5 africa

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5 africa

  1. 1. International Issues The Politics of Development in Africa In a topic entitled the Politics of Development it is important that you know a lot about governance issues in Africa, whether African governments or outside organisations such as the United Nations, African Union or individual countries. Learn transferable facts so you’re ready for any question e.g. if you know three problems affecting development you can answer a question about development. But you could also use these points as a rebuttal to progress made by foreign aid. Social Issues and Development EDUCATION Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems Education essential for development; Debt limits progress as repaying it leaves helps people get jobs, ensures they know less money to spend. Also countries how to farm and look after themselves. borrowing money from the World Bank African countries with high school have to follow conditions to get this enrolment rates are richer e.g. 60% of money e.g. in 2008, Zambia was forced boys in Ghana go to primary school, but to make cuts in public services, resulting only 10% in Somalia. Sub-Saharan Africa in 9000 teachers not being hired. Zambia still has lowest primary school enrolment owes around $4 billion but spends only in the world (MDG 2). 1.3% of its budget on education. HEALTH (HIV/AIDS) Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on Corrupt governments hurt too. This is Africa; around 22 million Africans have when politicians steal money, land or the disease and 70% of world’s AIDS resources for themselves, at the expense cases are in Africa. AIDS causes huge of the people. They may also use development problems; it takes money nepotism and hire friends or family e.g. for healthcare; kills important workers in Nigeria General Abacha spent 1-2% on e.g. teachers, nurses; and it leaves health and education and 20% on millions of AIDS orphans. Nigeria has military; stole $3 billion and left country more than 3 million people with AIDS. with world’s 17th highest AIDS rate.
  2. 2. HEALTH (MALARIA) Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems Malaria is a huge killer (c.600,000 African Incompetent government makes these children died in 2010). Malaria causes problems worse. Governments may development problems; takes money for spend millions on vanity projects, healthcare and kills important workers meaning less money for services and e.g. teachers, nurses. Malaria can take more debt e.g. Ghana’s government up to 50% of hospital beds in affected spent huge sums building roads in the areas. 50% of school absences in Sudan country’s interior when most people in are linked to Malaria; in Ghana malaria Ghana don’t have cars; however it has takes about 30% of hospital resources. only 15 doctors per 100,000 people. Economic Issues and Development DEBT Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems Debt limits progress as repaying it leaves Lack of education not just about debt. less money to spend. Also countries Sub-Saharan Africa has lowest primary borrowing money from the World Bank school enrolment rates in the world. If have to follow conditions to get this UN serious about meeting MDG 2 they money e.g. in 2008, Zambia was forced have to spend more money to provide to make cuts in public services, resulting education, etc. HIV/ AIDS and Malaria in 9000 teachers not being hired. Zambia hurt too e.g. 50% of school absences in owes around $4 billion but spends only Sudan linked to Malaria; diseases also 1.3% of its budget on education. often passed on because of ignorance. TRADE Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems Trade is the best out of poverty for Africa’s health problems hurt Africa Africa; by growing crops for sale it will trade more than unfair trade. The extent allow Africans to develop their countries of HIV/AIDS and Malaria takes much and get money to fund other things e.g. needed resources and kills workers such health, education. But they often are up as farmers and factory workers. The against unfair trade practices when they orphans they leave force remaining try to do this e.g. the main export of Mali adults to look after them too. In Malawi is cotton but USA cotton farmers get it is believed their farming workforce will subsidies so they can sell goods cheaper be 14% smaller by 2020 because of AIDS. 2
  3. 3. FARMING Influence on development/Facts Farming can be a way out of poverty; it grows food and allows farmers to sell their goods (trade). But poor farming practices such as deforestation and overcropping hurt the land in Africa. This is often caused by a lack of education about how best to farm or a lack of resources to pay for better equipment. MDG 1 is about ending extreme hunger, which farming is crucial for. Other issues/problems Corrupt government hinders progress here by taking resources from the people for the benefit of the government. In Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe’s government has seen the country go from one of the richest in Africa to being famine-stricken. In Nigeria General Abacha’s corruption (stealing $3 billion) left the country with huge debts and less for services like education or farming improvements. Political Issues and Development CORRUPT GOVERNMENT Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems Corrupt governments hurt. This is when Extent of AIDS problem means no politicians steal money, land