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Herpes Simplex Virus
Herpes Simplex Virus
• HSV type 1 (HSV-1)
• HSV type 2 (HSV-2)
• Common infections involve:
- skin, eye, oral cavity, and genital tract.
• In healthy: mild and self-limiting
• immunocompromised and newborn:
the infection may be severe and life threatening.
Primary infection
• First time
• No previous immunity
• Can be severe
Nonprimary 1st infection
• previous infection
• Cross immunity between the two
• Less severe
recurrent infection
• less severe
• shorter duration than 1st infections.
• Commonly Asymptomatic
• No physical distress
• They are contagious
ETIOLOGY
• HSV-1 and HSV-2 have a similar genetic
composition
• One important difference in the 2 viruses is
their glycoprotein G genes So:
• accurate, type-specific serologic tests is used
to know whether a patient has been infected
with HSV-1, HSV-2, or both
EPIDEMIOLOGY
• The only natural host is humans,
• transmission is ONLY direct contact between
mucocutaneous surfaces.
• All infected individuals harbor latent infection with
recurrent infections, which may be asymptomatic,
and are periodically contagious.
• HSV-1 and HSV-2 are equally capable of causing
initial infection at any anatomic site
• HSV-1 causes more recurrent oral infections,
• HSV-2 causes more recurrent genital infections.
EPIDEMIOLOGY
• HSV-1 infections are more common during childhood and adolescence but are
also found throughout later life.
• HSV-1 prevalence increase with age:
- 44% in adolescents 12–19 yr
- 90% >70 yr of age.
• overall prevalence of HSV-2 is only 21.9%.
• Prevalence of HSV-2 also increased steadily with age females> males
• HSV-2 increase with:
- less education,
- poverty,
- cocaine use,
- increase number of sexual partners.
• pre-existing HSV-1 antibodies decreases the attack rate for HSV-2 infection,
and protect against symptomatic genital herpes.
EPIDEMIOLOGY
Neonatal herpes
• is uncommon but potentially fatal infection of the
fetus or the newborn.
• The increase in neonatal herpes cases parallels the
increase in cases of genital herpes.
• > 90% of the cases are the result of maternal-fetal
transmission.
• HSV is a leading cause of sporadic, fatal encephalitis
in children and adults.
Pathogenesis of Herpes Simplex
• In the immunocompetent:
- viral replication in skin and mucous membranes followed by
- replication and spread in neural tissue.
- Viral infection begins at a cutaneous portal of entry as the oral cavity,
genital mucosa, ocular conjunctiva, or breaks in keratinized epithelia.
-Virus replicates locally, resulting in the death of the cell and sometimes
produces clinically apparent inflammatory responses as the characteristic
herpetic vesicles and ulcers.
- Virus also enters nerve endings and spreads beyond the portal of entry to
sensory ganglia by intraneuronal transport.
- Virus replicates in some sensory neurons, and go back to the periphery,
where they are released from nerve endings and replicate further in skin
or mucosal surfaces.
- most HSV infections are subclinical.
• In some infected neurons the infection is
latent.
• Intermittently virus begins to replicate.
• transported within nerve fibers back to
cutaneous sites of the initial infection,
• Recurrent infections may be symptomatic.
• virus is shed at the site and can be transmitted
to susceptible individuals.
PATHOGENESIS
Viremia
• not appear in the immunocompetent host
• can occur in neonates, individuals with eczema, and severely
malnourished children and with HIV infection
• Viremia can result in dissemination of the virus to visceral organs,
including the liver and adrenals. Hematogenous dissemination of virus to
the central nervous system appears to only occur in neonates.
• Transmission occurs during delivery,
• portals of entry are the conjunctiva, mucosal epithelium of the nose and
mouth,
• With antiviral therapy, virus replication may be restricted to the site of
inoculation (the skin, eye, or mouth).
• Latent infection is established during neonatal infection, and survivors
may experience recurrent cutaneous and neural infections.
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
• skin vesicles and shallow ulcers.
• small, 2–4 mm vesicles that may be
surrounded by an erythematous base.
