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INVESTIGATING AND CLASSIFYING THE 3 ROCK TYPES
IGNEOUS      METAMORPHIC GRANITE     GARNET MICA SCHIST GABBRO      PHYLLITE OBSIDIAN    SOAPSTONE (SCHIST) PUMICE ...
SEDIMENTARY SANDSTONE OIL SHALE LIMESTONE FOSSIL LIMESTONE ROCK GYPSUM
 Igneous rocks form from  cooled molten material If magma crystallizes  underground, then the  rock is INTRUSIVE If lav...
 GRANITE (intrusive)   Large, interlocking crystals   Forms from slow    crystallization of magma   Composition:     ...
 GABBRO (intrusive)     Course grained     Usually dark green     “Black Granite”     Composition        Plagioclase...
 OBSIDIAN (extrusive)   Molten lava cools    quickly (extrusive)   “Volcanic glass”   Composition      No minerals  ...
 PUMICE (extrusive)   Lava cools during    flight, forming pores   During an explosive    volcanic eruption, may    rai...
 SCORIA (extrusive)   Often forms as the top    of a lava flow cools   Many of the same uses    as pumice   Porous, li...
 These form from  existing rocks that  are chemically  changed by high heat  and/or pressure Parent rocks can be  igneou...
 SCHIST   Intermediate; between    phyllite and gneiss   Foliated (low-grade)   Contains lots of    mica, which allows...
 PHYLLITE   Well defined foliation   Made of mostly fine-    grained mica   Intermediate; between    slate and schist ...
 TALC SCHIST (SOAPSTONE)   Extremely soft   Soapy or greasy texture   Talc      Softest mineral on Earth      Used i...
 MARBLE  Recrystallized limestone     or dolemite, hence the     white color    Composed entirely of one     mineral: c...
 AMPHIBOLITE  Parent rocks:     Basalt, gabbro, dolemite      (sedimentary)  Medium to coarse-   grained crystals  Ho...
 Sedimentary rocks form  from pieces and parts of  older  rocks, plants, skeletons, s  hells, or other debris Most of th...
 LIMESTONE  Composed primarily of     CaCO3 (calcium     carbonate), or calcite    Forms underwater, from     shells an...
 SANDSTONE  Clastic rock made up of   fine grains of sand   “glued” together by   minerals (usually   quartz)  Common t...
 OIL SHALE   Shale is extremely    common in    riverbeds, under, and    around lakes   Forms from the    compaction of...
 ROCK GYPSUM  Gypsum is a common   mineral that is used in   drywall, plaster, and   concrete  Sulfate mineral (SO4)  ...
ROCK ON!And thank you geology.com for all your       useful info and pictures!
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Box of rocks

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Box of rocks

  1. 1. INVESTIGATING AND CLASSIFYING THE 3 ROCK TYPES
  2. 2. IGNEOUS METAMORPHIC GRANITE  GARNET MICA SCHIST GABBRO  PHYLLITE OBSIDIAN  SOAPSTONE (SCHIST) PUMICE  MARBLE SCORIA  AMPHIBOLITE
  3. 3. SEDIMENTARY SANDSTONE OIL SHALE LIMESTONE FOSSIL LIMESTONE ROCK GYPSUM
  4. 4.  Igneous rocks form from cooled molten material If magma crystallizes underground, then the rock is INTRUSIVE If lava cools above ground, then the rock is EXTRUSIVE At one point in Earth’s history, all rock was igneous
  5. 5.  GRANITE (intrusive)  Large, interlocking crystals  Forms from slow crystallization of magma  Composition:  Quartz  Feldspar  Mica  “Dimension Stone”  Hard (resists scratching)  Strong (bears much weight)  Inert (resists weathering)  Polishes brilliantly
  6. 6.  GABBRO (intrusive)  Course grained  Usually dark green  “Black Granite”  Composition  Plagioclase  Augite  Very little quartz  Uses  Cemetery markers  Counter tops  Floor tiles
  7. 7.  OBSIDIAN (extrusive)  Molten lava cools quickly (extrusive)  “Volcanic glass”  Composition  No minerals  Most is at least a few million years old  Not found east of the Mississippi  Used as a cutting tool
  8. 8.  PUMICE (extrusive)  Lava cools during flight, forming pores  During an explosive volcanic eruption, may rain down from the sky  High silica content  Uses:  Abrasives for cleaners  Scouring agents  Insulation
  9. 9.  SCORIA (extrusive)  Often forms as the top of a lava flow cools  Many of the same uses as pumice  Porous, light  Higher basalt content than pumice, giving it a red to black color
  10. 10.  These form from existing rocks that are chemically changed by high heat and/or pressure Parent rocks can be igneous, metamorph ic, or sedimentary
  11. 11.  SCHIST  Intermediate; between phyllite and gneiss  Foliated (low-grade)  Contains lots of mica, which allows it to split into pieces  Garnet mica schist contains small garnet crystals (dark red)
  12. 12.  PHYLLITE  Well defined foliation  Made of mostly fine- grained mica  Intermediate; between slate and schist  Formed from morphed shales or mudstones  Sedimentary layers have been preserved  Orange tint indicates presence of iron
  13. 13.  TALC SCHIST (SOAPSTONE)  Extremely soft  Soapy or greasy texture  Talc  Softest mineral on Earth  Used in baby powder  Some areas of the San Andreas Fault contain soapstone  Limits severity and frequency of earthquakes  Alabaster, serpentine
  14. 14.  MARBLE  Recrystallized limestone or dolemite, hence the white color  Composed entirely of one mineral: calcite  Often found interbedded with schists, phyllites, gneisses, and granulites  If the marble has other colors, it is because of impurities in the original limestone deposit  Uses:  Buildings, monuments, tab letops
  15. 15.  AMPHIBOLITE  Parent rocks:  Basalt, gabbro, dolemite (sedimentary)  Medium to coarse- grained crystals  Hornblende and plagioclaste (ex.)
  16. 16.  Sedimentary rocks form from pieces and parts of older rocks, plants, skeletons, s hells, or other debris Most of the rock in our area is sedimentary, like sandstone and slate Sedimentary rocks are the only rocks that we find fossils in
  17. 17.  LIMESTONE  Composed primarily of CaCO3 (calcium carbonate), or calcite  Forms underwater, from shells and skeletons of dead sea creatures  Fossil rich  Common in PA  Limestone blocks were used to construct the Great Pyramid of Egypt
  18. 18.  SANDSTONE  Clastic rock made up of fine grains of sand “glued” together by minerals (usually quartz)  Common to beaches, floodplains, de ltas, and deserts  Siltstone, mudstone  A red tint indicates the presence of clay
  19. 19.  OIL SHALE  Shale is extremely common in riverbeds, under, and around lakes  Forms from the compaction of silt and clay sized particles  Black shales contain organic materials that produce oil, natural gas, and coal
  20. 20.  ROCK GYPSUM  Gypsum is a common mineral that is used in drywall, plaster, and concrete  Sulfate mineral (SO4)  Forms in caves  Satin spar gypsum and alabaster are used in decorative pieces
  21. 21. ROCK ON!And thank you geology.com for all your useful info and pictures!

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