Types of Crime
In Scotland, types of crime are broken down into five groups. This is to
allow the Scottish Government to accurately monitor trends and make
decisions on what the priorities should be in tackling crime.
The five groups are:
Non-sexual crimes of violence: murder, attempted murder and serious
assault, robbery and other.
Sexual offences: rape, attempted rape, sexual assault, offences
associated with prostitution and other.
Crimes of dishonesty: Housebreaking, theft by opening a lockfast
place, theft from a motor vehicle, theft of a motor vehicle,
shoplifting, other theft, fraud and other.
Fire raising, vandalism etc.
Other crimes: Crimes against public justice, handling an offensive
weapon, drugs and other
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A Case Study of a Type of Crime – Knife Crime
Knife crime is a serious issue in Scotland. While recent statistics show
a drop in knife crime – perhaps due to the efforts of the government,
police and communities – knife crime continues to ruin the lives of many
young people and their families.
Knife crime is strongly linked with gang crime and with young men who
join gangs for protection. The bolder carry knives to go out fighting
with other gangs. Other young men carry knives because they feel it
provides them with protection or because of peer pressure.
Knife crime is also related to Scotland’s booze and violence culture.
Some young men carry a knife on a Friday or Saturday night when they
are out binge drinking. Knife crime is most common in the west of the
country, with the Glasgow area accounting for a third of all knife
crimes in 2011-2012. But knife crime is not just a Glasgow problem.
In the Lothian area, there were 180 stabbing-related incidents in
In 2011-2012, 35 people in Scotland were killed by sharp instruments,
representing 44% of all murders.
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On 1 February 2011, 19 year-old Glasgow University Sports Science
student Raemonn Gormely was attacked, robbed and murdered in a knife
attack in Blantyre, South Lanarkshire. He was on his way home from the
pub after watching a football game. The murderers were both jailed.
Daryn Maxwell (23) was jailed for life, with a minimum of 19 years. His
friend Barry Smith (19), helped plan to rob Raemonn. He was jailed for
8 years and 3 months after pleading guilty of culpable homicide.
Knife crime, therefore has enormous consequences. In Raemonn’s case, a
young life, full of possibility and promise was taken away. His family and
friends suffered a terrible loss. In terms of wider Scottish society,
knife crime has significant direct costs to the NHS. In 2010-2011,
there were 2,949 occupied days in acute hospitals in Scotland due to
assault with a sharp object. By necessity, there are a wide range of
secondary costs in terms of visits to GPs, sickness time from work, school
To this we can add criminal justice costs: police, court and prison costs,
which amount to several million pounds over the space of any given year.
There have been campaigns for tougher penalties and deterrents for
those involved in knife crime. ‘Campaign for Change’ has called for an 8
month mandatory minimum sentence for possession of a knife and a
minimum 20 year sentence for those who murder with a bladed weapon.
There are arguments for and against a mandatory jail sentencing for
carrying a knife:For
Education campaigns on their
own don’t work.
It will act as a deterrent to
carrying a knife.
Prison sentences are a
suitable punishment for the
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Prison will become too full!
Prison will lead young men
into further crime.
Not all circumstances
involving knife carriers are
1. What is the definition of a crime?
2. Who decides what a crime is?
3. There are five categories of crime in Scotland. Why is this?
4. What are the five crime categories?
5. Look at the five crimes listed below:
Write a sentence for each of these crimes explaining what they
6. What evidence is there that knife crime is a serious problem in
7. Which group tends to be more heavily involved in Knife crime.
8. What impact does knife crime have on individuals and on Scotland?
9. Do you agree that those carrying a knife should be given a
mandatory prison sentence? Justify your answer.
Exam Practise (Remember your PEEL paragraphs!)
Describe two different types of crime.
Describe, in detail, different types of crime.
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The number of non-sexual crimes of
violence recorded by the police
decreased by 17% between 2010-11
The number of crimes in the sexual offences group increased by 10%
from 6,696 in 2010-2011 to 7,359 in 2011-2012.
The number of crimes of dishonesty decreased by 1%, to stand at
154,337 crimes in 2011-2012.
Recorded cases of vandalism (including fire-raising and malicious
mischief) decreased by 8% to total 75,201 in 2011-2012.
Recorded drug crimes increased by 2% from 34,347 in 2010-2011 to
35,157 in 2011-2012.
Problems with Crime Statistics
We have to be careful when drawing conclusions with all statistics, but
perhaps especially with crime statistics.