• after few days causing ulcers.
• Most infections are asymptomatic or
unrecognized as small skin fissures.
Acute Oropharyngeal Infections
• Herpes gingivostomatitis most often affects children 6 mo to 5 yr
• It is an extremely painful condition with sudden onset, pain in the mouth,
drooling, refusal to eat or drink, and fever of up to 40.0–40.6°C.
• The gums become markedly swollen, and vesicles may develop
throughout the oral cavity, including on the gums, lips, tongue, palate,
tonsils, and pharynx
• During the initial phase of the illness there may be tonsillar exudates
suggestive of bacterial pharyngitis.
• Tender submandibular, submaxillary, and cervical lymphadenopathy are
common.
• The breath may be foul as a result of overgrowth of anaerobic oral
bacteria.
• Untreated, the illness resolves in 7–14 days, although the
lymphadenopathy may persist for several weeks.
• In older children, adolescents, may manifest as
pharyngitis and tonsillitis not gingivostomatitis.
• indistinguishable from streptococcal pharyngitis
with fever, malaise, headache, sore throat, and
white plaques on the tonsils.
• The course of illness is typically longer than for
untreated streptococcal pharyngitis
Herpes Labialis
• Fever blisters, or cold sores, are the most
common manifestation of recurrent HSV-1
infections.
• lesions sometimes occur on the nose, chin,
cheek, or oral mucosa.
• burning, tingling, itching, or pain 3–6 hr
before the development of the herpes lesion.
• Complete healing within 6–10 days.
Cutaneous Infections
• result of skin trauma with macro- or micro-abrasions
and exposure to infectious secretions.
• initial cutaneous infection establishes a latent
infection that can subsequently result in recurrent
infections at or near the site of the initial infection.
• Pain, burning, itching, or tingling often precedes the
herpetic eruption by a few hours to a few days.
• cutaneous HSV infection results in multiple discrete
lesions and involves a larger surface area.
Eczema herpeticum
Herpes whitlow
• HSV infection of fingers or toes,
• commonly seen in infants and toddlers who suck their thumb or fingers
and who are experiencing either a symptomatic or a subclinical oral HSV-1
infection.
• becomes erythematous and tender and may appear to contain pus,
although if incised, little fluid is present.
• Incising the lesion prolongs recovery and increases the risk for secondary
bacterial infection.
• persist for about 10 days, complete recovery in 18–20 days.
• severe or life threatening in patients with disorders of the skin such as
eczema (eczema herpeticum), burns,
• If untreated, these can progress to disseminated infection and death.
• Recurrent infections are common but generally less severe than the initial
infection.
Genital Herpes
• common in sexually experienced adolescents and young adults,
• up to 90% of infected individuals are unaware they are infected.
• genital-genital transmission (usually HSV-2) or oral-genital transmission
(usually HSV-1).
• Symptomatic and asymptomatic shed virus and transmit the infection to
sexual partners
• pregnant woman transmits infection to her newborn.
• local burning and tenderness before vesicles develop
• Vesicles rupture to produce shallow, tender ulcers covered with a yellowish
gray exudate and surrounded by an erythematous border.
• Vesicles on keratinized epithelium persist for a few days before progressing
to the pustular stage and then crusting.
• Patients may develop urethritis and dysuria severe enough to cause urinary
retention and bilateral, tender inguinal and pelvic lymphadenopathy.
• Women may experience a watery vaginal discharge and men a
clear mucoid urethral discharge.
• Significant local pain and systemic symptoms including fever,
headache, and myalgia are common.
• Aseptic meningitis develops in an estimated 15% of cases.
• The course of classical primary genital herpes, from onset to
complete healing, is 2–3 wk
• at least 1 recurrent infection in the following year.
• Recurrent genital herpes is usually less severe and of shorter
duration than the primary infection.
• Genital HSV infection increases the risk for acquiring HIV
infection.
Ocular Infections
• involve the conjunctiva, cornea, or retina and may be primary
or recurrent.
• usually unilateral and often associated with blepharitis and
tender preauricular lymphadenopathy.
• Patients typically have fever.
