Ctel2 2/7/12


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Ctel2 2/7/12

  1. 1. CTEL Exam Prep Module 2 Mark Rounds
  2. 2. Contact Information <ul><li>email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>website: ctelresources.wetpaint.com </li></ul>
  3. 3. Module 2 <ul><li>Domain 2 - Foundations of English Language/Literacy Development and Content Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Domain 3 - Approaches and Methods for ELD and Content Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Domain 1 - Assessment of English Learners </li></ul>
  4. 4. CTEL Module 2 Domain 2 004 Foundations of Programs for English Learners CTEL Text: Chapter 4 Participant Manual: pp. 13-21
  5. 5. (004) Benchmarks 116-126 <ul><li>1700-European immigrants settle in rural enclaves and run their own non-English-speaking schools </li></ul><ul><li>1839-Ohio is the first state to adopt a bilingual education law, allowing schools to operate in German and English at parent request </li></ul><ul><li>1847-Louisiana passes similar law for French & English </li></ul><ul><li>1848-Treaty gave Mexicans the right to speak Spanish in CA </li></ul><ul><li>1864-Congress prohibits Native Americans from being taught in their own language </li></ul>
  6. 6. (004) Benchmarks 116-126 <ul><li>1870-School Superintendent in St. Louis points out socio-cultural weaknesses if people lose ability in native language </li></ul><ul><li>1879-Children are punished when caught using native language </li></ul><ul><li>1888-Legislation attempted in both states </li></ul><ul><li>1900-At least 600,000 taught in German </li></ul><ul><li>1906-Congress passes first English-only law </li></ul><ul><li>1917-Anti-German sentiment begins to extend to other languages </li></ul>
  7. 7. (004) Benchmarks 116-126 <ul><li>1934-The de facto policy continues into the 40’s & 50’s </li></ul><ul><li>1959-Cuban immigrants arrive in Miami </li></ul><ul><li>1961-Full bilingual program for Cuban immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>1968-Act provided money for programs of native language instruction </li></ul><ul><li>1974-Supreme Court determines that schools that do not make special provisions for students learning English are not providing equal educational opportunities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. (004) Benchmarks 116-126 <ul><li>1980-Ordinance is in response to new waves of immigrants who are poorer and less educated </li></ul><ul><li>1994-Prop 187 would have made it illegal to provide education to illegal residents. Was overturned on appeal </li></ul><ul><li>1998-Ed. Code 300-340-Required that instruction be overwhelmingly in English </li></ul><ul><li>2001-Provided federal funding to schools to support the instruction of English Learners </li></ul><ul><li>2004-Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ensures an equitable education for students with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>2004-CA schools must provide equitable access to textbooks and facilities, and facilities and teachers must be appropriately authorized </li></ul>
  9. 9. (004) Lau vs Nichols 118 <ul><li>Supreme Court decision (1974) of a suit brought by native Chinese speaker in San Francisco schools </li></ul><ul><li>Made illegal those educational practices that excluded children from effective education on the basis of language </li></ul><ul><li>Court ruled that simply providing same instruction and materials in English was not equitable </li></ul>
  10. 10. (004) Lau Remedies 119 <ul><li>Published by US Commissioner for Ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized requirements for identifying and evaluating ELs. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined instructional treatments, procedures to transfer to all-English classes, and professional standards for teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Still in use in states without regulations. </li></ul>
  11. 11. (004) NCLB (Title III) 123, 126 <ul><li>States that “English Learners will develop high levels of academic proficiency and meet the same challenging academic standards as do their native-English speaking peers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Funding for ELs and immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability requires annual progress in learning English, progress towards reclassification, and academic progress </li></ul>
  12. 12. (004) IDEA 122 <ul><li>Individuals with Disabilities Education Act </li></ul><ul><li>Reauthorized previous Special Education law </li></ul><ul><li>Stipulates that children not be labeled disabled if poor school achievement is due to ethnic, linguistic, or racial difference </li></ul>
  13. 13. (004) Proposition 227 124-125 <ul><li>Ed. Code 300-340 </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction overwhelmingly in English </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative programs through waiver process </li></ul>
  14. 14. (004) Williams vs CA 125 <ul><li>Requires equity in provision of textbooks, maintenance of facilities, and appropriately authorized staff (including teachers of English Learners) </li></ul>
