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Chapter 16: Atomic Structure
and Chemical Bonds
Table of Contents
Section 1: Why do atoms combine?
Section 2: How Elements Bond
• At the center of every atom is a nucleus
containing protons and neutrons.
• This nucleus represents
most of the atom’s mass.
Atomic Structures
Why do atoms combine?
1
Click image to view movie.
• The rest of the atom is empty except for the
atom’s electrons.
• The atom’s electrons travel in an area of
space around the nucleus called the
electron cloud.
Atomic Structures
Why do atoms combine?
1
• You might think that electrons resemble
planets circling the Sun, but they are very
different.
Electrons
Why do atoms combine?
1
• First, planets have no charges, but the
nucleus of an atom has a positive charge
and electrons have negative charges.
Electrons
Why do atoms combine?
1
Electrons
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Second, planets travel in predictable orbits
—you can calculate exactly where one will
be at any time.
• This is not true for electrons.
• It is impossible to calculate the exact
position of any one electron.
Electrons
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Each element has a different atomic
structure consisting of a specific number
of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
• The number of protons and electrons is
always the same for a neutral atom of a
given element.
Element Structure
Why do atoms combine?
1
• This neutral
lithium atom has
three positively
charged protons,
three negatively
charged electrons,
and four neutral
neutrons.
Element Structure
Why do atoms combine?
1
• The different areas
for an electron in
an atom are called
energy levels.
Electron Arrangement—
Electron Energy
Why do atoms combine?
1
Electron Arrangement—
Electron Energy
Why do atoms combine?
1
• This shows a model
of what these
energy levels might
look like. Each
level represents a
different amount of
energy.
• The farther an energy level is from the
nucleus, the more electrons it can hold.
Number of Electrons
Why do atoms combine?
1
• The first energy level, energy level 1, can
hold one or two electrons, the second, energy
level 2, can hold up to eight, the third can
hold up to 18, and the fourth energy level
can hold a maximum of 32 electrons.
• The stairway, shown here, is a model
that shows the maximum number of
electrons each energy level can hold in
the electron cloud.
Energy Steps
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Electrons in the level closest to the nucleus
have the lowest amount of energy and are
said to be in energy level one.
Energy Steps
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Electrons farthest from the nucleus have the
highest amount of energy and are the easiest
to remove.
• The closer a negatively charged electron
is to the positively charged nucleus, the
more strongly it is attracted to the
nucleus. Therefore, removing electrons
that are close to the nucleus takes more
energy than removing those that are
farther away from the nucleus.
Energy Steps
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Look at the horizontal rows, or periods, in
the portion of the table shown.
Periodic Table and Energy Levels
Why do atoms combine?
1
Periodic Table and Energy Levels
Why do atoms combine?
1
• You can determine the number of electrons
in an atom by looking at the atomic number
written above each element symbol.
• If you look at the periodic table shown,
you can see that the elements are arranged
in a specific order.
Electron Configurations
Why do atoms combine?
1
Fig. 5, p. 467
Electron Configurations
Why do atoms combine?
1
• The number of electrons in a neutral atom
of the element increases by one from left to
right across a period.
Fig. 5, p. 467
• Recall that energy level one can hold up
to two electrons.
Electron Configurations
Why do atoms combine?
1
Electron Configurations
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Therefore, helium’s outer energy level is
complete.
Electron Configurations
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Atoms with a complete outer energy level
are stable. Therefore, helium is stable.
• Look again. You’ll see that energy level
two can holdup to eight electrons.
Electron Configurations
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Not only does neon have a complete outer
energy level,
but also this
configuration
of exactly eight
electrons in an
outer energy
level is stable.
• Elements can be divided into groups, or
families.
Element Families
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Each column of the periodic table contains
one element family.
• Hydrogen is usually considered separately,
so the first element family begins with
lithium and sodium in the first column.
Element Families
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Just as human family members often have
similar looks and traits, members of element
families have similar chemical properties
because they have the same number of
electrons in their outer energy levels.
