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03 iq and immigration


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03 iq and immigration

  1. 1. IQ Testing and Immigration<br />
  2. 2. IQ Tests, SAT, ACT…<br />Ingrained in American culture<br />Measure and then give opportunities<br />IQ was first developed in the Eugenics era<br />
  3. 3. History of IQ Testing<br />Alfred Binet in 1905 in France<br />How well students will do in elementary school – tips for teachers<br />Long list of task for students between 3-12<br />Placed an age on each task for what they thought the youngest age a child could complete task<br />Scale that measured ability at that point in their life<br />
  4. 4. History of IQ Testing<br />Binet’s warning<br />Thinkers of his time believed “that an individual’s intelligence is a fixed quantity, a quantity that cannot be increased. We must protest and react against this brutal pessimism…it is founded upon nothing”<br />Henry Goddard from U.S. thought differently<br />
  5. 5. Henry Goddard<br />Superintendent of a lab at a school for the feebleminded in New Jersey<br />Goddard translates test and gives it to students at his school<br />Saw this test as an easy way to measure and identify the “feebleminded”<br />Believed Binet’s test produced reliable results that indicated a permanent intelligence<br />
  6. 6. Henry Goddard<br />Develops IQ (Intelligence Quotient)<br />Took the mental age reached by Binet’s test and divided by chronological age (x100)<br />100 represents mental age = age<br />0-25 – Idiots<br />26-54 – Imbeciles<br />55 – 75 – morons<br />
  7. 7. Goddard’s Study<br />Goddard takes his test to Ellis Island in 1913<br />“pass by the obviously normal” immigrant and choose individuals from the great mass of “average immigrants.” <br />35 Jews, 22 Hungarians, 50 Italians, and 45 Russians. <br />83%, 80%, 79%, 87%<br />Tremendous uproar and debate over results and application<br />
  8. 8. Stanford -Binet<br />As debates raged on, Lewis Terman creates a new version that will come to be known as the Stanford-Binet test.<br />A 5th version of this test is still used in IQ testing today.<br />A version of Stanford-Binet was used in 1917 to test WWI American soldiers to determine ability to become officers or if they were unfit to serve <br />
  9. 9. Army Tests<br />Army Alpha – given to literate potential soldiers<br />Five hundred is played with rackets pins cards dice<br />The Percheron is a kind of goat horse cow sheep<br />Artichoke is a kind of hay corn vegetable fodder<br />Carrie Nation is known as a singer temperance agitator suffragist nurse<br />
  10. 10. Army Tests<br />Army Beta – given to illiterate potential soldiers<br />You get to take part of it<br />3 minutes<br />How did you do?<br />
  11. 11. IQ and Intelligence<br />Get in groups of 2-3<br />Define Intelligence<br />Do IQ tests test your definition of intelligence?<br />What are the issues?<br />How would you test what you think intelligence is?<br />
  12. 12. More Questions<br />Binet wrote that “a French peasant may be normal in a rural community but feebleminded in Paris.” Is the reverse also true? Is this thought still accurate today?<br />Even with tests that are statistically normed, what are your thoughts on IQ testing today?<br />
  13. 13. Immigration Restriction<br />1890 - 1914, over 15 million immigrants<br />In some large cities 1 out of 3 people were foreign-born<br />Americans felt threatened by newcomers<br />“according to all evidence available” American intelligence was declining as a result of the presence of “inferior races”<br />Even President Coolidge<br />
  14. 14. Immigration Restriction<br />“Who should be allowed to settle here?” and “What are the proper qualifications for citizenship?”<br />Early in this country’s history, the words white male were used to describe qualifications for citizenship.<br />So it should not come as a surprise that people eventually began to call for immigration restriction<br />
  15. 15. Immigration Restriction<br />1917 – Congress enacts bill to require a literacy test for all immigrants<br />Harry Laughlin and Eugenics officials were called upon to testify at government hearings for more restrictions<br />Displayed the IQ test results<br />1924 – President Coolidge told the American people that restriction was “purely a defensive action”’<br />
  16. 16. Immigration Restriction<br />“We cast no aspersions on any race or creed, but we must remember that every object of our institutions of society and government will fail unless America be kept American”<br /> -President Coolidge<br />
  17. 17. National Origins Act 1924<br />Limited number of immigrants from any country to 2% of people from that country who were already living in U.S.<br />Southern and Eastern European countries targeted as well as Asia<br />1900-1910 – 200K Italians/year – 4,000 quota<br />Senator David Reed – earlier legislation "disregards entirely those of us who are interested in keeping American stock up to the highest standard-that is, the people who were born here.”<br />
  18. 18. Until 1965<br />The quota system based on national origins existed until 1965<br />Immigration Act of 1965 was passed into law.<br />300,000 visas granted annually, 170K from Eastern Hemisphere with no more than 20,000 per country<br />