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Agriculture in Bangladesh:
Present position, Problems, Prospects and
Policy


   Presented by :MULTIFORM
              Dept. of AIS
              University of DHAKA
              19th batch




                                            1
Outline
 Bangladesh   agriculture at a glance
 Characteristics
 Importance of agriculture
 Some challenges of agriculture
 Prospects
 Climate change and agriculture
 Factors related to climate change impact
 Consequences of climate change on agriculture
 Adapting to climate change
 Comprehensive approach to deal with the issues
 Policy Supports
 Conclusion


                                                   2
Bangladesh Agriculture at a
    Glance  


Total farm holding: 1,47,16,000
Total area: 14.845 million hectares
Cultivable land: 8 million hectares
Current fallow land: 0.469m hectares
Annual Food Production: 31.9m MT
Annual Food demand : 31.9m MT


                                        3
Strategies:


Self-sufficiency
                in food: 2012
Ensuring food security: 2017(a+a+n)
Middle Income Country: 2022



   *(a+a+n=Availability, accessibility and nutrition)




                                                         4
2012
                                                                                  34.2 million tons
                                                                                     production
                                                                 ing
                                                              uc          ge
                                                         re d           an
                                                                      ch
                                                   y&              al
                                               vit           lo g
                                                                 ic
                                           cti             o
                                         du            hn
                                  g  pro           Tec
                             as in :        t s&             re                Self sufficiency in food
                        cre gap l inpu
                     In ld                            cu
                                                         ltu
                         e tiona n
                       yi di                       gri logy
                                      o       e-A no
                           d
                         A apt    ati d & ech it
                                        e      T       b
                   -       Ad twork vest d ha
                                        r      o
                            Ne st ha g fo
                              Po angin
     2008
                                Ch
                           
31.9 million ton
  production



*Breakeven point
                     Strategy for achieving self-sufficiency in food
Food indicates only staple food                                                                       5
Characteristics of Bangladesh
Agriculture
Cropping   intensity 179%
Irrigated land 56%
Surface water:21% groundwater:79%
Land-man ratio: .06 ha
Mainly subsistence farming
Inadequate agro-processing
Non-mechanized farming
Fragmented land/plots
Dependence largely on nature


                                     6
Importance of agriculture
21%    GDP
48% labor force
Source of raw materials as backward and
 forward linkage for agro based industries
Agriculture determines people’s lives and
 livelihood of this region
People living in rural areas 77%
Export value 12%

                                             7
Some challenges
 Rapid  shrinkage of agricultural land @1% p.a.
 Population growth @1.48% p.a.
 Climate change and variations
 Rapid urbanization growth @12% p.a.
 Agricultural research and education (manpower shortage, updating
  course curriculum)
 Technology generation (needs expertise, time and money)
 Technology dissemination (needs expertise,
  time, logistics support)
 Alternate livelihoods/rehabilitation program
 Inadequate value addition /food processing




                                                                 8
Challenges continued…

Climate change adaptation & mitigation
Developing stress tolerant varieties
Transferring updated information and
 technologies to the field
Attaining irrigation efficiency
Regaining soil fertility and natural ingredients
Research-extension-farmer-market linkage
Shortage of Agril labour at peak seasons

                                                    9
Prospects of Agriculture:

 Modern   technological know-how is available for dissemination
 Scope for expanding hybrid technology exists(10%)
 Prospects for adoption of advanced technology in agriculture are
  bright
 Potentials for proper utilization of hilly/coastal areas including
  agro-ecologically disadvantaged regions exist
 Export potentials exist for high-value crops
 Scope for crop diversification, intensification and value addition to
  agricultural produces
 Agriculture sector has capacity to absorb labor force and to generate
  income
 Scope for reducing yield gaps exists



                                                                    10
Why Climate Change matters for
agriculture?
  Heavily  depends on natural rainfall, weather &
   temperature, water level, soil condition etc.
  Uncontrolled farming environment
  Rice based agriculture greatly depends
   availability of fresh surface and ground water
  Seasonal farming
  Lack of stress tolerant varieties
  Changed cropping pattern


                                                     11
Types of climate change
problems
Sea Level Rise (SLR)
Floods
Riverbank erosion
Drought
Salinity intrusion
Loss of homestead and livelihoods
Pest infestation
Land scarcity

                                     12
Factors related to climate
change
Indiscriminate  use of natural resources
Excessive and unplanned urbanization
Unplanned industrial growth
Imbalanced use of agricultural inputs and
 extreme farming
Population pressure
Effect of industrial pollution by developed
 countries

                                               13
Combating Climate Change Impact
     Adaptation:
      Stress (flood, drought, submergence, salinity, heat,
       cold..) tolerant varieties
      Short duration crops
      Innovative farming practices
      Floating cultivation method
      Crop diversification
      Changing/shifting cropping pattern
      Alternate wetting and drying irrigation methods

                                                          14
Continued…

  Mitigation
 Coastal green belt
 Embankment/Dam
 Tidal River Management
 Early warning and weather forecasting
 Cyclone shelters
 Crop insurance


