </li></ul><ul><li>Include graphics and text rather than words alone on course pages and presentations. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Question 2 <ul><li>Which is a better example of the Principle of Multimedia? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Question 2 Answer <ul><li>Which is a better example of the Principle of Multimedia? </li></ul>Figure 2 is correct, it includes text AND graphics!
  23. 23. Question 3 <ul><li>Please select the best definition for the Principle of Contiguity. </li></ul><ul><li>Include graphics and text rather than words alone on course pages and presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics and text should be placed near each other on the screen and spoken words and graphics should present simultaneously. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Question 3 Answer <ul><li>Please select the best definition for the Principle of Contiguity. </li></ul><ul><li>Include graphics and text rather than words alone on course pages and presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics and text should be placed near each other on the screen and spoken words and graphics should present simultaneously. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Question 4 <ul><li>Which figure best demonstrates the Principles of Contiguity? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Question 4 Answer <ul><li>Which figure best demonstrates the Principles of Contiguity? </li></ul>Figure 1 is correct. The text is relevant and located close to the graphic.
  27. 27. SOURCES <ul><li>All images and example text were taken from materials used in the online courses I teach. This includes good and bad examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Of course, this means I should probably fix some things in my courses. </li></ul><ul><li>CP 2/14/09 </li></ul>

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