• Untreated infection generally resolves in 2–3 weeks.
• repeated recurrences can cause progressive corneal scarring
and injury that can lead to blindness.
• Retinal infections are rare and are more likely among infants
with neonatal herpes and immunocompromised persons with
disseminated HSV infections
CNS Infections
• sporadic, nonepidemic encephalitis
• It is an acute necrotizing infection generally
involving the frontal and/or temporal cortex
and the limbic system
• beyond the neonatal period, is almost always
caused by HSV-1.
• The infection may present with nonspecific findings,
including fever, headache, neck rigidity, nausea,
vomiting, generalized seizures, and alteration of
consciousness.
• Injury to the frontal or temporal cortex or limbic
system may produce findings more indicative of HSV
encephalitis, including anosmia, memory loss,
peculiar behavior, expressive aphasia and other
changes in speech, hallucinations, and focal seizures.
Central Nervous System Infections
• The untreated infection progresses to coma and
death in 75% of cases.
• Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid typically
shows a moderate number of mononuclear cells and
polymorphonuclear leukocytes, a mildly elevated
protein concentration, a normal or slightly decreased
glucose concentration, and often a moderate
number of erythrocytes.
• HSV is also a cause of aseptic meningitis and is the
most common cause of recurrent aseptic meningitis
(Mollaret meningitis).
Infections in Immunocompromised Persons
• Severe and life-threatening
• including neonates, the severely malnourished, those with primary and
secondary immunodeficiencies diseases including AIDS, and those on
some immunosuppressive regimens, particularly for cancer and organ
transplantation.
• Mucocutaneous infections, including mucositis and esophagitis, are most
common, although their presentations may be atypical and can result in
lesions that slowly enlarge, ulcerate, become necrotic, and extend to
deeper tissues.
• Other HSV infections include tracheobronchitis, pneumonitis, and
anogenital infections.
• Disseminated infection can result in a sepsis-like presentation, with liver
and adrenal involvement, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and
shock.
Perinatal Infections
• Intrauterine and postpartum infections are well described but occur
infrequently.
• Postpartum transmission may be from the mother or another adult with a
nongenital (typically HSV-1) infection such as herpes labialis.
• transmission, usually during passage through a contaminated infected
birth canal of a mother with asymptomatic genital herpes.
• Transmission is well documented in infants delivered by C/S
• < 30% of mothers have a history of genital herpes.
• The risk for infection is higher in infants born to mothers with primary
genital infection (>30%) compared to recurrent genital infection (<2%).
• Use of scalp electrodes may also increase risk.
Perinatal Infections
• typically have skin vesicles or scarring,
• chorioretinitis and keratoconjunctivitis, and microcephaly or
hydranencephaly that are present at delivery.
• Few infants survive without therapy, and those that do
generally have severe sequelae.
• Infants infected during delivery or postpartum present with 1
of 3 patterns of disease:
• (1) disease localized to the skin, eyes, or mouth;
• (2) encephalitis with or without skin, eye, or mouth (SEM)
disease; or
• (3) disseminated infection involving multiple organs,
including the brain, lungs, liver, heart, adrenals, and skin
• Infants with SEM disease generally present at 5–11 days of life
and typically develop a few small vesicles,
• If untreated, infants with SEM disease may progress to
develop encephalitis or disseminated disease.
• Infants with encephalitis typically present at 8–17 days of life
with clinical findings suggestive of bacterial meningitis,
including irritability, lethargy, poor feeding, poor tone, and
seizures.
• Fever is relatively uncommon, and only about 60% have skin
vesicles
• If untreated, 50% will die and most survivors have severe
neurologic sequelae.
Disseminated HSV infections
• become ill at 5–11 days of life.
• similar to bacterial sepsis with hyper- or hypothermia,
irritability, poor feeding, and vomiting.
• They may have respiratory distress, cyanosis, apneic spells,
jaundice, purpuric rash, and evidence of central nervous
system infection; seizures are common.
• Skin vesicles are seen in about 75% of cases.
