An Age Of Ideologies

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Conflicts arose in Europe between people with opposing systems of thought and belief.

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An Age Of Ideologies

  1. 1. An Age of Ideologies BIG IDEA: Conflicts arose in Europe between people with opposing systems of thought and belief “ Passions are let loose…to overthrow everything that society respects as the basis of its existence: religion, public morality, laws, customs, rights, and duties, all are attacked, confounded, overthrown or called in question.” -Memoirs of Prince Metternich Austrian Foreign Minister Prominent participant in Congress of Vienna Wanted to restore “Old Regime”
  2. 2. At the Congress of Vienna, the powers of Europe tried to turn the clock back to the way things had been before 1789. Other voices, however, kept challenging the order imposed by the Congress of Vienna. The clash of people with opposing ideologies , or systems of thought and belief, plunged Europe into more than 30 years of turmoil. Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 Congress of Vienna: Purpose was to settle issues and redraw the continent's political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France the previous spring.
  3. 3. Challenging the conservatives at every turn were liberals and nationalists who were inspired by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. <ul><li>Liberals wanted: </li></ul><ul><li>Governments based on written constitutions and separation of powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural rights of liberty, equality, and prosperity. </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers elected by the people and responsible to them. </li></ul><ul><li>A republican form of government. </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire economics. </li></ul><ul><li>National groups who shared a common heritage set out to win their own states. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism often bred intolerance and led to persecution of other ethnic or national groups. </li></ul>NATIONALISM LIBERALISM
  4. 4. Spurred by the ideas of liberalism and nationalism, revolutionaries fought against the old order. <ul><li>In the Balkans, first Serbia, and later Greece fought for and won independence from their Ottoman rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>In Spain, Portugal, and various states in the Italian peninsula, rebels struggled to gain constitutional governments. In response, a French army marched over the Pyrenees to suppress the revolts in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Austrian forces crossed the Alps to smash rebellious outbreaks in Italy. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. Liberals wanted which of the following? a) a monarchy b) a limit on popular elections c) government regulation of economic activity d) a republican form of government 2. Serbia and Greece were both able to win independence from a) the British. b) the Ottomans. c) the Hapsburgs. d) the French. Section Assessment
  6. 6. 1. Liberals wanted which of the following? a) a monarchy b) a limit on popular elections c) government regulation of economic activity d) a republican form of government 2. Serbia and Greece were both able to win independence from a) the British. b) the Ottomans. c) the Hapsburgs. d) the French. Section Assessment

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