Sometimes it is difficult to decide which of the five categories a
crime should be included in. For example, domestic abuse can be
violent and/or take the form of bullying. Racial crime can sometimes
be violent but may also take on the form of name calling or some kind
Official statistics show only crimes that have been recorded by the
police. Less serious offences are often dealt with through verbal
warnings from police officers on the scene and are not officially
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Official statistics show only the crimes that are reported to the
police. Crimes involving theft are most frequently reported as a
‘crime number’ is needed for insurance purposes. However, a
significant number of crimes go unreported by the public. Common
crimes that are often not reported include, rape, domestic abuse,
and child abuse.
These crimes often go unreported because the
victim cannot face the process that they will have to go through if
the go to the police. Often people are too afraid to report a crime
to the police. Sometimes, with less serious offences victims decide
they cannot be bothered with the hassle of reporting the crime to
Therefore, we cannot take crime statistics at face value. If they were
to show that racially motivated crimes have decreased, it may not mean
that less race related offences are taking place, but that fewer people
are willing to report them!
Individual tasks – Crime Trends
1. Complete the table:- ( two pieces of evidence each)
Evidence that Crime Rates
Evidence that Crime Rates
2. Overall what conclusion can be drawn regarding these
3. Explain and provide an example as to why can we not
take crime statistics at face value?
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White Collar Vs Blue Collar Crime
Above and beyond the five official crime categories in Scotland, crimes can
be split into:
Blue Collar Crimes
White Collar Crimes
Blue Collar Crimes
Blue Collar Crimes are crimes that are traditionally thought of as ‘working
class crimes’ ie. crimes committed by poorer people. Blue Collar Crimes
include assault, theft, burglary, drugs, benefit fraud etc.
Violence is a common element in Blue Collar Crimes.
White Collar Crimes
White Collar Crimes are crimes that are traditionally thought of as ‘middle
class crimes’ ie. crimes committed by wealthier professional people. White
Collar Crimes include, insider trading, fraud and tax evasion.
Violence is not a common element in White Collar Crimes.
Many people believe that Blue Collar Crimes are more serious than White
Collar crimes because they tend to be more frequent and often include an
element of violence.
Indeed approximately 89% of criminals in prison are there because they
have committed a Blue Collar Crime.
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However, this does not mean that White Collar crime does not have a
significant impact on British society. It was estimated that in 2012 white
collar crime cost the British economy £15 billion!!!!
Also, the belief that White Collar Crime is not as frequent as Blue Collar
Crime is not accurate. Just because White Collar Crime is not recorded
does not mean that it is not happening!
People committing fraud and tax evasion are usually smart enough to cover
their tracks. They are frequently able to ‘get away with it’! Also, wealthy
people are usually able to employ talented accountants and business
managers that are able to mask tax avoidance and tax evasion.
A Case Study of White Collar Crime
HMRC publishes mugshots of 20 most wanted tax fugitives for first time
The names and faces of 20 most wanted “tax fugitives” who owe HM Revenue and Customs
more than £700m are being published for the first time today.
HMRC has decided to publish the FBI-style list of mugshots to try to enlist the support of the
public in tracking them down.
The names on the Most Wanted list are described as “tax criminals who have absconded after
being charged with a crime or during trial.”
It is the first time that HMRC has published photographs and details of tax fugitives.
David Gauke, the Exchequer Secretary, said: “The Government is absolutely committed to
tackling tax evasion and fraud.
“These criminals have collectively cost the taxpayer over £765m and HMRC will pursue them
We hope that publishing their pictures in this way will enable members of the public to
contribute to the effort to catch them.”
The list includes Hussain Chohan, 44, who was convicted at Birmingham Crown Court for his
role in a £200million fraud, part of which involved importing 2.25 tonnes of tobacco worth
£750,000 in duty.
Chohan, believed to be in Dubai, was given 11 years for smuggling and fraud offences and for
failing to appear in court. He is also subject to a £33million confiscation order.
Another person on the list is Wayne Joseph Hardy, 49, believed to be in South Africa. He was
convicted at Ipswich Crown Court for manufacturing tobacco products and not paying duty and
was given a three-year sentence in October 2011. The estimated cost to the taxpayer was £1.9
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Here is the list of the 20 “most wanted” tax fugitives in full:
:: Hussain Asad Chohan, 44, believed to be in Dubai. He was convicted at Birmingham
Crown Court in his absence and sentenced to 11 years for his part in fraud worth around
£200 million, which included importing 2.25 tonnes of tobacco worth £750,000 in duty.
Chohan has also been served with a £33 million confiscation order.