or resources government can tackle it. HIV/AIDS has a for themselves, at the expense of the devastating impact on Africa; around 22 people. They may also use nepotism and million Africans have it; 70% of world’s hire friends or family e.g. in Nigeria AIDS cases are in Africa. AIDS causes General Abacha spent 1-2% on health huge development problems; it kills and education and 20% on military; stole important workers e.g. teachers, nurses; $3 billion and left country with world’s and it leaves AIDS orphans. Nigeria has 17th highest AIDS rate. more than 3 million people with AIDS. INCOMPETENT GOVERNMENT Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems Incompetent government a big problem. Extent of Malaria problem makes it hard Governments may spend millions on to tackle. Malaria a huge killer (c.600,000 vanity projects, meaning less money for African children died in 2010). Malaria health or education and more debt e.g. takes money for healthcare and kills Ghana’s government built roads in the important workers e.g. farmers. Up to country’s interior when most people in 50% of hospital beds in affected areas for Ghana don’t have cars; however it has Malaria; 30% of hospital resources in only 15 doctors per 100,000 people. Ghana spent on Malaria. 3
  4. 4. WAR/ARMED CONFLICT Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems War causes huge development problems Lack of education a problem across for Africa. It kills workers, destroys farms Africa, not just in war-torn countries. and takes money from education for the Sub-Saharan Africa has lowest primary military. Oxfam say war has cost Africa school enrolment rates in the world. If $300 billion over 15 years. It also stops UN serious about meeting MDG 2 they any form of trade and leads to no have to spend more money to provide functioning government e.g. in Somalia education, etc. HIV/ AIDS and Malaria the lack of government means there is hurt too e.g. 50% of school absences in no central education system. Sudan’s Sudan linked to Malaria; diseases also war has caused problems too. often passed on because of ignorance. Foreign Aid - general BILATERAL AID Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems Bilateral aid is quick because it is Incompetent government can negate between two countries only (donor and benefit of aid. Governments may spend recipient). The UK Government gives aid millions on vanity projects, meaning less through DFID (Department for money for health or education and more International Development). DFID’s debt e.g. Ghana’s government built budget is just over £8 billion. It funds roads in the country’s interior when projects based on countries in most need most people in Ghana don’t have cars; and is mostly spent in Africa. DFID however it has only 15 doctors per funded 260 wells in Ghana (MDG 1 & 7). 100,000 people. MULTILATERAL AID Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems Multilateral aid allows many countries to Extent of AIDS problem means no aid can invest money, giving a higher amount tackle it. HIV/AIDS devastating in Africa; (although it can cause disagreements around 22 million Africans have it; 70% about how to spend it). The United of world’s AIDS cases are in Africa. AIDS Nations coordinating money as well as causes huge development problems; it aid efforts through its agencies e.g. WHO kills important workers e.g. farmers; and funded an HIV/AIDS treatment project in it leaves AIDS orphans. Nigeria has more 5 countries including Botswana. than 3 million people with AIDS. 4
  5. 5. NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANISATION AID Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems NGO aid is good because it is fast and Extent of Malaria problem makes it hard goes straight to the villages, reducing for any NGO to fix. Malaria a huge killer chances for corruption. NGOs often raise (c.600,000 African children died in 2010). the profile of extreme poverty e.g. Sudan Malaria takes money for education and famine. UK NGOs include Oxfam and kills important workers e.g. farmers. Up Save the Children e.g. StC work in Sudan to 50% of hospital beds in affected areas on various projects including healthcare for Malaria; 30% of hospital resources in services and providing vaccinations. Ghana spent on Malaria. Foreign Aid – The United Nations WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems WHO is the UN’s health agency. WHO HIV/AIDS is still a huge problem in Africa; tackles HIV/AIDS in Africa by investing in around 22 million Africans have the HIV prevention and works to stop child disease and 70% of world’s AIDS cases infections. Tackling HIV/AIDS is MDG 6. are in Africa. AIDS causes huge WHO runs the African HIV-AIDS palliative development problems; it takes money care project, working in five countries for healthcare; kills important workers (Botswana, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania e.g. teachers, nurses; it leaves millions of and Zimbabwe); includes community AIDS orphans. Nigeria has more than 3 care facilities and disease education. million people with AIDS. UNICEF Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems UNICEF is the UN’s aid agency which Still huge work to do. Education aims to help children and their mothers; important to get jobs, improve farming, it mostly does this through education better health, etc. African countries with and health services. UNICEF had a $3.3 high school enrolment rates are richer billion budget in 2008; it works in 43 e.g. 60% of boys in Ghana go to primary African countries. UNICEF ran the ‘Go to school, but only 10% in Somalia. Subschool, Stay in school’ project in Uganda Saharan Africa still has lowest primary aimed at helping 1.3 million children; it school enrolment in the world (MDG 2). provided education materials, health Diseases hurt too e.g. 50% of school supplies and teacher training. absences in Sudan linked to Malaria. 5
