South Asia Country Look


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South Asia Country Look

  1. 1. South Asia: A closer look Pakistan Bangladesh
  2. 2. Why would these countries be grouped together? <ul><li>Cultural similarities: Islam; both countries formed because of the partition of British India </li></ul><ul><li>Young countries with ancient history </li></ul><ul><li>Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro - cities of 2500 BC (ancient Indus Valley civilization) </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Partition <ul><li>1947 - division of British India led to formation of West and East Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Partition led to much violence between Muslims and Hindus (app. 1 million people died)…Hindus to India, Muslims to Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>West and East Pakistan of 1947 held religious bond, but 1,100 mile separation drove them apart…could it have survived? </li></ul><ul><li>East Pakistan wanted own state, West Pakistan refused - civil war in ‘71 </li></ul><ul><li>India helped East Pakistan win independence and in 1972 became Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><li>Kashmir conflict…more to come </li></ul>
  4. 4. Country Info Agr. 60%, Garment Ind. Agr. 20%, Ser. 53% Economy Base +55,000 sq. mi. + 340,000 sq. m. Total Area President: Iajuddin Ahmed Prime Minister: Sheikh Hasina President: Asif Ali Zardari Prime Minister: Yousaf Raza Gillani Political Leader Parliamentary Republic Islamic Republic Government + $1,300 US + $2,500 US GDP per capita +70 billion +410 billion GDP +150 million +170 million Population Bengali Urdu Official Language Bangladesh Pakistan Category
  5. 5. Jute in Bangladesh <ul><li>Grows about 4 feet, useful fiber, makes burlap bags for shipping produce also clothing, twine, rugs </li></ul>
  6. 6. Agriculture in Pakistan and Bangladesh <ul><li>A need to modernize farming methods </li></ul><ul><li>Struggles with arid climate (Pakistan) and unpredictable monsoons (Bangladesh) </li></ul><ul><li>Indus Valley irrigation key </li></ul><ul><li>Rice in Bangladesh </li></ul>
  7. 7. Small Industry <ul><li>Microcredit: loans available to entrepreneurs; joint responsibility for repayment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Culture in Pakistan and Bangladesh <ul><li>Both lands part of Mughal Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic influence: Ramadan </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan seems to more strict with imposing Islamic laws - purdah - seclusion of women (must wear veils, little to no contact with men who are not relatives) </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan - ethnically diverse - 5 groups: Punjabis (half of population), Sindhis, Pathans, Muhajirs, Balochs </li></ul><ul><li>Urdu is official language, but many languages are spoken </li></ul><ul><li>Bangladesh - mostly Bengalis (Bengali is language based on Sanskrit) </li></ul><ul><li>Typically arranged marriages, family priority </li></ul><ul><li>Soccer, cricket popular sports </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry very popular (Islamic tradition?)…poetry readings: mushairas </li></ul><ul><li>Rabindranath Tagore - Bangladesh poet who won Nobel Prize for literature in 1913 - “My Golden Bengal” national anthem </li></ul><ul><li>Qawwali - form of devotional singing performed by Sufis </li></ul>
  9. 10. Kashmir <ul><li>The 1947 partition brought on another dilemma: who will control Kashmir? </li></ul><ul><li>Located at foot of Himalayas - surrounded by India, Pakistan, China </li></ul><ul><li>Region, not a city </li></ul><ul><li>Kashmir valley - Indian; Jammu and Azad Kashmir - Indian and Pakistani control; Northern Area - Pakistani control; Aksai Chin - Chinese control </li></ul><ul><li>What are effects of this dispute? </li></ul>
  10. 11. A closer look at Kashmir <ul><li>Read and answer questions to better understand the dispute and the factors involved? </li></ul><ul><li>Video on Kashmir: and </li></ul>
  11. 12. South Asia: A closer look <ul><li>Nepal Bhutan </li></ul>
  12. 13. National Flags <ul><li>Nepal Bhutan </li></ul>
  13. 14. A look at the two countries Buddhism 80% Hindu, 10% Buddhist Religion 80% agr., industry also 76% of people agr., 18% ser.,6% man. Economy $1,840 US $377 US GDP per capita + 18,000 sq mi + 56,000 sq mi Total Area + 675,000 App. 29 million Population Dzongkha Nepali Language Parliamentary Monarchy Republic Government Bhutan Nepal Information
  14. 15. Mountain Kingdoms <ul><li>Mountainous terrain = isolated histories </li></ul><ul><li>Neither country has access to the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation - majority of country is over 2,000 meters high </li></ul><ul><li>Little suitable land for agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Terraces created on mountainsides: rice, corn, potatoes, wheat; livestock: cattle, sheep, yaks </li></ul><ul><li>Timber very important resource - deforestation still a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism is growing: climbing Himalayas, positive and negative - creates economy AND damages environment - Bhutan only allows a certain number of tourists yearly </li></ul>
  15. 16. Cultural Traditions <ul><li>In Nepal: Indo-Nepalese Hindus whose ancestors came from India; most speak Nepali, a variation of Sanskrit; also Tibetan ancestry - Sherpas - today traditional mountain guides of Everest region; multilingual, multiethnic nation because of migrations from India and China; newari music; was once a absolute monarchy, then became a parliamentary monarchy, then in May of 2008 a republic </li></ul><ul><li>In Bhutan: main ethnic group is the Bhote, who trace origins to Tibet; most live in 2-story houses - family on second, livestock on first; use flutes, drum, long brass horns, elaborate customs, colorful textiles with silk, cotton, wool;rich Buddhist tradition; rigsar music </li></ul>
