3.2 information and systems

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  • Write about 3 levels management systems pg 184
  • 3.2 information and systems

    1. 1. 3.2 INFORMATION & SYSTEMS
    2. 2. Specification
    3. 3. UNDERSTAND THIS FIRST...
    4. 4. What is information? <ul><li>What is data? </li></ul><ul><li>Information is data that has been processed to give it meaning </li></ul>
    5. 5. NOW UNDERSTAND THIS...
    6. 6. What is information? <ul><li>What is data? </li></ul><ul><li>Information is data that has been processed to give it meaning </li></ul>
    7. 7. Information in Organisations <ul><li>Think of an organisation e.g. Bank, hotel, school </li></ul><ul><li>Think what internal and external information flows through this organisation daily, weekly, monthly and annually. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. A hotel </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reservations: internal/external - daily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting: internal/external - daily, weekly, quarterly, annually </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hotel Point of Sales (Restaurant, Bar, Room Service, House Keeping or any other outlet): internal - daily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Payroll: internal & external - daily, weekly, monthly and annually </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. DIFFERENT ORGANISATIONS HAVE DIFFERENT INFORMATION NEEDS
    9. 9. Cause Effect Type of organisation Type and style of information <ul><li>Public sector organisations ( http://bit.ly/eFEaVq ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not controlled by individuals, voluntary or private organisations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes national, local government firms e.g. NHS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require information transparency as they are accountable to facets of the government and public </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other types of organisations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private organisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public limited organisation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Cause Effect Scale of organisation Type and style of information <ul><li>Small organisation on one site </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informal methods of distributing information internally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the owner is involved day to day in the operations less need for daily progress or sales reports e.g. Might gather this through verbal reports and weekly summary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Large organisations spread out geographically </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More formal reporting mechanisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More staff at different levels each require information specific to their needs and in an appropriate format (see slide.....) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Cause Effect Nature of organisation Type of information <ul><li>A charity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires information such as donar details, monies taken in and out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not need extensive information about customers, volunteer staff, collections etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A bank </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will need copious amounts of information about customers, investments, product sales, staff etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different departments will use this information for varying purposes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES WITHIN ORGANISATIONS HAVE DIFFERENT INFORMATION NEEDS
    13. 13. Different activities within organisations have different information needs <ul><li>Activites </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal - style of information is self-imposed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External - conform to external entity's requirements for style, format and delivery method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer Support </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic interface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information must be accurate, up-to-date, complete and relevant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customer relations department may require a combination of internal systems to ensure the customer gets the right information </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Different activities within organisations have different information needs <ul><li>Ordering </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information must be accurate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Went sent to suppliers must be in the right format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Payroll, personnel, finance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses personal and corporate data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information must be valid, accurate and formal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This will ensure it meets the requirements of the law </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. DIFFERENT LEVELS OF TASK HAVE DIFFERENT INFORMATION NEEDS
    16. 16. The Levels <ul><li>3 Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Each have specific information requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Each served by different information systems </li></ul>
    17. 17. Supermarket Example <ul><li>Operational - check out operators, make small decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical - Middle Management e.g. Store Manager, mid-long term planning </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic - Regional Manager / Managing Director, set strategic, long term planning </li></ul>
    18. 18. DIFFERENT PERSONNEL HAVE DIFFERENT INFORMATION NEEDS
    19. 19. External Personnel E.g. Customers, suppliers, legal bodies <ul><li>Customers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need information if purchasing goods or services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presented in many ways e.g. Paper, website, email, SMS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Think of the information a customer would need if he/she was having something delivered. How would this information be presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the information needed by all parties that the customer wouldn't need e.g. Internal codes, manufacturer details </li></ul>
    20. 20. External Personnel E.g. Customers, suppliers, legal bodies <ul><li>Suppliers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Require only the precise ordering information e.g. Item, Quantity, delivery date and address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large organisations have automated reordering </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. External Personnel E.g. Customers, suppliers, legal bodies <ul><li>Legal bodies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many information requirements e.g.??? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Income tax, customs & excise, visa, pensions, health insurance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of information might be personal or corporate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When providing this information it will always be in a set format, internal systems must meet these needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanging this information, consider </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy (DPA) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security (Encryption, crypto-security, transmission security, emission security, traffic flow security andvphysical security) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. SYSTEMS
    23. 23. What is an ICT System? <ul><li>Consists of hardware, software, information, procedures and people </li></ul><ul><li>Systems are needed in order to make things work e.g. Respiratory System :-) </li></ul><ul><li>Organisations need systems in order to operate. Makes the business run more smoothly and efficiently. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Past Paper Questions
    25. 25. Past Paper Questions

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