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Communication and perception


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Communication and perception

  1. 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Chapter # 2 COMMUNICATION AND PERCEPTION Prepared By: Muhammad Riaz Khan M.Com (Final) Government College Of Management Sciences Peshawar Cell: +923139533123 M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 1
  2. 2. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION?? Definition: The word communication has been derived from a Latin word “communis” which means to share something or hold in common. Following are some definitions of Communication.  “Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individual or organization also that an understanding response result……(Peter little)”.  “Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another”.  “Communication is the exchange of ideas, information and knowledge by two or more Persons (or Parties)”.  “Communication is a process of exchanging information, ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions through speech, signals, writing, or behavior”. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 2
  3. 3. DIRECTIONS OF COMMUNICATION  Directions of communication means the flow of information within the organization. In an organization, communication flows in various directions. Downward communication: Downward communication flows from people at higher level to those at lower levels in the organization hierarchy. Downward communication comes after upward communications have been successfully established. Examples of written downwards  communication are memo, letters, handbooks, policy statements and procedures. Upward communication: Upward communication is the flow of information from subordinates to superiors, or from employees to management. Typical means of upward  communication are suggestion systems, appeal and complaint systems, group meetings, morale questionnaires and the exit interview. Horizontal/Literal communication: Horizontal communication normally involves coordinating information, and allows people with the same or similar rank in an organization to cooperate or collaborate. Communication among employees at the same level for the accomplishment of work. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 3
  4. 4. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depends upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. Choice of communication channel and style of communicating also affects communication. So, there are variety of types of communication. Types of communication based on the communication channels used. A. Verbal Communication B. Non-verbal Communication M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 4
  5. 5. A)- Verbal Communication Verbal communication refers to the form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of mouth or a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey. Verbal Communication is further divided into: i. ii. Oral Communication Written Communication M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 5
  6. 6. i. Oral Communication: In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television. It brings quick feedback. But In face-toface Communication, user is unable to deeply think about what he is delivering. ii. Written Communication: Written Communication is most common form of communication being used in business. In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 6
  7. 7. B)- Non-verbal Communication     Nonverbal communication is the sending or receiving of wordless messages. We can say that communication other than oral and written, such as gesture, body language, posture, tone of voice or facial expressions, is called nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication have the following three elements: Appearance: Speaker: clothing, hairstyle, neatness, use of cosmetics Surrounding: Room size, lighting, decorations, furnishings Body Language: facial expressions, gestures, postures Sounds: Voice Tone, Volume, Speech rate M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 7
  8. 8. PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION          In communication process, a sender (encoder) encodes a message and then using a medium/channel sends it to the receiver (decoder) who decodes the message and after processing information, sends back appropriate feedback/reply using a medium/channel. The communication process includes the following components. Idea: A thought or collection of thoughts that generate in the mind. Sender: The sender is an individual, group, or organization who initiates the communication. Encoding: Encoding means translating information into a message in the form of symbols that represent ideas or concepts. Message: Idea encoded by the sender. Channel: The medium used to convey the message. Decoding: Decoding is the reverse of encoding, which is the process of transforming information from one format into another. Receiver: The receiver is the individual or individuals to whom the message is directed. Feedback: The response to a message or activity. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 8
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  10. 10. BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. Barriers in communication means the causes or hurdles which leads to miscommunication or failure of communication. Following are some reasons which fail the process of communication to bring a positive response from the receiver. Lack of attention, interest, distractions, or irrelevance to the receiver. Differences in perception and viewpoint. Physical disabilities such as hearing problems or speech difficulties. Language differences. Expectations and prejudices which may lead to false assumptions. Cultural differences. Lack of Message Clarity. Information Overload. Wrong choice of channel. Gender differences M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 10
  11. 11. SIGNIFICANCE OF NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION           Non-verbal refers to any communication that does not use words. It is one of the oldest forms of communication. It is both intentional and unintentional, The important part is that most communication is nonverbal. In fact, nonverbal behavior is the most crucial aspect of communication. Communication is specifically 75% nonverbal or 90% nonverbal holds no practical applications. It includes the following but not limited to: touch glance eye contact (gaze) volume posture Smell Dress Body Movement Gestures Facial Expressions M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 11
  12. 12. WHAT IS PERCEPTION?? Definitions:      According to Stephen P Robbins, Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. The term originated from a Latin word ‘‘percepio’’ meaning receiving, collecting, action of taking possession, apprehension with the mind or senses. “Perception is the dynamic psychological process responsible for attending to, organizing sensory data. Perception includes the five senses; touch, sight, smell and taste”. “The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses”. “The word perception means the ability to take notice of something by using your senses. Taking in your surroundings through sight, sound, taste, touch and smell give the perception of everything around you”. “Perception is someone's view. Everyone is said to have different perceptions on political, religious, and personal subjects”. The perceptual process allows us to experience the world around us. Take a moment to think of all the things you perceive on a daily basis. At any given moment, you might see familiar objects in your environment, feel the touch of objects and people against your skin, smell the aroma of a home-cooked meal and hear the sound of music playing in your next door neighbor's apartment. All of these things help make up our conscious experience and allow us to interact with the people and objects around us. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 12
