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Changing Cold War Relations - revolution in europe


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Changing Cold War Relations - revolution in europe

  1. 1. LEARNING INTENTIONS • Describe where revolutions took place in Europe, resulting in the end of the Soviet Union
  2. 2. The Cold War raged between the USA and Soviet Union for almost 50 years. Then suddenly in 1989 it came to an end with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  3. 3. In 1985, the Soviet Union gained a new leader; Mikhail Gorbachev. Gorbachev introduced reforms which reduced Soviet control of Eastern Europe, including ending the Brezhnev Doctrine.
  4. 4. All across Europe, countries which had been members of the Soviet Union underwent changes and revolution. These reforms – sometimes peaceful, sometimes violent caused the Communist empire to disintegrate.
  5. 5. In Poland there had been campaigns against Communism throughout the 1980s. These were led partly by the workers’ movement Solidarity and also the Catholic Church (led by Polish Pope, John Paul II.
  6. 6. Changes which were happening elsewhere in the Soviet Union allowed Solidarity to stand in the 1989 elections. Solidarity easily won, ending Communist rule. And the Soviet Union did nothing to stop this.
  7. 7. Events in Poland showed other Eastern European countries that they could make changes. Hungary saw huge changes in 1988. First the Communist leader, Janos Kadar was sacked. Then other political parties were allowed.
  8. 8. From 1989, Hungary started allowing people to travel freely to the West. This allowed people from East Germany to go to Hungary then the West; 125,000 chose to do so in one day alone.
  9. 9. East Germany was hugely weakened by Gorbachev’s policies and also Hungary’s actions. East Germans started to openly protest against the Communists, something which had never happened before.
  10. 10. On November 9, 1989 ‘people power’ finally won as the Berlin Wall was dismantled. East and West Germans helped knock down sections of the wall and were able to cross the border without fear.
  11. 11. Czechoslovakia also saw major changes too in November 1989. There were huge demonstrations led by Civic Forum. The peaceful nature of the changes meant this was called the ‘Velvet Revolution’.
  12. 12. The most violent revolution took place in Romania. Leader Nicolae Ceausescu refused any changes, even as protests grew larger. There were riots and fights across the country until Ceausescu was executed on Christmas Day, 1989.
  13. 13. By the end of 1989, there were no proSoviet governments left in Eastern Europe. The map of Europe was redrawn; first in 1990 with German unification. Others followed, such as the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
  14. 14. Problems continued in what remained of the Soviet Union. Further demand for change – especially in Russia – led to the Soviet Union being officially dissolved in December 1991. The Cold War was over.
  15. 15. Problems continued in what remained of the Soviet Union. People were very poor and demanded change – especially in Russia.
  16. 16. Eventually it became clear that the Soviet Union could no longer continue. In December 1991 the Soviet Union was officially dissolved. The Cold War was over.