• Neon and the
elements below it in
Group 18 have eight
electrons in their
outer energy levels.
Noble Gases
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Their energy levels
are stable, so they
do not combine
easily with other
elements.
• At one time these elements were thought
to be completely unreactive, and therefore
became known as the inert gases.
Noble Gases
Why do atoms combine?
1
• When chemists learned that some of these
gases can react, their name was changed to
noble gases. They are still the most stable
element group.
• The elements in
Group 17 are called
the halogens.
Halogens
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Fluorine is the
most reactive of
the halogens
because its outer
energy level is
closest to the
nucleus.
Halogens
Why do atoms combine?
1
• The reactivity of
the halogens
decreases down
the group as the
outer energy
levels of each
element’s atoms
get farther from
the nucleus.
Alkali Metals
Why do atoms combine?
1
• The alkali metals form compounds that
are similar to each other.
Alkali Metals
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Alkali metals each have one outer energy
level electron.
• It is this electron that is removed when
alkali metals react.
• The easier it is to remove an electron, the
more reactive the atom is.
• Unlike halogens, the reactivities of alkali
metals increase down the group.
• If you want to see how atoms of one element
will react, it is handy to have an easier way
to represent the atoms and the electrons in
their outer energy levels.
Electron Dot Diagrams
Why do atoms combine?
1
• You can do this with electron dot diagrams.
• An electric dot diagram is the symbol for
the element surrounded by as many dots as
there are electrons in its outer energy level.
• The dots are written in pairs on four sides of
the element symbol.
How to Write Them
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Start by writing one dot on the top of the
element symbol, then work your way around
adding dots to the right, bottom, and left.
How to Write Them
Why do atoms combine?
1
• Add a fifth dot to the top to make a pair.
Continue in this manner until you reach
eight dots to complete the level.
• Now that you know how to write electron
dot diagrams for elements, you can use them
to show how atoms bond with each other.
Using Dot Diagrams
Why do atoms combine?
1
• A chemical bond is the force that holds two
atoms together.
• Atoms bond with other atoms in such a
way that each atom becomes more stable.
That is, their outer energy levels will
resemble those of the noble gases.
1
Section Check
Question 1
Electrons are now known to swarm around the
nucleus of an atom in a configuration known as
the _______.
A. electron circle
B. electron cloud
C. electron configuration
D. electron swarm
1
Section Check
Answer
The answer is B. The “cloud” includes all the
regions where an electron might be found.
1
Section Check
Question 2
What information can you learn from this
diagram?
1
Section Check
Answer
This image is an example of an electron dot
diagram. It tells you that nitrogen contains five
electrons in its outer energy level.
1
Section Check
Question 3
The _______ an energy level is from the
nucleus, the _______ electrons it can hold.
A. closer, more
B. closer, less
C. farther, less
D. farther, more
1
Section Check
Answer
The answer is D. The farthest shells contain the
greatest number of electrons.
Ionic Bonds—Loss and Gain
• Atoms form bonds with other atoms using
the electrons in their outer energy levels.
• They have four ways to do this—by losing
electrons, by gaining electrons, by pooling
electrons, or by sharing electrons with
another element.
How Elements Bond
2
Ionic Bonds—Loss and Gain
• Sodium has only one electron in its outer
level.
• Removing this electron empties this level
and leaves the completed level below.
How Elements Bond
2
• By removing one electron, sodium’s
electron configuration becomes the same
as that of the stable noble gas neon.
Ionic Bonds—Loss and Gain
• Chlorine forms bonds in a way that is the
opposite of sodium—it gains an electron.
How Elements Bond
2
• When chlorine accepts
an electron, its electron
configuration becomes
the same as that of the
noble gas argon.
Click image to view movie.
Ions—A Question of Balance
• By losing an electron, the balance of electric
charges changes.
• Sodium becomes a positively charged ion
because there is now one fewer electron
than there are protons in the nucleus.
How Elements Bond
2
• An atom that is no longer neutral because it
has lost or gained an electron is called an
ion (I ahn).