  15. 15. (004) Heritage Language 126 <ul><li>AKA “developmental bilingual programs” </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for students with a primary language other than English. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals include maintenance and development of native language </li></ul>
  16. 16. (004) Dual Immersion 127 <ul><li>Half EL, half EO </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is for students to be proficient in both languages … AKA additive bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>High level of academic competence in two languages by ELs and EOs </li></ul>
  17. 17. (004) English Only 127-128 <ul><li>Goal of assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that common language is a unifier </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that students will be more academically successful </li></ul>
  18. 18. (004) Equity Issues 129-130 <ul><li>Program Placement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of time in program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Ed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention/promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dropout rates/expulsion and detention rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher qualification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher retention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul>
  19. 19. (004) Types and Models Structured English Immersion English Language Mainstream Dual Language Transitional Bilingual Education Placement Criteria Less than reasonable fluency Reasonable fluency Parental exception waiver Parental exception waiver Exit Criteria Reasonable fluency Fully fluent Parent choice District criteria Program Length 1 year Until redesignated Parent choice District criteria Class Composition District policy ELs and EOs 50/50 ideal Depends on models Language Composition Overwhelmingly in English Overwhelmingly in English Depends on model Depends on model Required Components <ul><li>ELD </li></ul><ul><li>Access to core(CBELD) </li></ul><ul><li>ELD </li></ul><ul><li>Access to core(SDAIE) </li></ul><ul><li>ELD </li></ul><ul><li>Access to core(L1/L2) </li></ul><ul><li>ELD </li></ul><ul><li>Access to core(L1/L2) </li></ul>
  20. 20. (004) Parental Exception Waivers 124 Waiver Type Prerequisites Conditions Time Frame A. English Speakers Knows English based on standardized tests NA Within 20 instructional days B.Older Students 10 years or older Informed belief Within 20 instructional days C.Special Needs Already placed for not less than 30 days in an English Language classroom Informed belief, with approval No later than 10 days after 30 day placement or 20 instructional days
  21. 21. (004) English Language Development (ELD) <ul><li>Goal: Language Proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: Developing SKILLS </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: Appropriate for development of language ONLY. Content will not be grade-level appropriate </li></ul>
  22. 22. (004) Content-Based ELD 138 <ul><li>Goal: Access to core </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: Develop language through core content </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: While providing access to some core content, concepts do not provide grade-level academics. </li></ul>
  23. 23. (004) SDAIE 139-140 <ul><li>Goal: Access to grade-level core content </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: Mastery of grade-level core content through specially designed, language-based strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: Delivery may only include essential standards due to need for slower pacing. </li></ul>
  24. 24. CTEL Module 2 Domain 2 005 Foundations of English Literacy CTEL Text: Chapter 5 Participant Manual: pp.22-30
  25. 25. (005) Oral and Written <ul><li>Oral Language Written Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Experience Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written Language Oral Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using text to paraphrase </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. (005) Vocabulary Knowledge <ul><li>How well developed vocabulary is </li></ul><ul><li>Level of vocabulary: social vs academic </li></ul>
  27. 27. (005) Educational Background <ul><li>Prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy skills </li></ul><ul><li>Previous schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Background knowledge(familiarity with concepts) </li></ul>
  28. 28. (005) Level of English Proficiency <ul><li>Beginner </li></ul><ul><li>Early Intermediate </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate </li></ul><ul><li>Early Advanced </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced </li></ul>
  29. 29. (005) Primary Language <ul><li>How well developed literacy skills are </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic differences between primary language and English </li></ul>
  30. 30. (005) Motivation <ul><li>Necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Personal importance </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation (e.g. teacher, peers) </li></ul>