  6. 6. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems The FAO aims to improve access to food Corrupt government hinders progress throughout the world (MDG 1). It does too, taking resources from the people. In this by providing tools and education to Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe’s government farmers. This also helps by providing the has seen the country go from one of the chance for farmers to grow extra crops richest in Africa to being famine-stricken. which can be traded. FAO spends $216 in In Nigeria General Abacha’s corruption 43 African countries, including a project (stealing $3 billion) left the country with in Kenya to help local farmers collect huge debts and less for services like rain water for their crops. education or farming improvements. Foreign Aid – Non-government organisations (NGOs) GOOD AT DEVELOPING SMALL-SCALE PROJECTS Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems One NGO benefit is that they give money Still huge work to do. Sub-Saharan Africa direct to villages and local groups. This has lowest primary school enrolment in helps limit government corruption. NGOs the world (MDG 2). Education important work across Africa in various projects, to develop economy. African countries choosing this based on need and with high school enrolment rates are experience e.g. Scottish NGO SCIAF richer e.g. 60% of boys in Ghana go to works in Burundi providing funding for primary school, but only 10% in Somalia. schools and also farm education; it also Diseases hurt too e.g. 50% of school provides basic education in Sudan. absences in Sudan linked to Malaria. CAN REACT QUICKLY TO PROBLEMS Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems Another NGO benefit is that they react HIV/AIDS is still a huge problem in Africa; quickly when problems arise; this means around 22 million Africans have the work can be done to stop a bigger disease and 70% of world’s AIDS cases problem developing. Save The Children are in Africa. AIDS causes huge worked in Sudan because of a refugee development problems; it takes money crisis; within one month of being invited for healthcare; kills important workers the charity moved into the Darfur area e.g. teachers, nurses; it leaves millions of and set up health services including AIDS orphans. Nigeria has more than 3 HIV/AIDS care and health education. million people with AIDS. 6
  7. 7. DEAL WITH VILLAGES DIRECT Influence on development/Facts Other issues/problems An NGO benefit is that they focus on Extent of Malaria problem makes it hard small-scale projects which provide direct to tackle. Malaria a huge killer (c.600,000 help to villages. This stops wasteful African children died in 2010). Malaria vanity projects some governments run. takes money for healthcare and kills Christian Aid run various African health important workers e.g. farmers. Up to projects e.g. schemes in Nigeria and 50% of hospital beds in affected areas for Uganda to provide 250,000 anti-malaria Malaria; 30% of hospital resources in nets to stop the disease spreading. Ghana spent on Malaria. The Millennium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are a list of eight targets agreed by the UN in 2000 to tackle poverty around the world by 2015. The table below lists the goals and details some progress towards them based on the 2011 Progress Report. MDG 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Target End extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Tackle gender inequality Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat malaria, HIV/AIDS Create a better environment Increase aid and tackle debt problems Progress Overall global poverty is falling; by 2015, 15% of world will live in poverty, below 23% target Sub-Saharan Africa has seen biggest access increase, (up 18% between 1999 and 2009) In poor countries in 1999, 88 girls went to primary school for every 100 boys; in 2009 96 girls go to primary school for every 100 boys Child mortality (under 5s) fallen from 12.4 million in 1990 to 8.1 million in 2009 Big drop in number of women dying whilst giving birth; 34% drop between 1990 and 2008 Drop in the number of new HIV/AIDS cases each year; 21% fall in sub-Saharan Africa since 1997 Sub-Saharan Africa has doubled people using a good drinking water source (up to 492 million) Extra funding focused on tackling malaria; 20% reduction in new cases between 2000 and 2009 7
  8. 8. The Politics of Development in Africa Past Paper questions 2012 Assess the effectiveness of foreign aid in promoting development. 2011 “Education and health care are the most important factors in achieving successful development in Africa”. Discuss. 2010 “The United Nations Organisation (UNO) has been effective in promoting development.” Discuss. 2009 Assess the influence of Non Governmental Organisations on development. 2008 Assess the importance of education and health care to successful development. 2007 “Foreign aid alone is no guarantee of development.” Discuss. 8

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