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Ch11 Soc Notes


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notes for chapter 11 sociology

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Ch11 Soc Notes

  1. 1. Chapter 11: Gender, Age, and Health Section 1: Gender Section 2: Age and Disability Section 3: Health
  2. 2. Section 1: Gender <ul><li>What is gender? Behavioral and psychological traits considered appropriate for men and women </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gender Roles and Identity <ul><ul><li>Gender roles: specific behaviors and attitudes that a society establishes for men and women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender identity: awareness of being masculine or feminine as those traits are defined by culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-the degree to which a person takes on a gender identity affects his or her response to the gender roles established in society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BETWEEN CULTURES: are our stereotypes off? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Tchambuli culture in New Guinea: women bossy and efficient while men are gossipy and artistic (men wear cosmetics and curled hair) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Mundugumor: masculinity with men and women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Arapesh: men and women passive and emotionally warm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Pacific Island societies more gender-role variations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-1955 Good Wife’s Guide </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Gender Roles in US <ul><li>Gender roles reinforced at birth </li></ul><ul><li>Sex-specific clothes, toys, nursery furnishings </li></ul><ul><li>Pink vs. blue </li></ul><ul><li>Change more evident now? Tom-boys? Can a girl be “physical” “like a boy”? Can a boy be “feminine” “like a girl”? </li></ul><ul><li>Boys better at math and science? Girls better at reading and creativity? </li></ul><ul><li>Are roles different and unequal? Are norms related to nature of human reproduction? </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchy - men are dominant over women </li></ul><ul><li>Sexism - the belief that one sex is by nature superior to the other --only male sexism? A self-fulfilling prophecy </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gender Inequality in the US <ul><li>Have women always had equal opportunities? </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s movement: movement which held that sexes were socially, politically, economically unequal </li></ul><ul><li>July 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York - declaration of sentiments and resolutions called for reforms for more women’s rights and for suffrage - the right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Suffrage was not easily won…why do you think? </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger strikes, civil disobedience, picketing the White House </li></ul><ul><li>1920 - 19th Amendment to constitution gave women right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Later - were women expected only to take role of wire and mother? </li></ul><ul><li>Equal Rights Amendment 1972 - failed to be passed </li></ul><ul><li>Other acts passed by Congress outlawed gender discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Education: women (prior to 1979) very much underrepresented with college students; today women outnumber men in college - still strong distinctions in degree majors; example - engineering versus liberal arts degrees; masters versus doctorate </li></ul><ul><li>What about sports in schools? Are women as supported as men with athletic scholarships, funding, etc…? Education Amendment Act of 1972 - has the goal been fulfilled? </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Work Place: </li></ul><ul><li>Wage gap: 1960s women made 58 cents to men’s dollar…today roughly 75 cents to the dollar…why has this happened? </li></ul><ul><li>The glass ceiling: invisible barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts at home: who works? Who takes care of the kids? </li></ul><ul><li>POLITICS: </li></ul><ul><li>Ever-changing; women make up majority of voting population, but not holding office; changes every election - Clinton, Pilosi, Rice, etc… </li></ul>
  7. 7. Section 2: Age and Disability <ul><li>In society how are people treated differently as they age? </li></ul><ul><li>Ageism: the belief that one age group is superior to another…is this a true phenomenon? How does society cater to the older community? </li></ul><ul><li>+60 population is increasing - “graying of America” </li></ul><ul><li>Baby-boom generation - between 1946 and 1960 births heavily increased </li></ul><ul><li>Higher population = more importance with voting…how do candidates cater to elder generations? </li></ul><ul><li>AARP - American Association of Retired Persons; National Council of Senior Citizens; National Council of Aging; Gray Panthers </li></ul><ul><li>Social Security System: Government program to support senior citizens - as life expectancy increases this puts strain on government? </li></ul><ul><li>Old-old population - health issues - medicare (assistance with disabilities), medicaid (assistance with low-income individuals) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Age Inequality in US: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For elderly - poverty rate is growing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks down either further with minorities: African American - 22%; Hispanics - 19% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-53 million Americans live with disability - includes physical disabilities, chronic health impairments, mental retardation, mental illness, visual, hearing, speech impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-prejudice: meaningful employment - do employers “trust” population of people? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-1988 Fair Housing Amendments Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 addresses employment, public service, public accommodations, telecommunications </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Section 3: Health <ul><li>Main issues with US health care system: cost, quality </li></ul><ul><li>COST: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US spends higher percentage of GDP on health care than any other country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? Hospital care, advances in medical technology, fear of malpractice lawsuits, increased spending on prescription drugs, medicaid, medicare </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>QUALITY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed care: patients pay monthly and receive health-care services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does savings come at cost - has quality decreased? Do you have to have the bucks to get the quality service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patients’ bill of rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Health Care: surplus of doctors, however, access is problem; physicians concentrate in wealthy urban areas; physicians concentrate on specialty fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality: income level reflects medical service; many stats that support this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor children less likely survive first year of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger - schooling success </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large percentage of poor children have no health insurance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suffering from influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis, alcoholism, heart disease </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Health Insurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private versus public insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicaid, medicare systems given uneven health-care delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some hospitals DO NOT accept medicaid, medicare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many insurance companies WILL NOT cover people with pre-existing medical conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a national health system the answer? What is positive and negative about this? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Alternative Medicine - treating illness with unconventional(?) methods such as acupuncture, acupressure, biofeedback, massage, meditation, yoga, herbal remedies, relaxation techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns about alternative medicine? Why? Are those concerns rooted in racist or nationalistic ideals or views? You have to decide for yourself </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>AIDS: 1981 first cases found in US </li></ul><ul><li>Cases grown significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Who is at highest risk? Homosexuals, bisexuals, drug abusers </li></ul><ul><li>Costs for HIV/Aids patients extremely high </li></ul><ul><li>High in minority groups as well </li></ul><ul><li>How can US be model for treatment and prevention to rest of world? </li></ul>