  31. 31. (005) Pedagogical Practices 150 <ul><li>Integrate listening, speaking, reading, and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Being cognizant of integrating L S R W while teaching Math, Social Studies, Science. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: After a science experiment, use the Language Experience Approach to develop literacy through science </li></ul>
  32. 32. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Provides a balanced, comprehensive reading program </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between phonics and comprehension; integrates L S R W </li></ul>
  33. 33. (005) Pedagogical Practices 150 <ul><li>Uses standards-based thematic unit organization </li></ul><ul><li>Themes based on standards </li></ul>
  34. 34. (005) Pedagogical Practices 150 <ul><li>Creates a language-rich environment </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible contextualized print, guest speakers, films, experiments… </li></ul>
  35. 35. (005) Pedagogical Practices 150 <ul><li>Adapts instruction and materials to meet the special needs of English Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally and linguistically appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Use effective strategies (graphic organizers, visuals, contextualization, realia, etc.) </li></ul>
  36. 36. (005) Pedagogical Practices 150 <ul><li>Plans meaningful and purposeful literacy activities </li></ul><ul><li>Relating your content and instruction to real life </li></ul>
  37. 37. (005) Pedagogical Practices 150 <ul><li>Selects appropriate reading materials </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of genres, multicultural text, high interest, relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that EL proficiency level is taken into consideration </li></ul>
  38. 38. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Utilizes English Learners’ prior knowledge to promote English language development in reading and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to students’ backgrounds </li></ul>
  39. 39. (005) Pedagogical Practices <ul><li>Scaffolds literacy activities </li></ul><ul><li>Provide well structured activities with ample support </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Brainstorm/outline before required to write </li></ul>
  40. 40. (005) Pedagogical Practices 150 <ul><li>Provides organized, systematic, explicit instruction in key skills </li></ul><ul><li>Make no assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Skills must be taught </li></ul>
  41. 41. (005) Effective Approaches 177 <ul><li>Frontloading Vocabulary 249 </li></ul><ul><li>Language Experience Approach 257-258 </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Journals 262 </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Logs </li></ul><ul><li>Process Writing 264-266 </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Organizers 177-184 </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Reading Activities 251, 253 </li></ul>
  42. 42. CTEL Module 2 Domain 2 006 Instructional Planning and Organization for ELD and SDAIE CTEL Text: Chapter 5 Participant Manual: pp. 31-40
  43. 43. (006) ELD Standards <ul><li>The Role of ELD Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to Native Speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of English Proficiency 91 </li></ul>
  44. 44. (006) ELD Standards
  45. 45. (006) ELD Standards
  46. 46. (006) ELD Standards
  47. 47. (006) ELD Standards
  48. 48. (006) ELD Standards
  49. 49. (006) Relationship between ELA and ELD ELA HIGHWAY R W L,S
  50. 50. (006) SDAIE 139-144 <ul><li>What is SDAIE? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should receive SDAIE and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is SDAIE more than “just good teaching”? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of primary language in a SDAIE class? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some successful SDAIE strategies? </li></ul>
  51. 51. (006) ELD vs SDAIE ELD – English Language Development   Expected learning outcome: explicit, concise, and in-line with appropriate CA ELD and/or Content standards.   Focus : Academic English Language Development.     Lesson Characteristics Emphasis is on developing academic English vocabulary and language structures. Accessing prior knowledge is essential. Incorporating and valuing the home culture of the student and the student’s family. Several opportunities for students to practice all 4 ELD strands – Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening. SDAIE – Structurally Designed Academics in English   Expected learning outcome: explicit, concise, and in-line with appropriate CA Content standards.   Focus : Content, but mindful of continuing academic English language development.   Lesson Characteristics Emphasis is on developing content knowledge in English. L1 (Primary Language) can be used to provide conceptual support. English vocabulary needs to be frontloaded. Scaffold abstract ideas and concepts that require organization.
