Chapter 2 Constitution


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Chapter 2 Constitution

  1. 1. The Constitution Chapter 2
  2. 2. Constitution <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A nation’s basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sets the broad rules of the game. </li></ul><ul><li>The rules are not neutral- some participants and policy options have advantages others don’t. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Origins of the Constitution <ul><li>FLAG BURNING INTRO- what is the point of this chapter??- can anyone tell the story to me? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Gregory Johnson win? </li></ul><ul><li>The Road to Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists didn’t like the way they were treated- taxes, lack or representation in parliament- (what the heck is parliament) ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declaring Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Declaration of Independence listed the colonists grievances against the British. Who was the primary author??? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Origins of the Constitution <ul><li>The English Heritage: The Power of Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke’s influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural rights- Can anyone Define??? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 32 last paragraph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consent of the governed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence is Won!! Now what?? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Origins of the Constitution
  6. 6. The Government That Failed <ul><li>Economic Turmoil </li></ul><ul><li>- Congress was broke (couldn’t tax) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States had different currencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States had laws that favored debtors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shays’ Rebellion (today’s housing crisis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.- Congress could not stop the rebellion- why not?? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What good came of the AOC? Anything positive? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention <ul><li>Gentlemen in Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>55 men from 12 of the 13 states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly wealthy planters & merchants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most were college graduates with some political experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many were coastal residents from the larger cities, not the rural areas </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Philadelphia Convention, continued <ul><li>Philosophy into Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Nature – mans natural state is war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Conflict- What are factions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The distribution of wealth (land) is the source of political conflict” – these conflicts caused factions- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects of Government- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>security from invasion, domestic tranquility, promotion of general welfare- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of Government- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power should be set against power- checks, balances, and separation of power would be needed. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Agenda in Philadelphia <ul><li>The Equality Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equality and Representation of the States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Jersey Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each state equal representation in congress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lets base representation on population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connecticut Compromise- Genius!!!!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery- three fifths compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Equality- who can vote? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was left up to the states </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Agenda in Philadelphia
  11. 11. The Agenda in Philadelphia <ul><li>The Economic Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States had tariffs on products from other states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper money was basically worthless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress couldn’t raise money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions taken: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powers of Congress to be strengthened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powers of states to be limited </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Agenda in Philadelphia
  13. 13. The Agenda in Philadelphia <ul><li>The Individual Rights Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were written into the Constitution: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writ of habeas corpus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No bills of attainder- must have trail to punish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No ex post facto laws- What’s that ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious qualifications for holding office prohibited </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strict rules of evidence for conviction of treason </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right to trial by jury in criminal cases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were not specified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of speech / expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rights of the accused </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Madisonian Model <ul><li>Limiting Majority Control </li></ul><ul><li>Separating Powers- what was separated? </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Checks and Balances </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a Federal System </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Madisonian Model <ul><li>The Constitution and the Electoral Process: The Original Plan (Figure 2.2) </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Madisonian Model Figure 2.3
  17. 17. The Madisonian Model <ul><li>The Constitutional Republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic: A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favors the status quo - changes are slow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The End of the Beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The document was approved, but not unanimously. Now it had to be ratified. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Ratifying the Constitution
  19. 19. Ratifying the Constitution <ul><li>Federalist Papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name “Publius” to defend the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns about the lack of basic liberties. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Ratifying the Constitution
  21. 21. Constitutional Change Figure 2.4
  22. 22. Constitutional Change <ul><li>The Informal Process of Constitutional Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial Interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing Political Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing Demands on Policymakers </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Understanding the Constitution <ul><li>The Constitution and Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Constitution itself is rarely described as democratic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There has been a gradual democratization of the Constitution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Constitution and the Scope of Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of the Constitution limits government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Constitution reinforces individualism, yet encourages hyperpluralism. </li></ul></ul>