Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2


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Geo: Chapter 3, Section 2

  1. 1. Chapter Three, Section 2 CLIMATE
  2. 2. What’s a happenin’? <ul><li>19th century Peruvian fishermen found funny fish functions in the ocean </li></ul><ul><li>During Christmas time waters would become very warm, resulting in poor fishing every 2 to 7 years </li></ul><ul><li>First, was taken merely as folk knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>20th century scientists found global weather patterns disrupted or altered normal human activity </li></ul>
  3. 3. Factors affecting climate <ul><li>WIND CURRENTS </li></ul><ul><li>- convection : the transfer of heat in the atmosphere by upward motion of the air. </li></ul><ul><li>How do winds work? </li></ul><ul><li>-sunlight heats atmosphere, air expands, creates zone of low pressure, cooler dense air in high-pressure zone rushes to low-pressure area causing wind </li></ul><ul><li>Global wind patterns: hot air flows towards poles, cold air moves toward equator </li></ul><ul><li>Because of tilt of earth, winds bend, called the Coriolis effect. </li></ul><ul><li>- in Northern Hemisphere they turn right </li></ul><ul><li>- in Southern Hemisphere they turn left </li></ul>
  4. 4. Winds, winds, winds <ul><li>Wind patterns in north and south hemispheres are mirror images of each other. Winds are identified by direction from which they blow </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>2) OCEAN CURRENTS </li></ul><ul><li>-Ocean currents are like rivers flowing in the ocean </li></ul><ul><li>-they move in circular systems </li></ul><ul><li>-warm waters flow away from equator </li></ul><ul><li>-cold waters flow toward equator </li></ul><ul><li>The winds that blow over the ocean currents directly influence climate of lands </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Europe is as far north as Canada, but enjoys a milder climate because of the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean currents - also affect amount of precipitation. Cold ocean currents flowing along a coastal region chill the air, preventing warm air to release moisture. See California cool and Benguela cool </li></ul>
  6. 6. Questions for Thought: <ul><li>1) How do ocean currents differ from wind currents? </li></ul><ul><li>2) What is general direction of wind and ocean currents? </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>3) Zones of latitude </li></ul><ul><li>-there are three general zones: low or tropical, middle or temperate, high or polar </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical: found on either side of equator, extend to Tropics </li></ul><ul><li>High-Latitude Polar: encircle North and South Poles </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-Latitude Temperate: between tropics and polar regions, greater variation in climate </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>4) Elevation </li></ul><ul><li>-As altitude increases, air temperature drops (about 3.5 degrees F every 1000 feet) </li></ul><ul><li>-Climates above 12,000 ft. become Artic like areas </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s analyze the map on page 56… </li></ul><ul><li>Questions for thought - </li></ul><ul><li>1 - what climates would you find at 2,500 ft. elevation? At 15,000 ft.? 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 - what latitude and altitude would you find a desert climate? </li></ul><ul><li>3 - Explain how climate zones change as latitude gets higher </li></ul>
  9. 9. Changes in Climate <ul><li>Why does the climate change? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it all because of global warming? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it all because of human activity? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it fair to blame one reason? </li></ul><ul><li>Is some climate change good or benefitial? </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists = some human, some natural </li></ul>
  10. 10. EL NINO (sounds like el nin-yo) <ul><li>Every 2 to 7 years easterly winds over Pacific Ocean SLOW or REVERSE, changing ocean temperature, affecting weather worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>EL nino brings warm water and heavy rains to Americas, drought-like conditions to Australia and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>When the reverse occurs we have La NINA (sounds like nin-ya) </li></ul>
  11. 11. GLOBAL WARMING <ul><li>Controversy exists! </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have agreed that air temperatures have increased by one degree since late 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>Some predictions suggest the increase will be 3.5 degrees within the next century </li></ul><ul><li>In part due to earth’s natural warming and cooling cycles </li></ul><ul><li>In part due to human activity: greenhouse effect - layer of gases trapped in atmosphere causing higher temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse effect caused by petroleum, burning coal </li></ul>
  12. 12. Homework <ul><li>Page 58, 1 - 3 </li></ul>