  52. 52. (006) Content and Language <ul><li>Content Standard: Students know causes and effects of different types of severe weather… </li></ul><ul><li>CONTENT Objective: Students will be able to DEFINE and DESCRIBE… RECOGNIZE… </li></ul><ul><li>LANGUAGE Objective: Students will PARTICIPATE in discussions…DEFINE and DESCRIBE…will be able to PRESENT… </li></ul>
  53. 53. (006) Grouping Strategies 161-167 <ul><li>Mixed with proficient English speakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For hands-on, concrete activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed with same native-language background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For conceptually demanding or abstract content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preview-review… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Description on page 35 </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. (006) Language Development <ul><li>Primary Language Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Proficiency Level Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Group w/Proficient English Speakers </li></ul>
  55. 55. (006) Conceptual Development <ul><li>Primary Language Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Proficiency Level Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Prior Knowledge/Schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Level </li></ul>
  56. 56. (006) Classroom Community Development <ul><li>Mixed/Heterogeneous </li></ul>
  57. 57. (006) Physical Setting <ul><li>Supports Student Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Arrangement of Furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configurations for whole group vs small group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher and Student Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language Rich Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Display and use a variety of print materials in primary language and English </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offers Stimuli for Conversation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of wall space to display content-related information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of technology and multimedia </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. (006) Organizing <ul><li>Role of Paraprofessionals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide and monitor small group instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide individual support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist in primary language instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volunteers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older students, parents, community members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team Teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By subject matter or proficiency level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia and specially designed software </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. CTEL Module 2 Domain 2 007 Components of Effective Instructional Delivery in ELD and SDAIE CTEL Text: Chapter 5 Participant Manual: pp. 41-46
  60. 60. (007) Cummins’ Grid A C B D Cognitively Undemanding Cognitively Demanding Context Embedded Context Reduced Complete Quadrant Activity p.40
  61. 61. (007) Modification <ul><li>Modifying… </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>speed </li></ul><ul><li>stress </li></ul><ul><li>intonation </li></ul><ul><li>repetition </li></ul><ul><li>amplification </li></ul>
  62. 62. (007) Primary Language <ul><li>Using cognates </li></ul><ul><li>Primary language text materials </li></ul><ul><li>Peer support </li></ul>
  63. 63. (007) Prior Knowledge <ul><li>KWL chart </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipation guide </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion/brainstorm </li></ul>
  64. 64. (007) Contextualization <ul><li>Embed language in understandable context such as… </li></ul><ul><li>Realia - manipulatives, hands-on props </li></ul><ul><li>Visual support – multimedia and technology resources, charts/maps, nonverbal language </li></ul>
  65. 65. (007) Assessment <ul><li>Formative </li></ul><ul><li>Summative </li></ul><ul><li>Re-teaching as a result </li></ul>
  66. 66. (007) Checking for Understanding <ul><li>Monitoring comprehension frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Checking for different levels of comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective questioning techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing questions appropriately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different types of questions </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. (007) Explicit Teachings <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give the strategy a name… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you use the strategy? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how strategy helps… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell when and how strategy can be used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. (007) Content-Specific Discourse <ul><li>pp.194-208 </li></ul><ul><li>List some of the discourse skills that are critical to a content area that you teach in the specific categories… </li></ul>
  69. 69. CTEL Module 2 Domain 3 008 Effective Resource Use for ELD and SDAIE CTEL Text: Chapter 5 (184-189) Participant Manual: pp. 47-52
  70. 70. (008) In the CA H/SS Standards <ul><li>White- 63 Male, 11 Female </li></ul><ul><li>Black- 12 Male, 5 Female </li></ul><ul><li>Latino- 0 Male, 1 Female </li></ul><ul><li>Asian- 0 Male, 0 Female </li></ul><ul><li>Native- 4 Male, 0 Female </li></ul><ul><li>Total- 79 Male, 17 Female </li></ul>
  71. 71. (008) Textbook Analyses <ul><li>Picture Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>“ People to Study” Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Anthology Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Storyline Analysis </li></ul>