Ions—A Question of Balance
How Elements Bond
2
Bond Formation
• The positive sodium ion and the
negative chloride ion are strongly
attracted to each other.
How Elements Bond
2
• This attraction, which holds the ions close
together, is a type of chemical bond called
an ionic bond.
Bond Formation
• The compound sodium chloride, or table
salt, is formed.
How Elements Bond
2
• A compound is a pure substance containing
two or more elements that are chemically
bonded.
More Gains and Losses
• Can elements lose
or gain more than
one electron?
How Elements Bond
2
• The element
magnesium, Mg,
in Group 2 has two
electrons in its
outer energy level.
• Magnesium can lose these two electrons and
achieve a completed energy level.
More Gains and Losses
• Some atoms, such as oxygen, need to gain
two electrons to achieve stability.
How Elements Bond
2
• The two electrons released by one
magnesium atom could be gained by a
single atom of oxygen.
• When this happens, magnesium oxide
(MgO) is formed.
Metallic Bonding—Pooling
• In a metal, the electrons in the outer energy
levels of the atoms are not held tightly to
individual atoms.
How Elements Bond
2
• Instead, they
move freely
among all the
ions in the
metal, forming
a shared pool
of electrons.
Metallic Bonding—Pooling
• Metallic bonds form when metal atoms
share their pooled electrons. This bonding
affects the properties of metals.
How Elements Bond
2
• Metallic bonding also is the reason that
metals conduct electricity well.
• The outer electrons in metal atoms readily
move from one atom to the next to
transmit current.
Convalent Bonds—Sharing
• Some atoms are unlikely to lose or gain
electrons because the number of electrons
in their outer levels makes this difficult.
How Elements Bond
2
• The alternative is sharing electrons.
The Convalent Bond
• The chemical bond that forms between
nonmetal atoms when they share electrons is
called a covalent (koh VAY luhnt) bond.
How Elements Bond
2
Click image to view movie.
The Convalent Bond
• Shared electrons are attracted to the nuclei
of both atoms.
How Elements Bond
2
• They move back and forth between the
outer energy levels of each atom in the
covalent bond.
• So, each atom has a stable outer energy
level some of the time.
The Convalent Bond
• The neutral particle is formed when atoms
share electrons is called a molecule
(MAH lih kyewl).
How Elements Bond
2
The Convalent Bond
How Elements Bond
2
• A molecule is the basic unit of a molecular
compound.
The Convalent Bond
How Elements Bond
2
• You can see how molecules form by
sharing electrons in this figure.
Double and Triple Bonds
• An atom can also form a covalent bond by
sharing two or three electrons.
How Elements Bond
2
• When two pairs of electrons are shared by
two atoms, the bond is called a triple bond.
Double and Triple Bonds
• When three pairs of electrons are shared by
two atoms, the bond is called a triple bond.
How Elements Bond
2
• Each nitrogen atom shares three electrons
in forming a triple bond.
Polar and Nonpolar Molecules
• Some atoms have a greater attraction for
electrons than others do.
How Elements Bond
2
Polar and Nonpolar Molecules
How Elements Bond
2
• This unequal sharing makes one side of the
bond more negative than the other. Such
bonds are called polar bonds.
• A polar bond is a bond in which electrons
are shared unevenly.
Polar and Nonpolar Molecules
How Elements Bond
2
The Polar Water Molecule
• Water molecules form when hydrogen and
oxygen share electrons.
How Elements Bond
2
• The oxygen atom has a greater share of the
electrons in each bond—the oxygen end of
a water molecule has a slight negative
charge and the hydrogen end has a slight
positive charge.
• Because of this, water is said to be polar—
having two opposite ends or poles like a
magnet.
The Polar Water Molecule
• Molecules that do not have these uneven
charges are called nonpolar molecules.
How Elements Bond
2
• The only completely nonpolar bonds are
bonds between atoms of the same element.
One example of a nonpolar bond is the
triple bond in the nitrogen molecule.