• If untreated, the infection causes shock and DIC;
• 90% die,
• survivors have severe neurologic sequelae
DIAGNOSIS
• isolation of virus or detection of viral antigen or more often viral DNA by
polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
• Histologic findings or imaging studies may support the diagnosis but
should not substitute for virus-specific tests.
• HSV immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests are notoriously unreliable, and the
demonstration of a 4-fold or greater rise in HSV-specific IgG titers between
acute and convalescent serum samples is only useful in retrospect.
• Virus culture remains the gold standard for diagnosing HSV infections.
• The highest yield comes from rupturing a suspected herpetic vesicle and
vigorously rubbing the base of the lesion to collect fluid and cells.
• PCR for detection of HSV DNA is highly sensitive and specific and in some
instances can be done rapidly.
• examining CSF in cases of suspected HSV encephalitis.
• neonate with suspected HSV infection:
- cultures of lesions as eye and mouth swabs,
-PCR of cerebrospinal fluid.
• treatment should be initiated before result.
TREATMENT
• Three antiviral drugs—acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir—
• Acyclovir has the poorest bioavailability and hence requires more frequent
dosing.
• Valacyclovir, and famciclovir, both have very good oral bioavailability and
are dosed once or twice daily.
• Only acyclovir has an intravenous formulation.
• Early initiation of therapy results in the maximal therapeutic benefit.
• All 3 drugs have an exceptional safety profile and are safe to use in
pediatric patients.
• Doses should be modified in patients with renal impairment.
• Topical trifluorothymidine, vidarabine, and idoxuridine are used in the
treatment of herpes keratitis.
Acute Mucocutaneous Infections
• oral acyclovir (15 mg/kg/dose 5 times a day PO for 7 days,
maximum 1 g/day) started within 72 hr of onset reduces the
severity and duration of the illness.
• Pain associated with swallowing may limit oral intake of
infants and children, placing them at risk for dehydration.
Intake should be encouraged through the use of cold
beverages, ice cream, and yogurt.
• For herpes labialis, oral treatment is superior to topical
antiviral therapy.
• For treatment of a recurrence in adolescents:
- valacyclovir (2,000 mg bid PO for 1 day),
- acyclovir (200–400 mg 5 times daily PO for 5 days), or
- famciclovir (500 mg tid PO for 5 days)
Acute Mucocutaneous Infections
• herpetic whitlow: High-dose oral acyclovir
(1,600–2,000 mg/day divided in 2–3 doses PO
for 10 days)
• Antiviral drugs are not effective in the
treatment of HSV-associated erythema
multiforme.
Genital Herpes
• acyclovir (400 mg tid PO for 7–10 days),
• famciclovir (750 mg tid PO for 7–10 days), or
• valacyclovir (1000 mg bid PO for 7–10 days).
Ocular Infections
• HSV ocular infections can result in blindness.
• Management should involve consultation with
an ophthalmologist .
Central Nervous System Infections
• intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg every 8 hr
given over a 1 hr infusion for 14–21 days).
Infections in Immunocompromised Persons
• intravenous acyclovir (5–10 mg/kg or every 8
hr).
• less severe HSV infections:
Oral acyclovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir
Perinatal Infections
• high-dose intravenous acyclovir (60 mg/kg/day
divided every 8 hr IV).
• Infants with HSV disease limited to skin, eyes,
and mouth should be treated for 14 days,
• disseminated or central nervous system disease
should receive 21 days of therapy.
PROGNOSIS
• Most HSV infections are self-limiting,
• Life-threatening conditions include neonatal
herpes, herpes encephalitis, and HSV
infections in immunocompromised patients,
burn patients, and severely malnourished
infants and children.
• Recurrent ocular herpes can lead to corneal
scarring and blindness .
PREVENTION
• Good handwashing and the use of gloves
• good hygienic practices, including
handwashing and avoiding contact with
lesions and secretions during active herpes
outbreaks.
• Schools and daycare centers should clean
shared toys.
• Recurrent genital HSV infections can be prevented by
the daily use of oral acyclovir, valacyclovir, or
famciclovir, and these drugs have been used to
prevent recurrences of oral-facial (labialis) and
cutaneous (gladiatorum) herpes.