  72. 72. (008) Brainstorm… <ul><li>How can you modify materials to meet the cognitive, linguistic, cultural, and academic needs of English Learners? </li></ul><ul><li>What should you consider in choosing basic and supplementary materials? </li></ul>
  73. 73. CTEL Module 2 Domain 3 009 Approaches and Methods for ELD and Content Instruction CTEL Text: Chapter 5 Participant Manual: pp. 53-56
  74. 74. (009) Brainstorm… <ul><li>Reflect on some of the ways you were taught a foreign language in high school and college. </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the activities that you participated in? </li></ul><ul><li>How well did you learn the language? </li></ul>
  75. 75. (009) Natural Approach 60-61 <ul><li>Theoretical Base: Krashen’s Monitor Model </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Key Features: Closely resembles the way that a child acquires a first language. </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: Because it is based in acquisition, it is effective when followed explicitly. </li></ul>
  76. 76. (009) Natural Approach 60-61 Stage 1: Pre-Production Stage 2: Early Production Stage 3: Speech Emergence Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency Characteristics: -minimal comprehension -no verbal production Activity Behaviors: -listen -point -move -choose -match -mime -act out -draw Characteristics: -limited comprehension -one/two word response Activity Behaviors: -name -list -respond -label -categorize Characteristics: -good comprehension (if context) -errors in pronunciation and grammar -simple sentences -limited descriptive vocabulary Activity Behaviors: -describe -define -explain -recall -retell -summarize -role-play -compare/contrast Characteristics: -good comprehension -few grammar errors -near native speech Activity Behaviors: -give opinions -defend -debate -justify -examine -analyze -create -evaluate -read -write
  77. 77. (009) Total Physical Response 54 <ul><li>Theoretical Base: James Asher, based on association between language and body movement </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Key Features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening precedes speaking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding is developed through body movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking is never forced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: Allows for low-stress acquisition of receptive vocabulary </li></ul>
  78. 78. (009) CALLA 158-159 <ul><li>Theoretical Base: Chamot & O’Malley </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Development of learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Key Features: CALLA is targeted at EL students at the early intermediate and intermediate levels of English language proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: Because of its cognitive and metacognitive strategies, CALLA is designed provide transitional instruction from CBELD to SDAIE classrooms </li></ul>
  79. 79. (009) Structured Interactions <ul><li>Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Purposeful </li></ul><ul><li>Oral and written </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizes language output </li></ul><ul><li>Can negotiate meaning in a supportive context </li></ul><ul><li>Use during ELD and content instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic groups--homogeneous, heterogeneous, etc. </li></ul>
  80. 80. (009) Strategies <ul><li>Oral Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Numbered Heads Together 166 </li></ul><ul><li>Think--Pair--Share </li></ul><ul><li>Written Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Write Around </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Paragraph Strips </li></ul>
  81. 81. (009) Explicit Instruction <ul><li>Error Correction 266 </li></ul><ul><li>Teachable moment </li></ul><ul><li>To explain or clarify </li></ul><ul><li>Language structure </li></ul><ul><li>Word meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar Development 269 </li></ul><ul><li>Guided by ELD Standards </li></ul>
  82. 82. (009) Implicit Instruction <ul><li>Error Correction 266 </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Providing feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Using correct syntactical structure </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar Development 269 </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive journal (writing) </li></ul><ul><li>SSR (reading) </li></ul>
  83. 83. (009) Content-Based ELD 197 <ul><li>Who? - K-3, B-A…4-12, B-EI </li></ul><ul><li>What? - Content instruction is given at the students’ ELD level (not necessarily grade level) </li></ul><ul><li>Which Standards? - Integrates ELD standards with content standards </li></ul><ul><li>When? - Throughout the day (outside of ELD instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Why? - To provide access to core while developing English </li></ul><ul><li>How? - tapping prior knowledge, contextualization, graphic organizers, brainstorming, visuals, C.L., etc. </li></ul>
  84. 84. CTEL Module 2 Domain 3 010 ELD--Listening and Speaking CTEL Text: Chapter 6 Participant Manual: pp. 57-60
  85. 85. (010) Listening <ul><li>pp. 214-217 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening for Basic Comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to Repeat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to Understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening for Communication </li></ul></ul>
  86. 86. (010) Listening <ul><li>p. 218 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example Listening Activities at each ELD level </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. (010) Listening <ul><li>p. 219 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Listening Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before Listening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During Listening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After Listening </li></ul></ul></ul>