Chemical Shorthand
• Alchemists used elaborate symbols to
describe elements and processes. Modern
chemical symbols are letters that can be
understood all over the world.
How Elements Bond
2
Symbols for Atoms
• Each element is represented by a one letter-,
two letter-, or three-letter symbol.
How Elements Bond
2
• Many symbols are the first letters of the
element’s name, such as H for hydrogen
and C for carbon.
• Others are the first letters of the element’s
name in another language.
Symbols for Compounds
• Compounds can be described using element
symbols and numbers.
How Elements Bond
2
• For example, two hydrogen atoms join
together in a covalent bond. The resulting
hydrogen molecule is represented by the
symbol H2.
Symbols for Compounds
• The subscript means that two atoms of
hydrogen are in the molecule.
How Elements Bond
2
• The small 2 after the H in the formula is
called a subscript.
Chemical Formulas
• A chemical formula is a combination of
chemical symbols and numbers that show
which elements are present in a compound
and how many atoms of each element are
present.
How Elements Bond
2
• When no subscript is shown, the number
of atoms is understood to be one.
• A water molecule contains one oxygen
atom and two hydrogen atoms, so its
formula is H2O.
2
Section Check
Question 1
What is the term for an atom which has lost or
gained an electron and therefore has a net
charge?
A. compound
B. ion
C. molecule
D. polar compound
2
Section Check
Answer
The answer is B. When this happens to an
atom, we say it has become “ionized.”
2
Section Check
Question 2
When two or more elements are chemically
bonded to form a substance, that substance is
called a _______.
2
Section Check
Answer
A compound is a pure substance containing
two or more elements that are chemically
bonded. An example of a compound is salt, or
sodium chloride.
2
Section Check
Question 3
A _______ bond occurs when atoms of
nonmetals share electrons.
A. covalent bond
B. ionic bond
C. metallic bond
D. polar bond
2
Section Check
Answer
The answer is A. When this type of bonding
happens between metal atoms it is called
pooling.
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8th Grade - Chapter 16 - Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding

  • 1.
  • 2. Chapter 16: Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds Table of Contents Section 1: Why do atoms combine? Section 2: How Elements Bond
  • 3. • At the center of every atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons. • This nucleus represents most of the atom’s mass. Atomic Structures Why do atoms combine? 1 Click image to view movie.
  • 4. • The rest of the atom is empty except for the atom’s electrons. • The atom’s electrons travel in an area of space around the nucleus called the electron cloud. Atomic Structures Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 5. • You might think that electrons resemble planets circling the Sun, but they are very different. Electrons Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 6. • First, planets have no charges, but the nucleus of an atom has a positive charge and electrons have negative charges. Electrons Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 7. Electrons Why do atoms combine? 1 • Second, planets travel in predictable orbits —you can calculate exactly where one will be at any time.
  • 8. • This is not true for electrons. • It is impossible to calculate the exact position of any one electron. Electrons Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 9. • Each element has a different atomic structure consisting of a specific number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. • The number of protons and electrons is always the same for a neutral atom of a given element. Element Structure Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 10. • This neutral lithium atom has three positively charged protons, three negatively charged electrons, and four neutral neutrons. Element Structure Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 11. • The different areas for an electron in an atom are called energy levels. Electron Arrangement— Electron Energy Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 12. Electron Arrangement— Electron Energy Why do atoms combine? 1 • This shows a model of what these energy levels might look like. Each level represents a different amount of energy.
  • 13. • The farther an energy level is from the nucleus, the more electrons it can hold. Number of Electrons Why do atoms combine? 1 • The first energy level, energy level 1, can hold one or two electrons, the second, energy level 2, can hold up to eight, the third can hold up to 18, and the fourth energy level can hold a maximum of 32 electrons.
  • 14. • The stairway, shown here, is a model that shows the maximum number of electrons each energy level can hold in the electron cloud. Energy Steps Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 15. • Electrons in the level closest to the nucleus have the lowest amount of energy and are said to be in energy level one. Energy Steps Why do atoms combine? 1 • Electrons farthest from the nucleus have the highest amount of energy and are the easiest to remove.
