WHAT IS INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN?Instructional Systems Design is the process of developingcurriculum and resources to aid in the effective and efficientlearning of new ideas, procedures, and strategies.
IT’S APPLICATIONInstructional Design can be applied to various learningenvironments. These environments include K-12, governments,business, and various learning environments.
ROBERT GAGNE & GAGNE’S CONDITIONS OF LEARNING “Robert Gagne (1916–2002) was an educational psychologist who pioneered the science of instruction in the 1940s. His book "The Conditions of Learning," first published in 1965, identified the mental conditions that are necessary for effective learning.” Gagne’s Model can be used in technical or project oriented learning.http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/gagne.htm
GAGNE’S CONDITIONS OF LEARNING Gange’s Condition of Learning is comprised of three elements: Levels of Learning Processes of Learning Nine Events of Instructionhttp://joelleegardner.blogspot.com/2009/01/my-review-of-gagnes-conditions-of.html
GAGNE’S CONDITIONS OF LEARNING The first element is the Levels of Learning which focus on the learner. Verbal Information • Retrieving stored information. Intellectual Skills • Metal operations that permits individuals to respond to the conceptualizations of the environment. • The internal conditions to facilitate this type of learning. Cognitive Strategies • An internal process by which the learners plan, controls, and monitors his/her own ways of thinking and learning. Attitude • An internal state that affects an individual choice of action. Motor Skills • Capability to perform a sequence of physical movements.http://www.personal.psu.edu/wxh139/gagne.htm
GAGNE’S CONDITIONS OF LEARNING The second element is the Process of Learning. In instructional design, this can be viewed as the level of engagement between physical actions versus mental processing within a learning environment. Behavioral Cognitive Information Processhttp://joelleegardner.blogspot.com/2009/01/my-review-of-gagnes-conditions-of.html
GAGNE’S CONDITIONS OF LEARNING The third element is the Nine Events of Learning. These events help to design learning processes and objectives. 1. Gaining Attention 9. Enhancing Retention 2. Informing Learners of and Transfer the Objective 3. Stimulating Recall of Prior 8. Assessing Performance Learning 7. Providing Feedback 4. Presenting the Stimulus 5. Providing Learning 6. Eliciting Performance Guidancehttp://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/gagne.htm
GAGNE’S CONDITIONS OF LEARNING APPLIED• Gagne’s model provides a step-by-step design to support the learner• The model supports learning as a process complete with tasks.• The model also took into consideration the internal learning process of the learner and combined it with the external nature of the content.Examples• The course materials are designed to prepare the learner (course objectives), provide a learning opportunity (classroom or eLearning), and seek feedback regarding the applicability of the learning (evaluation).
JOHN KELLER & ARCS MODEL OF MOTIVATIONAL DESIGN “Dr. John M. Keller earned his Ph.D. in Instructional Systems Technology in 1974 from Indiana University. Dr. Keller is a well published author in the fields of motivation and instruction, instructional development management, project management, and instructional systems design. Currently, he is a professor of Instructional Systems and Educational Psychology within the Department of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems at Florida State University. Dr. Keller has served as an editor/reviewer for numerous publications, and as a consultant for a variety of corporations and organizations (Keller, 2006). The ARCS Model is usually paired with additional models and can be used in leadership and business training.ocedtheories.wikispaces.com/file/view/ARCSModel_Paper1.doc
ARCS MODEL OF MOTIVATIONAL DESIGN Attention • Begin by stimulating the learner Relevance • Make learning applicable to the learner’s past, present, and future knowledge Confidence • Allow the learners to steer their learning experiences Satisfaction • Provide opportunities for learners to apply the knowledge they have gained.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiversity/en/4/47/Arcs.gif; http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/id/arcs_model.html
ARCS MODEL OF MOTIVATIONAL DESIGNAPPLIED• The ARCS model considered whether the learner will want to learn, be able to apply what was learned, pace their learning, and build on their learning.• The ACRS model prepares the developer to answer the question WIIFM.Example:• An employee determines whether to enroll in an Excel course at work. The employees factors whether the course will be challenging, offer opportunities for practice at work and at home, and whether their learning will be supported by their current supervisor and in promotion opportunities.
COMPARISONBoth the Gagne andthe ARCS Models helpwith providing thelearner the reason andmotivational factorsfor learning newmaterial.This approach learnerto operate in a self-directed manner.
CONTRASTGagne’s takes intoconsideration the strength ofthe learning materials and it’srelationship to the learner.When developmentinstructional materials, theNine Events of Instructionwould be taken intoconsideration.ARCS’ focus is strictly on thelearner and does not accountgreatly for the development ofthe instructional materials.Since the ARCS model isfocused on intrinsic factors, itis usually paired with othermodels, such as Gagne, thatconsider extrinsic factors.
SOURCES• Ellis, A. ARCS Model of Motivation. ocedtheories.wikispaces.com/file/view/ARCSModel_Paper1.doc.• Culatta, R. (2012). Conditions of Learning (Robert Gagne). http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/conditions-learning.html.• Gagne’s Conditions of Learning. http://www.personal.psu.edu/wxh139/gagne.htm.• Gardner, J. (2012). My Review of Gagne’s Conditions of Learning and Events of Instruction. http://joelleegardner.blogspot.com/2009/01/my-review-of-gagnes- conditions-of.html.• John Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design. (2010). Big Dog & Little Dog’s Performance Juxtaposition. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/id/arcs_model.html.• Mind Tools. (2012). Gagne’s Nine Levels of Learning. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/gagne.htm.