  88. 88. (010) Speaking <ul><li>p. 220-225 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Oral Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situations for Speaking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resources for Spoken Discourse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Pronunciation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  89. 89. (010) Speaking <ul><li>p. 227-231 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Speaking Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before Speaking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During Speaking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After Speaking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Discourse and Instructional Conversation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  90. 90. (010) Skills that Promote L/S <ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis and Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>**Many of these skills can be used as examples in a constructed response** </li></ul>
  91. 91. (010) Strategies that Promote L/S <ul><li>Frontloading… </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching key vocabulary before they encounter it </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitly teaching language functions </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Small group discussion in L1 </li></ul><ul><li>Preview/review </li></ul><ul><li>Use primary language text before English text </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming… </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffold with sentence frames </li></ul>
  92. 92. (010) Strategies that Promote L/S <ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching interactive structure first before it is used academically </li></ul><ul><li>Whole-class and small group discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching turn-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Role-plays </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing questioning and answering techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence frames </li></ul><ul><li>Debriefing </li></ul><ul><li>Think-Pair-Share(or other coop. strategy) to reflect on lesson </li></ul>
  93. 93. CTEL Module 2 Domain 3 011 ELD--Reading and Writing CTEL Text: Chapter 7 Participant Manual: pp. 61-64
  94. 94. (011) ELD Reading Standard Sequence ELA HIGHWAY B EI I EA A Reading Onramp
  95. 95. (011) Reading <ul><li>pp. 238-241 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Factors Affecting Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Language Literacy Level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of Primary Language Literacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level of EL Proficiency </li></ul></ul></ul>
  96. 96. (011) Reading <ul><li>pp. 242-248 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundations of Literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standards-Based Reading Instruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of Reading Skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Word Analysis Skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  97. 97. (011) Reading <ul><li>pp. 248-251 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Fluency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading Aloud </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking Meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic Vocabulary Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual Redefinition </li></ul></ul></ul>
  98. 98. (011) Reading <ul><li>p. 251-254 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Reading Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before Reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During Reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After Reading </li></ul></ul></ul>
  99. 99. (011) Skills That Promote Reading <ul><li>Word Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic Vocabulary Development </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Literary Response and Analysis </li></ul>
  100. 100. (011) Reading <ul><li>pp. 254-259 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Reading Comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Match to Proficiency Level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies When Comprehension Fails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text Genres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grade-Level Appropriate Texts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Thinking and Risk Taking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  101. 101. (011) Writing <ul><li>pp. 260-262 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing and the English Learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>College Writing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writing as a Social Construction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of Writing Development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  102. 102. (011) Writing <ul><li>p. 263 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing Genres and Prompts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writing Narrative Prose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writing Expository Prose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>p. 268 in the CTEL Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations in Writing for English Learners </li></ul></ul>
  103. 103. (011) Skills That Promote Writing <ul><li>Writing Strategies and Application </li></ul><ul><li>Writing that reflects purpose, speaker, audience, and form across different writing genres </li></ul><ul><li>English Language Conventions </li></ul>
  104. 104. CTEL Module 2 Domain 3 012 Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) CTEL Text: Chapters 4 & 5 Participant Manual: pp. 65-76
  105. 105. (012) Key Components of SDAIE <ul><li>Tap into prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualize the lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a positive affective domain </li></ul><ul><li>Teach study skills </li></ul><ul><li>Modify the use of the textbook </li></ul>