  • 16. • The closer a negatively charged electron is to the positively charged nucleus, the more strongly it is attracted to the nucleus. Therefore, removing electrons that are close to the nucleus takes more energy than removing those that are farther away from the nucleus. Energy Steps Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 17. • Look at the horizontal rows, or periods, in the portion of the table shown. Periodic Table and Energy Levels Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 18. Periodic Table and Energy Levels Why do atoms combine? 1 • You can determine the number of electrons in an atom by looking at the atomic number written above each element symbol.
  • 19. • If you look at the periodic table shown, you can see that the elements are arranged in a specific order. Electron Configurations Why do atoms combine? 1 Fig. 5, p. 467
  • 20. Electron Configurations Why do atoms combine? 1 • The number of electrons in a neutral atom of the element increases by one from left to right across a period. Fig. 5, p. 467
  • 21. • Recall that energy level one can hold up to two electrons. Electron Configurations Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 22. Electron Configurations Why do atoms combine? 1 • Therefore, helium’s outer energy level is complete.
  • 23. Electron Configurations Why do atoms combine? 1 • Atoms with a complete outer energy level are stable. Therefore, helium is stable.
  • 24. • Look again. You’ll see that energy level two can holdup to eight electrons. Electron Configurations Why do atoms combine? 1 • Not only does neon have a complete outer energy level, but also this configuration of exactly eight electrons in an outer energy level is stable.
  • 25. • Elements can be divided into groups, or families. Element Families Why do atoms combine? 1 • Each column of the periodic table contains one element family. • Hydrogen is usually considered separately, so the first element family begins with lithium and sodium in the first column.
  • 26. Element Families Why do atoms combine? 1 • Just as human family members often have similar looks and traits, members of element families have similar chemical properties because they have the same number of electrons in their outer energy levels.
  • 27. • Neon and the elements below it in Group 18 have eight electrons in their outer energy levels. Noble Gases Why do atoms combine? 1 • Their energy levels are stable, so they do not combine easily with other elements.
  • 28. • At one time these elements were thought to be completely unreactive, and therefore became known as the inert gases. Noble Gases Why do atoms combine? 1 • When chemists learned that some of these gases can react, their name was changed to noble gases. They are still the most stable element group.
  • 29. • The elements in Group 17 are called the halogens. Halogens Why do atoms combine? 1 • Fluorine is the most reactive of the halogens because its outer energy level is closest to the nucleus.
  • 30. Halogens Why do atoms combine? 1 • The reactivity of the halogens decreases down the group as the outer energy levels of each element’s atoms get farther from the nucleus.
  • 31. Alkali Metals Why do atoms combine? 1
  • 32. • The alkali metals form compounds that are similar to each other. Alkali Metals Why do atoms combine? 1 • Alkali metals each have one outer energy level electron. • It is this electron that is removed when alkali metals react. • The easier it is to remove an electron, the more reactive the atom is. • Unlike halogens, the reactivities of alkali metals increase down the group.
  • 33. • If you want to see how atoms of one element will react, it is handy to have an easier way to represent the atoms and the electrons in their outer energy levels. Electron Dot Diagrams Why do atoms combine? 1 • You can do this with electron dot diagrams. • An electric dot diagram is the symbol for the element surrounded by as many dots as there are electrons in its outer energy level.
  • 34. • The dots are written in pairs on four sides of the element symbol. How to Write Them Why do atoms combine? 1 • Start by writing one dot on the top of the element symbol, then work your way around adding dots to the right, bottom, and left.
  • 35. How to Write Them Why do atoms combine? 1 • Add a fifth dot to the top to make a pair. Continue in this manner until you reach eight dots to complete the level.
  • 36. • Now that you know how to write electron dot diagrams for elements, you can use them to show how atoms bond with each other. Using Dot Diagrams Why do atoms combine? 1 • A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms together. • Atoms bond with other atoms in such a way that each atom becomes more stable. That is, their outer energy levels will resemble those of the noble gases.
