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  1. 1. An Era of Transition: 1865-1919<br />By<br />Michelle Roopchand<br />
  2. 2. Cremin<br /> The Third Annual Report (1939) deals the need for free public libraries in addition to the public schools. Only after establishing a free circulation library in every school district of the state did the public see the work of pubic education properly continued and complemented.<br />Fourth Annual Report (1840) deals with multiple subjects like schoolhouses, the need to consolidate overly small school districts, private schools, attendance and disciplinary problems. Also in this annual report the five principles of qualifications in a teacher were included. The five principles are<br />A Knowledge of Common-School<br />Aptness To Teach<br />Management, Government, and Discipline of School<br />Good Behavior<br />Morals<br />
  3. 3. Cremin<br />The Fifth Annual Report deals with the qualification of teachers, school-houses, and the threat of religious dissension in the schools. In this report Mann questions a number of businessmen concerning the overall political and economic effects of common schooling. Basically Mann came to the conclusion that businessmen should support public education.<br />The Sixth Report is a plea for health and physical education. The effect of the report was beneficial at a time when even the most simplistic rules of health were unknown to the common people.<br />
  4. 4. Cremin<br />The Seventh Annual Report Mann traveled to other institutions in 1843. in this report he observes and comments on the different institutions that he visited.<br />The Eight Annual Report has no one theme like the others. In this report there are discussions about disciplinary problems, the employment of female teachers, private schools, school appropriations, the beneficial effects of teacher institutes, and vocal music in the schools. <br />
  5. 5. Chapter 5: Evolving Patterns of Education Thought<br />Nation was focused on winning the civil war, abolishing slavery, Defeating the confederacy, reconstructing the nation and amending the US Constitution Reconstruction began in each state when federal troops controlled most of the southern states<br />The Radical Republican were bound to punish the south . <br />In fact, the mood of the Radical Leaders was like that of the earlier French Jacobins during the Reign of Terror<br />Citizens form the North called “carpetbaggers” came to exploit the South. <br />Even though their intention was good it actually generated much hostility and intensified even more the already strained relations between the white people and the African American. <br />
  6. 6. Chapter 5: Continued <br />Under the administration of Barnas Sears, the first general agent, the Peabody Education Fund became a powerful stimulus to the development of state school systems and to the improvement of teachers education throughout the South. <br />Under his guidance, the fund helped to develop in the South the idea of adequate taxation for public education and reduced considerably with hostility to black education.<br />In 1909 the George Peabody College for Teachers was chartered. This College has played a leading role in the improvement of southern education.<br />
  7. 7. Chapter 5: Continued<br />The Ogden movement or the Conference for Education in the South was the most important conference held in the southern state. <br />The first conference was organized as the Conference for Christian Education in the South. The second and third conference, meeting in 1899 and 1900, were more secular in tone and attracted several civic and business leaders.<br />Mother Jones was a social activist, passionately humane, utterly fearless, and forever dedicated to improving the lives of young children in the mines and factories. She died in Silver Spring, Maryland seven months after her centennial birthday.<br />
  8. 8. Chapter 5: Continued<br />Mother Jones was a social activist, passionately humane, utterly fearless, and forever dedicated to improving the lives of young children in the mines and factories. She died in Silver Spring, Maryland seven months after her centennial birthday.<br />The National Association of Manufactures (NAM) harshly criticized the narrow version of the school room and the gross inefficiency of the common schools. <br />The early school reformers could no longer meet the needs of an industrial society.<br />In the eyes of business leaders during this period the public schools ere usually considered a poor investment.<br /> The NAM accused the colleges and high schools of being “prolific sources of socialistic recruiting” and contended that academic freedom had its limits. <br />
  9. 9. Chapter 6: Toward a New Pedagogy <br />In the 1900s there was a rush of new immigrants coming into the country. The newcomers of foreign birth clung together in a racial group. They established their own foreign-language parochial schools.<br />By doing this a small segment of the new immigrants threatened to impede the most hopeful process of assimilating the immigrant into American society. <br />In the minds of the older immigrants, acculturation meant a destruction of a priceless heritage.<br />However, their children were far more willing to conform, even to risk family separation, in order to climb the economic ladder to American success. <br />Because of the new immigrants the roles of the public school system had to change. <br />By the turn of the century public school became a social institution would also be seen as an institution for promoting the interests of society. <br />
  10. 10. Chapter 6: Continued<br />In the beginning of the 1900s was the progressive era. The progressivists not only shared a firm belief in the worth and dignity of the individual but also assumed that humans through science and critical intelligence could control their own destiny. <br />Progressivism, then, was a cluster of ideas emphasizing deliberate and directed social change: above all, the new reformers shared a version of progress toward a more humane and rational society of the future.<br />People called “muckrakers” sought relentlessly to stir the American people from apathy to action for social reform. <br />
  11. 11. Chapter 6: Continued<br />Jane Addams, for example, called for an expanded school curriculum that would add “human significance” to a person’s life. <br />Hull House was an educational force in the live of the impoverished immigrants of the surrounding area. <br />Basic to the broad philosophy of education that Addams developed during the forty-four years she lived at Hull House was a vision of a society in which all people, regardless of race, gender, or socioeconomic status, would have a chance to develop individual talents and interests. <br />She believed that personally enriching experiences for the immigrants were vital in a society based on democracy as a way of life. <br />
  12. 12. Chapter 7: Building a Philosophy of Education <br />During this transitional period, American thought was influenced by an influx of important educational ideas from abroad. <br />Francis Wayland Parker (father of progressive education) was opposed to a regimented education and believed that the school must help to create an environment conducive to growth and free expression. <br />
  13. 13. Chapter 7: Continued <br />Johann Friedrich Herbart viewed moral development as the primary aim of education. He believed that virtue was founded on knowledge. <br />He also refused to accept the passivity of the mind, a tabula rasa, as described by Locke.<br />In Herbart’s conception of learning, there were no creative thoughts, no essentially new ideas. An idea entered the mind and was assimilated. To be intellectually creative was merely to synthesize ideas on a higher level. <br />Herbart believed that interest was an essential component of learning; indeed, if interest were no present in the learning situation then the teacher should help to provide it though educative instruction.<br />He placed considerable emphasis on the instructional process accentuating the importance of teaching skill instead of mental discipline. <br />
  14. 14. Chapter 7: Continued<br />Fredrich Froebel believed education was the evolutionary applicable everywhere to all stage of growth.<br />He nevertheless underscored childhood as a separate entity in human growth span. <br />Four principles: <br />The family is the primary social institution in the life of the young child<br />Play is an essential phase of early child hood <br />Purposeful learning is derived from self-activity <br />The curriculum should correlate with stages in child development <br />
  15. 15. Chapter 7: Continued<br />The purpose of the Dewey school was twofold: <br />To exhibit, test, verify, and criticize theoretical statements and principles<br />To add to the sum of facts and principles in its special line<br />