  106. 106. (012) Scaffolding Strategies <ul><li>Provides a personal connection between learner and topic. Builds on known concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Helps simplify complex concepts. Creates an experiential environment </li></ul><ul><li>The more familiar students are with the features of the text, the more successful… </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies procedures and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters autonomy through self monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-teach terms so they will be understood in the lesson </li></ul>
  107. 107. (012) Scaffolding Strategies <ul><li>Students extend their understanding by applying it in novel formats </li></ul><ul><li>To promote critical thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is most effective when students have opportunities to discuss and process content </li></ul><ul><li>Different ways of determining student performance to provide more accurate evidence as to whether learning has taken place </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies misconceptions and further develops proficiency in English </li></ul>
  108. 108. (012) SDAIE Lesson Plan Format 151-160 <ul><li>Grade Level </li></ul><ul><li>Content Standard </li></ul><ul><li>ELD Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Into </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. (012) SDAIE Lesson Plan <ul><li>Grade Level-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Content Standard - 5.3.2 Students know when liquid water evaporates, it turns into water vapor in the air and can reappear as a liquid when cooled or as a solid if cooled below the freezing point of water. </li></ul><ul><li>ELD Standard - Write brief expository compositions(e.g. description, comparison and contrast, cause and effect, and problem and solution) that include a thesis and some points of support. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment - Students will write a one paragraph composition comparing and contrasting the different forms of water. </li></ul>
  110. 110. (012) SDAIE Lesson Plan <ul><li>Learning Opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Into - Using the think-pair-share cooperative grouping model, students will write brief 1-2 sentence narratives of any experience that they have had with the different forms of water. As the T-P-S model dictates, they will pair up to relate their sentences to a partner, then share out in table groups. -Students will read summary of the lesson reading in table groups in order to preload content. -Class will review the concept of comparing and contrasting using actual forms of water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through - Using a graphic organizer that pictorially represents the water cycle, students will develop understanding of the relationships the different forms of water have with one another. Students will then compare and contrast their charts with the charts of table mates. -Students will develop a paragraph comparing and contrasting the different elements of the water cycle based on teacher-modeled representation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond - Students will create a haiku that describes water in its liquid, solid and gaseous forms </li></ul></ul>
  111. 111. (012) SDAIE Lesson Reflection <ul><li>How is this lesson different for English Learners? What makes it MORE than just good teaching? </li></ul>
  112. 112. CTEL Module 2 Domain 1 002 Role, Purposes, and Types of Assessment CTEL Text: Chapter 3 Participant Manual: pp. 77-84
  113. 113. (002) CELDT <ul><li>What? - State Test of ELD, Based on Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Who? - All English learners </li></ul><ul><li>Why? - Initial Identification, Annual Assessment, Redesignation, Reclassification </li></ul><ul><li>When? - Annual Assessment- 7/1-10/31, Initial Assessment-30 days from enroll date </li></ul><ul><li>4 grade spans: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12 </li></ul><ul><li>4 parts: L, S, R, W </li></ul><ul><li>5 Levels: B, EI, I, EA, A </li></ul>
  114. 114. (002) ID and Placement <ul><li>Chart on p. 76 </li></ul>
  115. 115. (002) Home Language Survey
  116. 116. (002) Parent must be notified… 145 <ul><li>Language assessment and academic assessment results </li></ul><ul><li>Placement in an EL classroom </li></ul><ul><li>The opportunity to apply for a parental exception waiver </li></ul>
  117. 117. (002) Redesignation/Reclassification <ul><li>Possible Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher evaluation of language proficiency and curriculum mastery </li></ul><ul><li>CELDT score </li></ul><ul><li>Parental consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Objective data from standardized tests </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
  118. 118. (002) Identification <ul><li>CELDT Score: Early Advanced </li></ul><ul><li>L/S: Intermediate or above </li></ul><ul><li>R: Intermediate or above </li></ul><ul><li>W: Intermediate or above </li></ul><ul><li>A student who falls below any of these criteria is an EL. </li></ul>
  119. 119. (002) Reclassification <ul><li>CELDT: Meets criteria on previous slide </li></ul><ul><li>Objective criteria: ELA score of BASIC on California Content Standards Test. </li></ul><ul><li>Other criteria identified by district: i.e. teacher observation, grades, writing sample, etc. </li></ul>
  120. 120. (002) Reclassification
  121. 121. (002) Validity 100 <ul><li>A test is valid if it measures what it claims to be measuring. </li></ul>
  122. 122. (002) Reliability 100 <ul><li>A test is reliable if it yields predictably similar scores over several administrations. </li></ul>
  123. 123. (002) Traditional Assessment 99 <ul><li>Limits of Traditional(Standardized) Assessments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic Bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalent Versions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapport </li></ul></ul>