  16. 17. Religion <ul><li>A closer look at Buddhism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder? - Siddhartha Gautama, born in present-day Nepal and India in 6th century B.C.; Buddhism grew in Nepal, but later replaced by Hinduism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism in this region: Mahayana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where else practiced: Bhutan, China, Korea, Japan, Tibet, Vietnam, Nepal, Taiwan, Mongolia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics: started in India in 1st century BCE; Zen Buddhism, Pure Land Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism are all forms of Mahayana Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main idea(?): Mahayana Buddhists strive to be, “saints who have become enlightened but who unselfishly delay nirvana to help others attain it as well, as the Buddha did. Perhaps more significantly for one who would choose between the paths, Mahayana Buddhists teach that enlightenment can be attained in a single lifetime, and this can be accomplished even by a layperson. The various subdivisions within the Mahayana tradition, such as Zen, Nichiren, and Pure Land, promote different ways of attaining this goal, but all are agreed that it can be attained in a single lifetime by anyone who puts his or her mind (and sometimes body) to it” (from BBC ) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>The few differences may be that in Hinduism a follower lives for reincarnation to improve one’s dharma (through karma) while in Buddhism a follower lives to seek for nirvana, which is attainable in one’s lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>Mahayana Buddhism uses rituals, icons, sacred objects in practice </li></ul><ul><li>Scripture: Sutras - actual words of Buddha - the Dhammapada, the Tipitaka, many sutras (or suttas) in different versions </li></ul>
  18. 20. Buddhism and the West <ul><li>Buddhism has become a growing religion in the Western world. </li></ul><ul><li>Influential reasons: politics in Tibet, the Dalai Lama, the internet, the Vietnam war, baby-boom generation, yoga </li></ul><ul><li>Influential works: by Pema Chodron, Thubten Chodron </li></ul>
  19. 21. South Asia: A closer look <ul><li>Sri Lanka the Maldives </li></ul>
  20. 22. National Flags <ul><li>Sri Lanka the Maldives </li></ul>
  21. 23. A common bond? <ul><li>These areas have been major ports for ships from all over the world </li></ul><ul><li>Both have close ties to the Indian subcontinent, but very distinct histories </li></ul>
  22. 24. Predominately Muslim 70% Theravada Buddhist Religion +350,000 +21 million Population 115 sq mi 25,332 sq mi Total Area Dhivehi Sinhala, Tamil Language Tourism 30%; fishing; industry Textiles, garments +60%; agric. 15% Economy $3,066 US $1,623 US GDP per capita Presidential Republic Democratic Socialist Republic Government The Maldives Sri Lanka
  23. 25. At a glance: Sri Lanka <ul><li>People “arrived” to island from India in around 6th century BCE - the Sinhalese - these people were not the native inhabitants, however </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism was adopted by culture </li></ul><ul><li>In 4th century the Tamils (Dravidian Hindus from southern India) “arrived”; the Tamils inhabited the north, while the Sinhalese moved to the southern end of the island </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans “arrived” in 16th century - Portuguese, Dutch, then British (and called it Ceylon); independence was won in 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>After independence tensions grew between Tamils and Sinhalese; 1980s civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Full of flora and fauna; tropical climate; was plantation site for colonizers; </li></ul><ul><li>Today government is mixture of presidential and parliamentary systems </li></ul><ul><li>Has major national railway system </li></ul><ul><li>Cinema very popular; rivals Bollywood? </li></ul><ul><li>Has oldest radio station in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>One of most literate populations of developing nations </li></ul><ul><li>National sport - volleyball; most popular - cricket (1996 World Cup champions) </li></ul><ul><li>Very ethnically diverse nation: besides Tamil Hindus and Sinhalese Buddhists also Muslims and Christians (of mixed European descent known as Burghers) </li></ul><ul><li>Many Sri Lankans live in small villages and towns </li></ul><ul><li>Religious structures (temples, churches, mosques) cover landscape of country </li></ul><ul><li>Dancing: Kandyan - tells stories of local kings and heroes; also yearly Perahera festival </li></ul><ul><li>Economic strengths: large amount of land designated for agriculture - rice, tea; famous for gemstones; tourism is important economy boost, but wars have plagued this type of revenue </li></ul>
  24. 26. At a glance: the Maldives <ul><li>Originally “settled” by Buddhists and Hindus from Sri Lanka and India around 6th century BCE; later - Arab traders influenced area - 12th century island converted to Islam; dynasties ran by sultans </li></ul><ul><li>1968 became a republic </li></ul><ul><li>Language is unique to the Maldives </li></ul><ul><li>Islam is the only state religion and only religion allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Bodu beru music - strong African influence </li></ul><ul><li>“ lowest” country in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse effect a real concern for this island nation </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism is huge economic booster! </li></ul>