• Oral and intravenous acyclovir has also been used to
prevent recurrent HSV infections in
immunocompromised patients.
Herpes simplex virus

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Herpes simplex virus

  • 2. Herpes Simplex Virus • HSV type 1 (HSV-1) • HSV type 2 (HSV-2) • Common infections involve: - skin, eye, oral cavity, and genital tract. • In healthy: mild and self-limiting • immunocompromised and newborn: the infection may be severe and life threatening.
  • 3. Primary infection • First time • No previous immunity • Can be severe
  • 4. Nonprimary 1st infection • previous infection • Cross immunity between the two • Less severe
  • 5. recurrent infection • less severe • shorter duration than 1st infections. • Commonly Asymptomatic • No physical distress • They are contagious
  • 6. ETIOLOGY • HSV-1 and HSV-2 have a similar genetic composition • One important difference in the 2 viruses is their glycoprotein G genes So: • accurate, type-specific serologic tests is used to know whether a patient has been infected with HSV-1, HSV-2, or both
  • 7. EPIDEMIOLOGY • The only natural host is humans, • transmission is ONLY direct contact between mucocutaneous surfaces. • All infected individuals harbor latent infection with recurrent infections, which may be asymptomatic, and are periodically contagious. • HSV-1 and HSV-2 are equally capable of causing initial infection at any anatomic site • HSV-1 causes more recurrent oral infections, • HSV-2 causes more recurrent genital infections.
  • 8. EPIDEMIOLOGY • HSV-1 infections are more common during childhood and adolescence but are also found throughout later life. • HSV-1 prevalence increase with age: - 44% in adolescents 12–19 yr - 90% >70 yr of age. • overall prevalence of HSV-2 is only 21.9%. • Prevalence of HSV-2 also increased steadily with age females> males • HSV-2 increase with: - less education, - poverty, - cocaine use, - increase number of sexual partners. • pre-existing HSV-1 antibodies decreases the attack rate for HSV-2 infection, and protect against symptomatic genital herpes.
  • 9. EPIDEMIOLOGY Neonatal herpes • is uncommon but potentially fatal infection of the fetus or the newborn. • The increase in neonatal herpes cases parallels the increase in cases of genital herpes. • > 90% of the cases are the result of maternal-fetal transmission. • HSV is a leading cause of sporadic, fatal encephalitis in children and adults.
  • 10. Pathogenesis of Herpes Simplex • In the immunocompetent: - viral replication in skin and mucous membranes followed by - replication and spread in neural tissue. - Viral infection begins at a cutaneous portal of entry as the oral cavity, genital mucosa, ocular conjunctiva, or breaks in keratinized epithelia. -Virus replicates locally, resulting in the death of the cell and sometimes produces clinically apparent inflammatory responses as the characteristic herpetic vesicles and ulcers. - Virus also enters nerve endings and spreads beyond the portal of entry to sensory ganglia by intraneuronal transport. - Virus replicates in some sensory neurons, and go back to the periphery, where they are released from nerve endings and replicate further in skin or mucosal surfaces. - most HSV infections are subclinical.
  • 11. • In some infected neurons the infection is latent. • Intermittently virus begins to replicate. • transported within nerve fibers back to cutaneous sites of the initial infection, • Recurrent infections may be symptomatic. • virus is shed at the site and can be transmitted to susceptible individuals.
  • 12. PATHOGENESIS Viremia • not appear in the immunocompetent host • can occur in neonates, individuals with eczema, and severely malnourished children and with HIV infection • Viremia can result in dissemination of the virus to visceral organs, including the liver and adrenals. Hematogenous dissemination of virus to the central nervous system appears to only occur in neonates. • Transmission occurs during delivery, • portals of entry are the conjunctiva, mucosal epithelium of the nose and mouth, • With antiviral therapy, virus replication may be restricted to the site of inoculation (the skin, eye, or mouth). • Latent infection is established during neonatal infection, and survivors may experience recurrent cutaneous and neural infections.
