Welcome to the way forward EXAM TECHNIQUE & SKILL TUTORIAL
WEAKNESS: A STRUCTURE for disaster The League of Nations had a structure where every single country had to agree in order to get something done. This meant SLOW progress. A picture of the leaders who represented the countries of the League LEAGUE OF NATIONS Remember: we all have to agree before we take any action! “ We should ban them from trading with us!” “ I think that’s too harsh!” “ Lets deal with the problem straight away!” “ Lets wait and give it more time!” “ We should do it this way.” “ No we shouldn’t. Lets do it my way!” Such arguments meant that it took long periods of time to get anything done.
Arguments FOR Appeasement Britain and France were not in a position to fight Germany People wanted to avoid another war. Many saw that Stalin and Communist Russia was the REAL threat Some People actually sympathised with Hitler and Germany Gave Britain time to re-arm
In February 1945 it was clear that Germany was losing the war, so the Allied Leaders met at Yalta in Ukraine to plan what would happen to Europe after Germany’s defeat. The conference went well as despite their differences, the big three (Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt) agreed on some important matters. YALTA FEBRUARY 1945 The ‘Big Three’ AGREE at Yalta’ Lets divide Germany into 4 zones. Each of us, including France, can have their own share. OK, lets also agree on giving the liberated countries from Germany free elections. Lets all agree to join the new United Nations Organisation. This could help to keep the peace. I’ve lost 20 million men in this war. I want massive reparations and security but they’ll never agree to that!
Germany was a proud country due to its military strength and strong traditions of dominance within that area of Europe. However, the treaty of Versailles created different feelings: Humiliation Bitterness Embarressment Revenge
Nazi Organisation: Propaganda The Nazis were extremely well organised. They used many different types of propaganda (ways to try and persuade people to do or think something). Here are examples of Nazi Posters that were used to try and persuade people to vote for Hitler and the Nazi Party.
The Hitler Youth The Hitler Youth Movement was organised and run by members of the SS. Its aim was clear; to indoctrinate young people into accepting the ideas of Hitler and the Nazis. Also, they wanted to make sure that young people were loyal to Hitler. By 1935 it was compulsory to join as every child had to be a member of it. By 1939 eight million people were part of the Hitler Youth.
Yeah but no but Yeah but no but Yeah but no but Yeah but no but Yeah but no but Yeah but no but Yeah but no but Yeah but no but… Always look for a two sided argument
FEAR The Nazis controlled German people through FEAR. People who spoke out against them were attacked or arrested by the Gestapo (secret police) or the SS (Hitler’s private bodyguard) and hundreds of thousands of innocent GERMAN people died in concentration camps. Clever propaganda techniques, control over young people’s education, the Hitler youth and the role of the Gestapo ultimately meant that Hitler had TOTAL control over Germany.
Model Ts in an American high street. In 1925 a Model T cost $290. This was almost three months’ wages for an American factory worker. Question : How did people manage to buy a car during the 1920s?
The Ku Klux Klan <ul><li>The Ku Klux Klan was a secretive organisation that had many different aims. These include: </li></ul><ul><li>To ‘save’ the USA from all those who were not WASP’s (White Anglo Saxon Protestants) </li></ul><ul><li>To condemn non WASPs (Foreigners, Catholics, Jews, Blacks etc) </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve white supremacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Torture and Violence were used against those who were not ‘true’ Americans. Black people suffered the most. Victims were beaten, whipped, tarred and feathered, homes burned, murdered </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the Klan were often poor farmers who felt that their jobs were threatened by Black people who were willing to work for less pay. However, policemen, judges, and politicians were also members of the KKK and this allowed crimes to go unpunished. </li></ul>
What were the effects of Prohibition? PART 2 <ul><li>ORGANISED CRIME and CORRUPTION </li></ul><ul><li>Bootleggers (people who brought alcohol into the USA from other countries eg: Canada) organised themselves into gangs in order to transport alcohol to speakeasies. This made them very rich and powerful. AL CAPONE is the most famous gangster. Prohibition allowed him to make millions of dollars a year from selling illegal alcohol. His gang became involved in prostitution, gambling, murder and violence. </li></ul><ul><li>AL CAPONE’S huge wealth allowed him to ‘buy’ officials like policemen, lawyers, mayors and prohibition agents. The CORRUPTION of such people allowed his gang to almost rule Chicago through violence and the threat of violence. People were bullied into paying Capone money to ‘protect’ their businesses. </li></ul>
How did the USA try to reduce immigration? People had to take a literacy test where they had to read a passage of English. This helped English speakers, but other people could not afford English lessons. Those who failed were not allowed in. The Immigration Quota Act 1921 “ Only 357,000 people are allowed in every year” “ Only 3% of the existing number of people who live here in the USA will be allowed in!” “ This means that because there is already much more Irish people than Asian, the 3% quota will allow much more Irish in than Asian!”
By the end of D-Day, 132,715 men were ashore, and this rose quickly over the next few days – by 12 June 2 million men were in Normandy. The Nazis fought desperately, but by this time Germany was at the end of her strength, and many Nazis soldiers were just 16-year-olds. the Allies pushed relentlessly into Germany until they met up with Russian forces advancing from the east (23 April 1945). On 7 May, 1945, the Nazis surrendered – it was VE Day (Victory in Europe)! … on to victory
H Y P E R I N F L A T I O N The effect of printing more money is that it becomes increasingly worthless. Also, prices of things dramatically increased. People were affected in different ways. Wages had to rise and people collected their wages twice a day in wheelbarrows. However, the prices of goods increased much faster than wages. People could not afford simply food supplies like bread and milk. * Price of a Loaf of Bread January 1923 – 250 marks July 1923 – 3464 marks September 1923 – 1,512,000 November 1923 – 201,000,000,000 Some people benefited as they were able to pay off bank loans overnight. However, middle-class people suffered as their savings were worthless.
(The Removal of Internal Opposition) THE NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES Hitler was now in total control of Germany. He did not need the SA. He had always seen them as an undisciplined bunch of thugs. Its leader , Ernst Roehm, was a threat to Hitler as he wanted to control the Army and this would have made him a threat to him. Hitler decided to ‘remove’ all opposition to him in an event that has become known as: Ernst Roehm was arrested by Hitler’s SS and then shot. Hitler claimed that the SA was going to try and take over Germany. The SS also arrested hundreds of other important members of the SA and shot. Former political opponents were arrested and shot. Hitler claimed that he had saved the nation. He removed all opposition.