:: Nasser Ahmed, 40, believed to be in Pakistan or Dubai, was convicted at Bristol Crown
Court in 2005 for his role in VAT fraud worth around £156 million. He fled before
verdicts were given, and was convicted and sentenced to six years in prison in his
:: Zafar Baidar Chisthi, 33, thought to be in Pakistan, was found guilty at Kingston Crown
Court for his part in VAT fraud worth around £150 million. He was sentenced to 11 years
for conspiracy to defraud the public purse and one year for perverting the course of
:: Darsim Abdullah, 42, believed to be in Iraq, was convicted at Guildford Crown Court
for being part of a money laundering gang that processed £1 million to £4 million per
month. Eleven other members of the gang were convicted or pleaded guilty, but he ran
away before sentencing.
:: Leigang Liang, 38, believed to be in the UK, was convicted at Lewes Crown Court for
illegally importing tobacco from China. He was sentenced in his absence to seven years.
The estimated cost to the taxpayer of the scam was £2.6 million.
:: Olutayo Owolabi, 40, believed to be in the UK, was convicted in January 2010 for 27
charges linked to tax credits and money laundering, and sentenced in his absence to nine
months in jail. The estimated cost to the taxpayer was £1 million.
:: Wayne Joseph Hardy, 49, now believed to be in South Africa, was convicted at Ipswich
Crown Court for manufacturing tobacco products and not paying duty. He was given
three-year sentence in October 2011. The estimated cost to the taxpayer was £1.9 million.
:: Adam Umerji - aka Shafiq Patel, 34, thought to be in Dubai, was jailed at Liverpool
Crown Court for 12 years for VAT fraud and money laundering. The cost to the taxpayer
was around £64 million.
:: Gordon Arthur, 60, believed to be in the United States, suspected of illegally importing
cigarettes and alcohol and failing to pay around £15 million in duty. He fled in 2000 and a
warrant was issued for his arrest at Maidstone Crown Court in 2002.
:: Emma Elizabeth Tazey, 38, also believed to be in the United States, is wanted in
connection with the same allegations.
:: John Nugent, 53, thought to be in the United States, was accused of putting in
fraudulent claims for duty and VAT worth more than £22 million. A warrant for his arrest
was issued at Manchester Crown Court.
:: Malcolm McGregor McGowan, 60, believed to be in Spain, was found guilty at
Sheffield Crown Court in December 2011 of illegally importing cigarettes worth around
£16 million into the UK, and was sentenced to four years.
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:: Timur Mehmet, 39, believed to be in Cyprus, is wanted over a £25 million VAT
fraud. He was found guilty in absence and sentenced to eight years at Northampton
:: Vladimir Jeriomin, 34, thought to be in Russia or Lithuania, was part of a gang that
made false claims for tax repayments. The estimated cost to the taxpayer was £4.8
million. A warrant was issued for his arrest at Liverpool Crown Court.
:: Cesare Selvini, 52, thought to be in Switzerland, is wanted for smuggling platinum
bars worth around £600,000. A warrant was issued for his arrest at Dover Magistrates'
Court in 2005.
:: Dimitri Gaskov, 27, thought to be in Estonia, allegedly smuggled three million
cigarettes into the UK using desktop computers. He fled before trial and an arrest
warrant was issued at Ipswich Crown Court.
:: Mohamed Sami Kaak, 45, thought to be in Tunisia, is wanted for smuggling millions
of cigarettes into the UK between March 2005 and September 2006 and evading around
£822,000 in duty. He was convicted in his absence at Isleworth Crown Court and jailed
for four years.
:: Rory Martin McGann, 43, believed to be in Northern Ireland or the Republic of
Ireland, is wanted for alleged VAT fraud worth more than £902,000. He was arrested in
November 2008 but later fled.
:: Yehuda Cohen, 35, thought to be in Israel, is wanted over VAT fraud worth around
£800,000. He was arrested at Heathrow Airport in March 2011 but later fled while on
:: Sahil Jain, 30, believed to be in the UK, was arrested over alleged VAT fraud worth
around £328,000 but failed to appear at the Old Bailey and a warrant was issued for his
arrest on June 8th.
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Individual tasks - Blue and White Collar Crime
Answer in sentences
1. What section of society tends to commit blue collar crime?
2. What section of society tends to commit white collar crime?
3. Why do many people think that blue collar crime is more
serious than white collar crime?
4. Note down atleast 4 pieces of evidence which suggests that
white collar crime is a serious problem in Britain.
5. What evidence is there that the Government are now taking
the issue of white collar crime seriously?
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