  • 13. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS • skin vesicles and shallow ulcers. • small, 2–4 mm vesicles that may be surrounded by an erythematous base. • after few days causing ulcers. • Most infections are asymptomatic or unrecognized as small skin fissures.
  • 14. Acute Oropharyngeal Infections • Herpes gingivostomatitis most often affects children 6 mo to 5 yr • It is an extremely painful condition with sudden onset, pain in the mouth, drooling, refusal to eat or drink, and fever of up to 40.0–40.6°C. • The gums become markedly swollen, and vesicles may develop throughout the oral cavity, including on the gums, lips, tongue, palate, tonsils, and pharynx • During the initial phase of the illness there may be tonsillar exudates suggestive of bacterial pharyngitis. • Tender submandibular, submaxillary, and cervical lymphadenopathy are common. • The breath may be foul as a result of overgrowth of anaerobic oral bacteria. • Untreated, the illness resolves in 7–14 days, although the lymphadenopathy may persist for several weeks.
  • 15.
  • 16. • In older children, adolescents, may manifest as pharyngitis and tonsillitis not gingivostomatitis. • indistinguishable from streptococcal pharyngitis with fever, malaise, headache, sore throat, and white plaques on the tonsils. • The course of illness is typically longer than for untreated streptococcal pharyngitis
  • 17. Herpes Labialis • Fever blisters, or cold sores, are the most common manifestation of recurrent HSV-1 infections. • lesions sometimes occur on the nose, chin, cheek, or oral mucosa. • burning, tingling, itching, or pain 3–6 hr before the development of the herpes lesion. • Complete healing within 6–10 days.
  • 18.
  • 19. Cutaneous Infections • result of skin trauma with macro- or micro-abrasions and exposure to infectious secretions. • initial cutaneous infection establishes a latent infection that can subsequently result in recurrent infections at or near the site of the initial infection. • Pain, burning, itching, or tingling often precedes the herpetic eruption by a few hours to a few days. • cutaneous HSV infection results in multiple discrete lesions and involves a larger surface area.
  • 20.
  • 22. Herpes whitlow • HSV infection of fingers or toes, • commonly seen in infants and toddlers who suck their thumb or fingers and who are experiencing either a symptomatic or a subclinical oral HSV-1 infection. • becomes erythematous and tender and may appear to contain pus, although if incised, little fluid is present. • Incising the lesion prolongs recovery and increases the risk for secondary bacterial infection. • persist for about 10 days, complete recovery in 18–20 days. • severe or life threatening in patients with disorders of the skin such as eczema (eczema herpeticum), burns, • If untreated, these can progress to disseminated infection and death. • Recurrent infections are common but generally less severe than the initial infection.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. Genital Herpes • common in sexually experienced adolescents and young adults, • up to 90% of infected individuals are unaware they are infected. • genital-genital transmission (usually HSV-2) or oral-genital transmission (usually HSV-1). • Symptomatic and asymptomatic shed virus and transmit the infection to sexual partners • pregnant woman transmits infection to her newborn. • local burning and tenderness before vesicles develop • Vesicles rupture to produce shallow, tender ulcers covered with a yellowish gray exudate and surrounded by an erythematous border. • Vesicles on keratinized epithelium persist for a few days before progressing to the pustular stage and then crusting. • Patients may develop urethritis and dysuria severe enough to cause urinary retention and bilateral, tender inguinal and pelvic lymphadenopathy.
  • 26. • Women may experience a watery vaginal discharge and men a clear mucoid urethral discharge. • Significant local pain and systemic symptoms including fever, headache, and myalgia are common. • Aseptic meningitis develops in an estimated 15% of cases. • The course of classical primary genital herpes, from onset to complete healing, is 2–3 wk • at least 1 recurrent infection in the following year. • Recurrent genital herpes is usually less severe and of shorter duration than the primary infection. • Genital HSV infection increases the risk for acquiring HIV infection.
  • 27.
