Copyright designs and patents act

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Copyright designs and patents act

  1. 2. <ul><li>Copyright Law </li></ul><ul><li>Software and copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Software Piracy </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright and the Internet </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Copyright gives certain legal protection to authors of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Originally intended for books, sheet music, photographs etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.K. it is covered by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>This is the U.K. form of the Intellectual Property Rights (IRP) legislation which exist in most countries </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>The legislation exists to both </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure people are rewarded for the endeavours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>give protection to the copyright holder if there is an infringement </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Current legislation embodies </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Rights - copyright holder has a right to ensure works are not used in an inappropriate way </li></ul><ul><li>‘ fair use’ clauses - e.g. schools allowed to copy 1% of a published work </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Literary works - includes books, poetry, telephone directories, computer programs </li></ul><ul><li>Musical works - of all kinds </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic works - not only plays but adverts etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic works - including crafts e.g. jewellery designs </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Sound recordings - discs, tapes, CDs etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Film recordings - on all media </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasts - both audio and video </li></ul><ul><li>Cable broadcasts - e.g. cable TV programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Typographical arrangements - e.g. e-books, web pages (of text) etc. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><ul><li>Multimedia not specifically covered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer graphics cause particular problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local copyright laws take precedence - important in Internet disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Look and feel’ - difficult to prove that software is a copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Reverse engineering’ - write a computer program so that it looks the same but uses different code </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Copying of pictures, sound files, music is rife esp. Fan sites </li></ul><ul><li>Many believe, mistakenly, that internet is copyright free. </li></ul><ul><li>Site ‘cloning’ becoming widespread </li></ul><ul><li>Only large companies have resources to pursue claims e.g. Disney </li></ul><ul><li>Napster case very important development </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>A software licensing agreement is a legal contract between the software producer and the user that sets out how the piece of software may be used. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Single-user licence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows a copy of the software to be installed on one machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Might specifies ‘one copy may be in use at one time’ – install on two machines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-user licence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows an organisation to install the software package on an agreed number of machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs less as several single-user licences </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Site Licence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the user to purchase a single copy of the software with permission to install it on all the computers at a single location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in education sector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Licence by use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows the software to be installed on a large number of stand alone computers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, only an agreed number of users are allowed to run the software at any given time. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Network Licence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One copy of the software stored on the file server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An agreed number of users e.g. 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software accessible to all computers e.g. 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, when the 11 th person tries to use the software, access will be denied </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Multi user licence - can be used by a set number of people </li></ul><ul><li>Site licence - can be used on all computers on one site e.g. a school </li></ul><ul><li>Academic licence - for students and teachers, usually single user </li></ul><ul><li>Education licence - for schools, colleges; cheap, multi user </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Shareware - have to pay for updates, support, sometime time limited </li></ul><ul><li>Freeware - no cost at all </li></ul><ul><li>Charity ware - donation to charity encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Post card ware - send a postcard to the author </li></ul><ul><li>Free software movement - encourages freeware authors </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Essentially the copying of software without an appropriate licence </li></ul><ul><li>Multi £ billion business esp. in Far East e.g. all major graphics programs - normal cost ~£6, 000 - pirate copy £5 </li></ul><ul><li>In UK and USA video games (on CD) very popular </li></ul><ul><li>CD-R and Internet has made process very easy </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>At basic level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial no. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legal protection (copyright act) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More advanced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dongles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic copy protection - code scrambler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regionalisation e.g DVD </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Systems do not work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright act - legal mine field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial No . - web site specialise in publishing serial No.s for popular software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dongles - reverse engineering of device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic methods - broken within hours of publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regionalisation - code breakers widely available </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Software piracy will remain major problem </li></ul><ul><li>Internet and CD-R exacerbate problem </li></ul><ul><li>Piracy keeps software prices high </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages more piracy - catch 22 </li></ul><ul><li>Music, video and game copying increasingly common, will increase with advent of DVD-R </li></ul>

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