Lucy West- Accountable Talk


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Lucy West- Accountable Talk

  1. 1. Robust Conversations at Every Level July 4, 2007 Lucy West
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Making the case for talk </li></ul><ul><li>Talk tools </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing talk in video clips </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Children grow into the intellectual life around them. Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>What is the quality of the intellectual life at your school? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s your evidence? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>What do the adults at your school spend the majority of their time talking to each other about? </li></ul><ul><li>What do students hear adults discussing? </li></ul><ul><li>How often do students see teachers engaged in learning? </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Are the adult conversations and practices at your school designed to develop student academic proficiencies well beyond high scores on achievement tests? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Hypotheses <ul><li>If adults are visibly, actively, and passionately learning together students will too. </li></ul><ul><li>If adults are publicly willing to try on new skills, analyze their erroneous thinking aloud, experiment, tinker, and laugh at themselves when they mess up, students will too. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>What is accountable talk? </li></ul><ul><li>What role does talk play in developing professional expertise? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the nature of talk that results in dramatic improvement in student achievement? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Accountable to the Learning Community <ul><li>Accountable talk seriously responds to and further develops what others in the group have said. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Accountable to the Learning Community <ul><li>What is the nature of the talk at meetings of adults at your school? </li></ul><ul><li>Are people questioning each other’s ideas,weighing suggestions, considering alternatives, providing evidence? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Accountable to the Learning Community <ul><li>What is the nature of the talk in your classrooms? </li></ul><ul><li>Are students questioning each other’s ideas,weighing suggestions, considering alternatives, providing evidence? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Accountable to Knowledge <ul><li>Accountable talk puts forth and demands knowledge that is accurate and relevant to the issue under discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Accountable talk uses evidence appropriate to the discipline (e.g., proofs in mathematics, textual details in literature) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Accountable to Knowledge <ul><li>What knowledge is put forth and demanded of adults at your school in relation to instructional strategies and evidence of their impact? </li></ul><ul><li>A plethora of instructional strategies is key </li></ul>
  13. 13. Accountable to Knowledge <ul><li>What evidence can you site that worksheets develop understanding or skill? </li></ul><ul><li>What evidence can you site that all students should be engaging in the same activities at the same time? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Accountable to Reasoning <ul><li>Accountable talk follows established norms of good reasoning </li></ul>
  15. 15. Accountable to Reasoning <ul><li>Are the teachers at your school focused on student reasoning or right answers? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research <ul><ul><li>Exemplary teachers foster much more student talk--teacher/student and student/student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposeful talk-problem-posing and problem-solving--teachers and students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Allington </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Nature of Talk <ul><li>Interrogational--teachers pose problems, children respond, teacher verifies or corrects </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational--discuss ideas, concepts, hypotheses, strategies and responses </li></ul>
  18. 18. Research <ul><li>In successful high poverty schools the environment talk is more conversational than interrogational. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions invited conversations. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers worked to get kids to think aloud and modeled thinking aloud. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Allington </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Research <ul><li>When classes are conversational the achievement gains are twice as large as when there is a focus on phonics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Allington </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Nature of Talk <ul><li>Teacher questions more “open” inviting multiple and varied correct responses </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher curious about thinking and making thinking visible </li></ul>
  21. 21. One activity that assists struggling readers is engaging in literate conversations. <ul><ul><li>Richard Allington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could engaging in robust mathematics conversations assist struggling learners? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Talk Develops Language <ul><li>If you want to develop language and the capacity to write, have students answer questions and write in full sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas Reeves </li></ul><ul><li>How often are students answering in one word or number in the math class? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Research <ul><ul><li>Students at all levels benefited from exemplary teaching, but it was the lowest achievers who benefited most. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise matters </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Dialogue <ul><li>Dialogue is the central aspect of co-intelligence. We can only generate higher levels of intelligence among us if we are doing some high quality talking with one another. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tom Alec, The Tao Of Democracy </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Dialogue <ul><li>Please turn to a partner and discuss the ideas I have presented so far </li></ul><ul><li>Write down any questions you would like to ask </li></ul>
  26. 26. Professional Dialogue <ul><li>Discussing Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Nicole--2nd Year Teacher--5th Grade </li></ul><ul><li>Jessica--3rd Year Teacher--Coach </li></ul><ul><li>People in the Background--Coaches </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivating a Learning Culture </li></ul>
  27. 27. Questioning Practice <ul><li>Chef Leo bought 1-1/2 pints of strawberries. Altogether he used 3/4 of the strawberries to make tarts. How many pints of strawberries does he have left ? </li></ul><ul><li>Please solve the problem. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Questioning Practice <ul><li>Chef Leo bought 1-1/2 pints of strawberries. Altogether he used 3/4 of the strawberries to make tarts. How many pints of strawberries does he have left ? </li></ul><ul><li>What about key words like “of” “left” “altogether”? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Video Clip 1
  30. 30. Questioning Practice <ul><li>What is your thinking about teaching “key words” in mathematics problems? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you teach “key words” in other content areas? If so why? If not, why not? </li></ul><ul><li>What might be the drawbacks of a “key words” approach? </li></ul><ul><li>What additional strategies might you suggest? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Questions for Practice <ul><li>I used 2/3 of a can of paint to cover 1/2 the floor of the porch. How much paint will be needed for the whole floor? </li></ul><ul><li>Please solve this problem. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Questions for Practice <ul><li>I used 2/3 of a can of paint to cover 1/2 of the floor of the porch. How much paint will be needed for the whole floor? </li></ul><ul><li>Does “of” indicate multiplication in this problem? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, what are you multiplying? </li></ul><ul><li>If not, what did you do to solve the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What confusions, difficulties, might students display? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Questions for Practice <ul><li>Many students in the first class wanted to multiply </li></ul><ul><li>It was difficult to get them to think beyond key words </li></ul><ul><li>Coach and teacher become aware of this unintended impact </li></ul>