  • 28. Ocular Infections • involve the conjunctiva, cornea, or retina and may be primary or recurrent. • usually unilateral and often associated with blepharitis and tender preauricular lymphadenopathy. • Patients typically have fever. • Untreated infection generally resolves in 2–3 weeks. • repeated recurrences can cause progressive corneal scarring and injury that can lead to blindness. • Retinal infections are rare and are more likely among infants with neonatal herpes and immunocompromised persons with disseminated HSV infections
  • 29.
  • 30. CNS Infections • sporadic, nonepidemic encephalitis • It is an acute necrotizing infection generally involving the frontal and/or temporal cortex and the limbic system • beyond the neonatal period, is almost always caused by HSV-1.
  • 31. • The infection may present with nonspecific findings, including fever, headache, neck rigidity, nausea, vomiting, generalized seizures, and alteration of consciousness. • Injury to the frontal or temporal cortex or limbic system may produce findings more indicative of HSV encephalitis, including anosmia, memory loss, peculiar behavior, expressive aphasia and other changes in speech, hallucinations, and focal seizures.
  • 32. Central Nervous System Infections • The untreated infection progresses to coma and death in 75% of cases. • Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid typically shows a moderate number of mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, a mildly elevated protein concentration, a normal or slightly decreased glucose concentration, and often a moderate number of erythrocytes. • HSV is also a cause of aseptic meningitis and is the most common cause of recurrent aseptic meningitis (Mollaret meningitis).
  • 33. Infections in Immunocompromised Persons • Severe and life-threatening • including neonates, the severely malnourished, those with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies diseases including AIDS, and those on some immunosuppressive regimens, particularly for cancer and organ transplantation. • Mucocutaneous infections, including mucositis and esophagitis, are most common, although their presentations may be atypical and can result in lesions that slowly enlarge, ulcerate, become necrotic, and extend to deeper tissues. • Other HSV infections include tracheobronchitis, pneumonitis, and anogenital infections. • Disseminated infection can result in a sepsis-like presentation, with liver and adrenal involvement, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and shock.
  • 34. Perinatal Infections • Intrauterine and postpartum infections are well described but occur infrequently. • Postpartum transmission may be from the mother or another adult with a nongenital (typically HSV-1) infection such as herpes labialis. • transmission, usually during passage through a contaminated infected birth canal of a mother with asymptomatic genital herpes. • Transmission is well documented in infants delivered by C/S • < 30% of mothers have a history of genital herpes. • The risk for infection is higher in infants born to mothers with primary genital infection (>30%) compared to recurrent genital infection (<2%). • Use of scalp electrodes may also increase risk.
  • 35. Perinatal Infections • typically have skin vesicles or scarring, • chorioretinitis and keratoconjunctivitis, and microcephaly or hydranencephaly that are present at delivery. • Few infants survive without therapy, and those that do generally have severe sequelae. • Infants infected during delivery or postpartum present with 1 of 3 patterns of disease: • (1) disease localized to the skin, eyes, or mouth; • (2) encephalitis with or without skin, eye, or mouth (SEM) disease; or • (3) disseminated infection involving multiple organs, including the brain, lungs, liver, heart, adrenals, and skin
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38. • Infants with SEM disease generally present at 5–11 days of life and typically develop a few small vesicles, • If untreated, infants with SEM disease may progress to develop encephalitis or disseminated disease. • Infants with encephalitis typically present at 8–17 days of life with clinical findings suggestive of bacterial meningitis, including irritability, lethargy, poor feeding, poor tone, and seizures. • Fever is relatively uncommon, and only about 60% have skin vesicles • If untreated, 50% will die and most survivors have severe neurologic sequelae.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. Disseminated HSV infections • become ill at 5–11 days of life. • similar to bacterial sepsis with hyper- or hypothermia, irritability, poor feeding, and vomiting. • They may have respiratory distress, cyanosis, apneic spells, jaundice, purpuric rash, and evidence of central nervous system infection; seizures are common. • Skin vesicles are seen in about 75% of cases. • If untreated, the infection causes shock and DIC; • 90% die, • survivors have severe neurologic sequelae
  • 42. DIAGNOSIS • isolation of virus or detection of viral antigen or more often viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). • Histologic findings or imaging studies may support the diagnosis but should not substitute for virus-specific tests. • HSV immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests are notoriously unreliable, and the demonstration of a 4-fold or greater rise in HSV-specific IgG titers between acute and convalescent serum samples is only useful in retrospect. • Virus culture remains the gold standard for diagnosing HSV infections. • The highest yield comes from rupturing a suspected herpetic vesicle and vigorously rubbing the base of the lesion to collect fluid and cells. • PCR for detection of HSV DNA is highly sensitive and specific and in some instances can be done rapidly. • examining CSF in cases of suspected HSV encephalitis.