  13. 13. SELECTIVITY AND ORGANIZATION IN PERCEPTION  Selective perception: Selective perception is the process by which people filter out irrelevant or less significant information so that they can deal with the most important matters. “The ability to choose from the stream of sensory data, too concentrate on particular elements, and to ignore others”. “Selective perception is the personal filtering of what we see and hear so as to suit our own needs. Much of this process is psychological and often unconscious”.  Perceptual organization: “Perceptual organization is the process through which incoming stimuli are organized or patterned in systematic and meaningful ways”. In other words perceptual organization may be define as, “an unconscious process of mind through which we organized or make groups or through which we give pattern to the incoming data”. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 13
  14. 14. PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION Following are the three Principles through which perceptual organization operates. i. Principle of proximity: According to this principle “Things that are close to one another are perceived to be more related than things that are spaced farther apart”. This principle notes that we tend to group together or to classify stimuli that are physically close to each other and which thus appear to belong together. it is among the first principles to impact our perception and from which we derive understanding. In the example below, proximity clearly indicates relatedness and relative association: M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 14
  15. 15. ii. Principles of similarity: Principles of similarity captures the idea that elements will be grouped perceptually if they are similar to each other. This principle is quite straightforward: things that look similar are assumed to be related in some way. The similarity principle claims that elements tend to be integrated into groups if they are similar to each other. This principle can also be presented in shape of the following figure. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 15
  16. 16. iii. Principles of Closure: This principle of organization holding that there is an innate tendency to perceive incomplete objects as complete and to close or fill gaps and to perceive asymmetric stimuli as symmetric. When presented with less than the full picture, we often attempt to employ the principle of closure to fill in missing information and form a complete image or idea based on common or easily recognizable patterns from our past experience and understanding. Although the panda above is not complete, enough is present for the eye to complete the shape. When the viewer's perception completes a shape, closure occurs. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 16
  17. 17. PERCEPTUAL SETS AND PERCEPTUAL WORLDS  Perceptual set: Perceptual set is a tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others. Perceptual set is a psychology concept that stresses on the tendency to perceive or notice some aspects of the available sensory data and ignore others. That is, the expectation of an individual to see something based on prior experience. Its a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. Example Let take a simple situation. There is a glass which is half full of water. One say that glass is half full, but the other observe it in different way and claimed that glass is half empty. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 17
  18. 18.  PERCEPTUAL WORLDS: The individual's personal internal image, map or picture of their social, physical and organizational environment. We each live in our own perceptional world. The perceptional world of an individual id defined as, “The individual’s perceptual world is simply their personal image, map or picture of their social, physical and organizational environment”. We each have a unique vision of what is ‘out there’ and of our own place ‘in it. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 18
  19. 19. PERCEPTUAL SETS AND ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HUMAN BEHAVIOR There are two related and prominent features of the process of human perception: Halo Effect: An effect whereby the perception of positive qualities in one thing or part gives rise to the perception of similar qualities in related things or in the whole. The halo effect or halo error is a cognitive bias in which one's judgments of a person’s character can be influenced by one's overall impression of him or her. Example: A bright and cheery employee who always has a positive attitude and enthusiastically tackles projects might be identified as an ideal staffer because of her/his outgoing personality. Managers might find it difficult to criticize or harshly evaluate this type of employee because the halo effect positions the individual as someone who tries hard, always has the best intentions and is a cheerleader for the organization M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 19
  20. 20. Stereotyping: A “stereotype” is a common word that means an act of assumption over a group of people or individual that’s might not be true. This word was derived from the Greek word “stereos” meaning “firm” or “solid” and “typos” meaning “impression”. “Stereotyping is a thought process that organizes beliefs about one group of people and assigns them to everyone in that group”. “Stereotyping is making assumptions about somebody or a group of people based on their looks, heritage, or even skin color. Stereotypes have also been made based on gender, IQ levels, and age”. Some common stereotypes include the saying that Americans are all loud, obnoxious, and loud. That the Jewish are all greedy. That Asians cannot drive correctly. Also, that all African American's are in gangs. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 20
  21. 21. Person perception: Errors and Avoidance                    Errors in Person Perception: The main errors in person perception are as under. Not collecting enough information about other people. Basing our judgment on information that is irrelevant or insignificant. Seeing what we expect to see and what we want to see, are not investigating further. Make judgment based on early information, despite later and contradictory information. We judge people with our own characteristics. Accepting stereotypes uncritically. Attempting non-verbal behavior outside the context in which it appears. Basing attribution on flimsy and potentially irrelevant evidence. Avoidance of Such Errors: Following are the remedies of such errors Take more time in judgment about others. Collecting and consciously using more information about other people. Get out your self from stereotyping. Avoid the halo effect. Avoid attribution theory and get information about people. Get out bias from your judgment. Avoid discriminations about sex, appearances, and attractiveness. M Riaz Khan Gcms Peshawar 21
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