  • 37. 1 Section Check Question 1 Electrons are now known to swarm around the nucleus of an atom in a configuration known as the _______. A. electron circle B. electron cloud C. electron configuration D. electron swarm
  • 38. 1 Section Check Answer The answer is B. The “cloud” includes all the regions where an electron might be found.
  • 39. 1 Section Check Question 2 What information can you learn from this diagram?
  • 40. 1 Section Check Answer This image is an example of an electron dot diagram. It tells you that nitrogen contains five electrons in its outer energy level.
  • 41. 1 Section Check Question 3 The _______ an energy level is from the nucleus, the _______ electrons it can hold. A. closer, more B. closer, less C. farther, less D. farther, more
  • 42. 1 Section Check Answer The answer is D. The farthest shells contain the greatest number of electrons.
  • 43. Ionic Bonds—Loss and Gain • Atoms form bonds with other atoms using the electrons in their outer energy levels. • They have four ways to do this—by losing electrons, by gaining electrons, by pooling electrons, or by sharing electrons with another element. How Elements Bond 2
  • 44. Ionic Bonds—Loss and Gain • Sodium has only one electron in its outer level. • Removing this electron empties this level and leaves the completed level below. How Elements Bond 2 • By removing one electron, sodium’s electron configuration becomes the same as that of the stable noble gas neon.
  • 45. Ionic Bonds—Loss and Gain • Chlorine forms bonds in a way that is the opposite of sodium—it gains an electron. How Elements Bond 2 • When chlorine accepts an electron, its electron configuration becomes the same as that of the noble gas argon. Click image to view movie.
  • 46. Ions—A Question of Balance • By losing an electron, the balance of electric charges changes. • Sodium becomes a positively charged ion because there is now one fewer electron than there are protons in the nucleus. How Elements Bond 2 • An atom that is no longer neutral because it has lost or gained an electron is called an ion (I ahn).
  • 47. Ions—A Question of Balance How Elements Bond 2
  • 48. Bond Formation • The positive sodium ion and the negative chloride ion are strongly attracted to each other. How Elements Bond 2 • This attraction, which holds the ions close together, is a type of chemical bond called an ionic bond.
  • 49. Bond Formation • The compound sodium chloride, or table salt, is formed. How Elements Bond 2 • A compound is a pure substance containing two or more elements that are chemically bonded.
  • 50. More Gains and Losses • Can elements lose or gain more than one electron? How Elements Bond 2 • The element magnesium, Mg, in Group 2 has two electrons in its outer energy level. • Magnesium can lose these two electrons and achieve a completed energy level.
  • 51. More Gains and Losses • Some atoms, such as oxygen, need to gain two electrons to achieve stability. How Elements Bond 2 • The two electrons released by one magnesium atom could be gained by a single atom of oxygen. • When this happens, magnesium oxide (MgO) is formed.
  • 52. Metallic Bonding—Pooling • In a metal, the electrons in the outer energy levels of the atoms are not held tightly to individual atoms. How Elements Bond 2 • Instead, they move freely among all the ions in the metal, forming a shared pool of electrons.
  • 53. Metallic Bonding—Pooling • Metallic bonds form when metal atoms share their pooled electrons. This bonding affects the properties of metals. How Elements Bond 2 • Metallic bonding also is the reason that metals conduct electricity well. • The outer electrons in metal atoms readily move from one atom to the next to transmit current.
  • 54. Convalent Bonds—Sharing • Some atoms are unlikely to lose or gain electrons because the number of electrons in their outer levels makes this difficult. How Elements Bond 2 • The alternative is sharing electrons.
  • 55. The Convalent Bond • The chemical bond that forms between nonmetal atoms when they share electrons is called a covalent (koh VAY luhnt) bond. How Elements Bond 2 Click image to view movie.