  34. 34. Video Clip 2
  35. 35. Considering Alternatives <ul><li>Responding to a question from the observing coaches and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledging mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Now what? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Video Clip 3
  37. 37. Class 2-Painting the Porch <ul><li>Replanned the lesson based on our learning </li></ul><ul><li>Students were asked to read the problem to themselves and discuss with neighbor--asked questions of teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Students worked alone and with partners--many had difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Summary meeting to share some ideas and student work </li></ul>
  38. 38. Talk Tools <ul><li>22 Verbal Events </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Discussion Moves </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning the Author Moves </li></ul><ul><li>Please read these three documents </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the one that resonates for you </li></ul><ul><li>Use it as a lens to view the discussion </li></ul>
  39. 39. Class 2--Painting the Porch <ul><li>First time working with this class-consultant/coach </li></ul><ul><li>20 observers </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on developing meaning/use of language </li></ul><ul><li>Not exemplar--just an example--problematic moments in teaching/learning </li></ul><ul><li>View it through inquiry stance </li></ul>
  40. 40. Classroom Clip <ul><li>Use your transcript </li></ul><ul><li>Identify talk moves made by the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Look for evidence of development of language </li></ul><ul><li>Look for evidence of reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Look for evidence of accountability to the community </li></ul>
  41. 41. Video Clip
  42. 42. Classroom Clip <ul><li>At your tables please do the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Read an example from the transcript </li></ul><ul><li>State what move you think it is </li></ul><ul><li>Or state what evidence it represents regarding language development, reasoning, or community accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Do this one at a time going around the table until each person has shared </li></ul><ul><li>Then discuss or respond in any way you like </li></ul>
  43. 43. Classroom Clip-Border Problem <ul><li>How do teachers handle mistakes? </li></ul><ul><li>How might errors become pathways to learning? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Classroom Clip 2 <ul><li>The Border Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Please solve the following problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider what errors students might make? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Bordering a Pool <ul><li>How many red tiles will it take to border a five-by-five pool with a width of one square unit? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Why Does It Take 24 Tiles?
  47. 47. Classroom Clip 2 <ul><li>Perimeter can be confused with border. </li></ul><ul><li>The solution is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perimeter + 4 (corner tiles) = Border </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the area of the pool with the border? </li></ul>
  48. 48. Classroom Clip 2 <ul><li>What is the area of the pool with the border? </li></ul><ul><li>Why might someone think the pool with the border would have an area of 36 square units? </li></ul><ul><li>How did a 5 x 5 pool become 7 x 7 if you only added one square unit of border? In other words, why is the pool with the border not a 6 x 6? </li></ul>
  49. 49. Classroom Clip 2 <ul><li>View the tape with an ear toward how mistakes are handled in this classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Consider what results from examining a student’s error </li></ul><ul><li>8th Grade students </li></ul><ul><li>Several entered class 2 years below grade level </li></ul><ul><li>All graduated having met standard on the 8th grade state mathematics test </li></ul>
  50. 50. Video Clip-Border Problem
  51. 51. Classroom-Border Problem <ul><li>Use transcript to find evidence of talk moves </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the teacher’s moves with Christen </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the comments of Tiffany and Lulu </li></ul>
  52. 52. Analyzing the Talk <ul><li>Right or wrong ask, “How did you get that?” </li></ul><ul><li>What does this accomplish? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It establishes the norm that we are interested in each other’s thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It establishes a mathematical habit of mind to think about your thinking. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Analyzing the Talk <ul><li>What does this accomplish? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It develops the skills to meet one of mathematical performance standards—the ability to communicate your thinking. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It allows us to informally assess what our students do and do not understand in order to guide instructional decisions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Classroom Clip--Alexis <ul><li>How might we entice reluctant learners to participate in the conversation? </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to data on handout </li></ul><ul><li>Transcript of Bridge Problem </li></ul>
  55. 55. Paper Bridges Data 8th Grade Class, Baltimore, MD.
  56. 56. Bridge Problem <ul><li>7th Grade Class--not yet engaging in discourse </li></ul><ul><li>28 students present--100% African American </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Arrangement Altered </li></ul><ul><li>Partial Purpose, demonstrate how to get reluctant </li></ul><ul><li>learners to engage in dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>15 Coaches, Teacher Leaders observing </li></ul>
  57. 57. Bridge Problem <ul><li>What moves does the teacher make to scaffold Alexis’ participation? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your thoughts about this segment? </li></ul>
  58. 58. Teacher Talk Moves <ul><li>Call on a student whose hand is not raised-Alexis </li></ul><ul><li>Asks her to focus on the specific subset of data under discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Reads the data to her </li></ul><ul><li>Offers turn-and-talk time </li></ul><ul><li>Tells the student she will be coming back to her </li></ul>
  59. 59. Teacher Talk Moves <ul><li>Has a second student give the answer </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrases the student’s answer </li></ul><ul><li>Asks Alexis to give the answer </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledges that she got it correct </li></ul>
  60. 60. Teacher Talk Moves <ul><li>High expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Support to meet those expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Culture of respect and encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude: “I believe in you” </li></ul><ul><li>Belief: “You can do this” </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment: “I’m here for you” </li></ul>
  61. 61. Questions
  62. 62. Reference <ul><li>What I’ve Learned About Effective Reading Instruction: From a Decade of Studying Exemplary Elementary Classroom Teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Allington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phi Delta Kappan, June, 2002 </li></ul></ul>