  124. 124. (002) Textbook Tests 101 <ul><li>Purpose - to provide a direct measure of what was presented in the text </li></ul><ul><li>Feature – aligned to state standards </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations – lack of relevance to the student or the culture of the community </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications - partner work, supplemental text features </li></ul>
  125. 125. (002) Performance-Based Tests 101 <ul><li>Purpose – designed to offer information about a student’s proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Feature - open-ended tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations - time </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications - design groups for optimal language performance, scoring rubrics </li></ul>
  126. 126. (002) Curriculum Tasks 102 <ul><li>Purpose – measure the success of activities performed in class </li></ul><ul><li>Feature – add-on assessment unnecessary </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations – difficult to assess skill level independent of help </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications - partner work, scoring rubrics </li></ul>
  127. 127. (002) Authentic Tests 102 <ul><li>Purpose - assess proficiency on a task commonly found outside the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Feature – stem from classroom activities, allow students to self-evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations - lack of comparison group for accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications - portfolios, group or individual </li></ul>
  128. 128. (002) Teacher-Made Tests 103 <ul><li>Purpose - assess teaching of material </li></ul><ul><li>Feature – ease of construction and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations - reliability/validity </li></ul><ul><li>Modifications - focus on message, not form </li></ul>
  129. 129. (002) Portfolio Assessments 103 <ul><li>long-term record of student progress </li></ul><ul><li>clear measure of student progress instead of a single number </li></ul><ul><li>opportunity for improved student self-image as a result of showing progress and accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>recognize different learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>can include writing samples, self-assessments, audio, photo, video, graphic organizers, teacher notes </li></ul>
  130. 130. CTEL Module 2 Domain 1 001 Principles of Standards-Based Assessment and Instruction CTEL Text: Chapter 3 Participant Manual: pp. 85-94
  131. 131. (001) ELD Standards <ul><li>ELD Standards are a pathway to the ELA standards for ELs. </li></ul><ul><li>The ELD standards establish clear performance expectations for ELs. The ELD standards are to be used to plan/provide instruction for English Language Development. </li></ul><ul><li>The ELD standards are based on proficiency levels and grade-level spans in L/S, R, and W. </li></ul><ul><li>The ELD standards are based on the same components as the ELA standards. An English Learner may require more explicit steps to reach a standard. </li></ul><ul><li>The CELDT is aligned with the ELD standards. </li></ul>
  132. 132. (001) Standards-Based… <ul><li>STANDARDS inform ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ASSESSMENT informs INSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Students engage in LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Students DEMONSTRATE what they know </li></ul><ul><li>Students experience LEARNING, or </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher RETEACHES </li></ul>
  133. 133. (001) Standards and EL Students <ul><li>ELs must have access to the core in order to meet standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must develop benchmarks to show that these students are moving toward the standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must teach to the ELD standards. </li></ul>
  134. 134. (001) Building a Scaffolded Assessment <ul><li>Read the information on p.88 </li></ul>
  135. 135. CTEL Module 2 Domain 1 003 Language and Content-Area Assessment CTEL Text: Chapter 3 Participant Manual: pp. 95-97
  136. 136. (003) Language Assessments <ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Observation 103 </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark Assessments/Checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Story Tell/Retell </li></ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><li>CELDT </li></ul><ul><li>Content Standards Test </li></ul><ul><li>Other commercial assessments </li></ul>
  137. 137. (003) Identification… 110-111 <ul><li>Referral process </li></ul><ul><li>Early intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Continued services during and after placement </li></ul>
  138. 138. (003) Academic… 109-110 <ul><li>Sound-Symbol Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Receptive Language </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Retention </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Control </li></ul><ul><li>Social-Emotional Functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Attending and Focusing </li></ul><ul><li>Culture/Language Shock </li></ul>
  139. 139. (003) Underachievement… 293-297 <ul><li>retention, placement, and promotion </li></ul><ul><li>ELD as compensatory education </li></ul><ul><li>dropping out of high school </li></ul><ul><li>difficulties in higher education </li></ul><ul><li>difficulties attaining management status </li></ul>
  140. 140. (003) Overachievement… 297 <ul><li>“ Model Minorities” become over-qualified for jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher expectations of some groups elicit higher achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Some subgroups resist assimilation </li></ul>
  141. 141. (003) Issues… <ul><li>Dropouts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency is to blame students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The need is to provide high quality curriculum and instruction and know about the students and their families </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of language minority students are retained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational gaps continue </li></ul></ul>