  • 56. The Convalent Bond • Shared electrons are attracted to the nuclei of both atoms. How Elements Bond 2 • They move back and forth between the outer energy levels of each atom in the covalent bond. • So, each atom has a stable outer energy level some of the time.
  • 57. The Convalent Bond • The neutral particle is formed when atoms share electrons is called a molecule (MAH lih kyewl). How Elements Bond 2
  • 58. The Convalent Bond How Elements Bond 2 • A molecule is the basic unit of a molecular compound.
  • 59. The Convalent Bond How Elements Bond 2 • You can see how molecules form by sharing electrons in this figure.
  • 60. Double and Triple Bonds • An atom can also form a covalent bond by sharing two or three electrons. How Elements Bond 2 • When two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms, the bond is called a triple bond.
  • 61. Double and Triple Bonds • When three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms, the bond is called a triple bond. How Elements Bond 2 • Each nitrogen atom shares three electrons in forming a triple bond.
  • 62. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules • Some atoms have a greater attraction for electrons than others do. How Elements Bond 2
  • 63. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules How Elements Bond 2 • This unequal sharing makes one side of the bond more negative than the other. Such bonds are called polar bonds.
  • 64. • A polar bond is a bond in which electrons are shared unevenly. Polar and Nonpolar Molecules How Elements Bond 2
  • 65. The Polar Water Molecule • Water molecules form when hydrogen and oxygen share electrons. How Elements Bond 2 • The oxygen atom has a greater share of the electrons in each bond—the oxygen end of a water molecule has a slight negative charge and the hydrogen end has a slight positive charge. • Because of this, water is said to be polar— having two opposite ends or poles like a magnet.
  • 66. The Polar Water Molecule • Molecules that do not have these uneven charges are called nonpolar molecules. How Elements Bond 2 • The only completely nonpolar bonds are bonds between atoms of the same element. One example of a nonpolar bond is the triple bond in the nitrogen molecule.
  • 67. Chemical Shorthand • Alchemists used elaborate symbols to describe elements and processes. Modern chemical symbols are letters that can be understood all over the world. How Elements Bond 2
  • 68. Symbols for Atoms • Each element is represented by a one letter-, two letter-, or three-letter symbol. How Elements Bond 2 • Many symbols are the first letters of the element’s name, such as H for hydrogen and C for carbon. • Others are the first letters of the element’s name in another language.
  • 69. Symbols for Compounds • Compounds can be described using element symbols and numbers. How Elements Bond 2 • For example, two hydrogen atoms join together in a covalent bond. The resulting hydrogen molecule is represented by the symbol H2.
  • 70. Symbols for Compounds • The subscript means that two atoms of hydrogen are in the molecule. How Elements Bond 2 • The small 2 after the H in the formula is called a subscript.
  • 71. Chemical Formulas • A chemical formula is a combination of chemical symbols and numbers that show which elements are present in a compound and how many atoms of each element are present. How Elements Bond 2 • When no subscript is shown, the number of atoms is understood to be one. • A water molecule contains one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, so its formula is H2O.
  • 72. 2 Section Check Question 1 What is the term for an atom which has lost or gained an electron and therefore has a net charge? A. compound B. ion C. molecule D. polar compound
  • 73. 2 Section Check Answer The answer is B. When this happens to an atom, we say it has become “ionized.”
  • 74. 2 Section Check Question 2 When two or more elements are chemically bonded to form a substance, that substance is called a _______.
  • 75. 2 Section Check Answer A compound is a pure substance containing two or more elements that are chemically bonded. An example of a compound is salt, or sodium chloride.
  • 76. 2 Section Check Question 3 A _______ bond occurs when atoms of nonmetals share electrons. A. covalent bond B. ionic bond C. metallic bond D. polar bond
  • 77. 2 Section Check Answer The answer is A. When this type of bonding happens between metal atoms it is called pooling.
  • 78. To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file. Help Click on this icon to go to the end of the presentation.
  • 79. End of Chapter Summary File

Editor's Notes

  1. Cinda, this was supposed to be on the previous slide, but it didn’t fit.