Copyright designs and patents act


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Copyright designs and patents act

  1. 1.  Copyright Law  Software and copyright  Licensing  Software Piracy  Copyright and the Internet
  2. 2.  Copyright gives certain legal protection to authors of materials  Originally intended for books, sheet music, photographs etc.  In the U.K. it is covered by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1998  This is the U.K. form of the Intellectual Property Rights (IRP) legislation which exist in most countries
  3. 3.  The legislation exists to both ◦ ensure people are rewarded for the endeavours ◦ give protection to the copyright holder if there is an infringement
  4. 4.  Current legislation embodies  Moral Rights - copyright holder has a right to ensure works are not used in an inappropriate way  ‘fair use’ clauses - e.g. schools allowed to copy 1% of a published work
  5. 5.  Literary works - includes books, poetry, telephone directories, computer programs  Musical works - of all kinds  Dramatic works - not only plays but adverts etc.  Artistic works - including crafts e.g. jewellery designs
  6. 6.  Sound recordings - discs, tapes, CDs etc.  Film recordings - on all media  Broadcasts - both audio and video  Cable broadcasts - e.g. cable TV programmes  Typographical arrangements - e.g. e-books, web pages (of text) etc.
  7. 7. ◦ Multimedia not specifically covered ◦ Computer graphics cause particular problems. ◦ Local copyright laws take precedence - important in Internet disputes ◦ ‘Look and feel’ - difficult to prove that software is a copy ◦ ‘Reverse engineering’ - write a computer program so that it looks the same but uses different code
  8. 8.  Copying of pictures, sound files, music is rife esp. Fan sites  Many believe, mistakenly, that internet is copyright free.  Site ‘cloning’ becoming widespread  Only large companies have resources to pursue claims e.g. Disney  Napster case very important development
  9. 9.  A software licensing agreement is a legal contract between the software producer and the user that sets out how the piece of software may be used.
  10. 10.  Single-user licence ◦ Allows a copy of the software to be installed on one machine ◦ Might specifies ‘one copy may be in use at one time’ – install on two machines  Multi-user licence ◦ Allows an organisation to install the software package on an agreed number of machines ◦ Costs less as several single-user licences
  11. 11.  Site Licence ◦ Allows the user to purchase a single copy of the software with permission to install it on all the computers at a single location. ◦ Common in education sector  Licence by use ◦ Allows the software to be installed on a large number of stand alone computers. ◦ However, only an agreed number of users are allowed to run the software at any given time.
  12. 12.  Network Licence ◦ One copy of the software stored on the file server ◦ An agreed number of users e.g. 10 ◦ Software accessible to all computers e.g. 100 ◦ However, when the 11th person tries to use the software, access will be denied
  13. 13.  Multi user licence - can be used by a set number of people  Site licence - can be used on all computers on one site e.g. a school  Academic licence - for students and teachers, usually single user  Education licence - for schools, colleges; cheap, multi user
  14. 14.  Shareware - have to pay for updates, support, sometime time limited  Freeware - no cost at all  Charity ware - donation to charity encouraged  Post card ware - send a postcard to the author  Free software movement - encourages freeware authors
  15. 15.  Essentially the copying of software without an appropriate licence  Multi £ billion business esp. in Far East e.g. all major graphics programs - normal cost ~£6, 000 - pirate copy £5  In UK and USA video games (on CD) very popular  CD-R and Internet has made process very easy
  16. 16.  At basic level ◦ Serial no. ◦ legal protection (copyright act)  More advanced ◦ Dongles ◦ Electronic copy protection - code scrambler ◦ Regionalisation e.g DVD
  17. 17.  Systems do not work ◦ Copyright act - legal mine field ◦ Serial No. - web site specialise in publishing serial No.s for popular software ◦ Dongles - reverse engineering of device ◦ Electronic methods - broken within hours of publication ◦ Regionalisation - code breakers widely available
  18. 18.  Software piracy will remain major problem  Internet and CD-R exacerbate problem  Piracy keeps software prices high  Encourages more piracy - catch 22  Music, video and game copying increasingly common, will increase with advent of DVD-R