  • 43. • neonate with suspected HSV infection: - cultures of lesions as eye and mouth swabs, -PCR of cerebrospinal fluid. • treatment should be initiated before result.
  • 44. TREATMENT • Three antiviral drugs—acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir— • Acyclovir has the poorest bioavailability and hence requires more frequent dosing. • Valacyclovir, and famciclovir, both have very good oral bioavailability and are dosed once or twice daily. • Only acyclovir has an intravenous formulation. • Early initiation of therapy results in the maximal therapeutic benefit. • All 3 drugs have an exceptional safety profile and are safe to use in pediatric patients. • Doses should be modified in patients with renal impairment. • Topical trifluorothymidine, vidarabine, and idoxuridine are used in the treatment of herpes keratitis.
  • 45. Acute Mucocutaneous Infections • oral acyclovir (15 mg/kg/dose 5 times a day PO for 7 days, maximum 1 g/day) started within 72 hr of onset reduces the severity and duration of the illness. • Pain associated with swallowing may limit oral intake of infants and children, placing them at risk for dehydration. Intake should be encouraged through the use of cold beverages, ice cream, and yogurt. • For herpes labialis, oral treatment is superior to topical antiviral therapy. • For treatment of a recurrence in adolescents: - valacyclovir (2,000 mg bid PO for 1 day), - acyclovir (200–400 mg 5 times daily PO for 5 days), or - famciclovir (500 mg tid PO for 5 days)
  • 46. Acute Mucocutaneous Infections • herpetic whitlow: High-dose oral acyclovir (1,600–2,000 mg/day divided in 2–3 doses PO for 10 days) • Antiviral drugs are not effective in the treatment of HSV-associated erythema multiforme.
  • 47. Genital Herpes • acyclovir (400 mg tid PO for 7–10 days), • famciclovir (750 mg tid PO for 7–10 days), or • valacyclovir (1000 mg bid PO for 7–10 days).
  • 48. Ocular Infections • HSV ocular infections can result in blindness. • Management should involve consultation with an ophthalmologist .
  • 49. Central Nervous System Infections • intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg every 8 hr given over a 1 hr infusion for 14–21 days).
  • 50. Infections in Immunocompromised Persons • intravenous acyclovir (5–10 mg/kg or every 8 hr). • less severe HSV infections: Oral acyclovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir
  • 51. Perinatal Infections • high-dose intravenous acyclovir (60 mg/kg/day divided every 8 hr IV). • Infants with HSV disease limited to skin, eyes, and mouth should be treated for 14 days, • disseminated or central nervous system disease should receive 21 days of therapy.
  • 52. PROGNOSIS • Most HSV infections are self-limiting, • Life-threatening conditions include neonatal herpes, herpes encephalitis, and HSV infections in immunocompromised patients, burn patients, and severely malnourished infants and children. • Recurrent ocular herpes can lead to corneal scarring and blindness .
  • 53. PREVENTION • Good handwashing and the use of gloves • good hygienic practices, including handwashing and avoiding contact with lesions and secretions during active herpes outbreaks. • Schools and daycare centers should clean shared toys.
  • 54. • Recurrent genital HSV infections can be prevented by the daily use of oral acyclovir, valacyclovir, or famciclovir, and these drugs have been used to prevent recurrences of oral-facial (labialis) and cutaneous (gladiatorum) herpes. • Oral and intravenous acyclovir has also been used to prevent recurrent HSV infections in immunocompromised patients.