                                          15
Collective efforts needed
  Politicalcommitment
  Educational Institutions
  Civil society
  NGOs
  Media
  Research organizations
  Department of Agricultural Extension/Extension
   service providers
  Global cooperation


                                                    16
Recurrent natural calamities

 Cyclones   1970, 1991, 2007(Sidr), 2009(Ayla)
 Floods 1988, 2000, 2004, 2007
 Erratic rainfall (e.g. late rainfall Aug/’09)
 Severe drought
 Heat and cold waves
 Northwestern storm
 Pest infestation
 Draw down/Declining Water Table
                                                  17
Last two decades agricultural
growth
   Inputs based growth
    (intensive use of HYV/Hybrid seeds, irrigation,
    fertilizer, pesticides, etc.)
   Less mechanized farming
   Insignificant methodological change of farming
   Crop diversification
   Combination of vertical & horizontal growth
   Presently less scope of horizontal growth

                                                      18
National  Agriculture Policy[1999;     2009(draft)]
                Policy support
New Agricultural Extension Policy
National Food Policy
National Seed Policy
National IPM policy
Fertilizer Management (Amendment) Act,2009
The Pesticide Act, 2009
Rural Credit Policy (Farmers friendly)
Land Policy & National Land use policy


                                                       19
PRSP- Agriculture and Rural
     Development

PRSP   places agriculture and rural development
 as key driver of pro-poor growth strategy.
Government’s policy is to create enabling
 environment and support transformation of
 subsistence agriculture to a more diversified
 agribusiness with increased participation of
 private sector.


                                                   20
Continued…

 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), entitled
  “Unlocking the Potential –National Strategy for Accelerated
  Poverty Reduction” (2005), highlights the need for
- higher growth in rural areas, development of
  agriculture and rural non-farm economic
  activities as one of the four priority areas to
  accelerating pro-poor economic growth.



                                                                21
Continued…

PRSP   puts emphasis on achieving productivity and
 profitability gains, broad-based support to
 agriculture, diversification and commercialization
 of agricultural enterprises.

PRSP  also stressed on agricultural research and
 technology generation, farmers’ demand-led
 extension services, energizing agricultural
 marketing and agro-processing, land use and
 women in agriculture.


                                                    22
Continued…

The most important feature of PRSP is the
formulation of precise and workable policy matrix,
which identifies 22 crucially important strategic
goals, fixes up targets against these goals, charts
actions already taken, sets future policy agenda and
priorities and delineates responsibilities for the
concerned ministries.


                                                  23
Government’s recent
              interventions
Farmers  database and Farmers Inputs
 Support Card to 1 Crore 82 Lakh
 farmers.
Increased subsidy on Agricultural
 Inputs (Fertilizer, diesel, electricity,
 seeds)
Farmer friendly agricultural credit
 policy
1 Crore 82 Lakh farmers’ new bank
 accounts being opened
100 Hr. free supplementary irrigation
Enhanced Agricultural rehab grants to
 victims of natural calamities
Support for accelerated mechanization
 of agriculture
Surface water irrigation
                                        24
Conclusion:
Agriculture is the determining factor for food
security as well as pro-poor development of
Bangladesh economy.

The Problems of agriculture are multifaceted.
So the ways of addressing the challenges
should be comprehensive, global and
participatory for sustainable agricultural
development.

                                                 25
26

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Agriculture bangladesh

  • 1. Agriculture in Bangladesh: Present position, Problems, Prospects and Policy Presented by :MULTIFORM Dept. of AIS University of DHAKA 19th batch 1
  • 2. Outline  Bangladesh agriculture at a glance  Characteristics  Importance of agriculture  Some challenges of agriculture  Prospects  Climate change and agriculture  Factors related to climate change impact  Consequences of climate change on agriculture  Adapting to climate change  Comprehensive approach to deal with the issues  Policy Supports  Conclusion 2
  • 3. Bangladesh Agriculture at a Glance   Total farm holding: 1,47,16,000 Total area: 14.845 million hectares Cultivable land: 8 million hectares Current fallow land: 0.469m hectares Annual Food Production: 31.9m MT Annual Food demand : 31.9m MT 3
  • 4. Strategies: Self-sufficiency in food: 2012 Ensuring food security: 2017(a+a+n) Middle Income Country: 2022  *(a+a+n=Availability, accessibility and nutrition) 4
  • 5. 2012 34.2 million tons production ing uc ge re d an ch y& al vit lo g ic cti o du hn g pro Tec as in : t s& re Self sufficiency in food cre gap l inpu In ld cu ltu  e tiona n yi di gri logy o e-A no d A apt ati d & ech it e T b - Ad twork vest d ha r o  Ne st ha g fo  Po angin 2008  Ch  31.9 million ton production *Breakeven point Strategy for achieving self-sufficiency in food Food indicates only staple food 5
  • 6. Characteristics of Bangladesh Agriculture Cropping intensity 179% Irrigated land 56% Surface water:21% groundwater:79% Land-man ratio: .06 ha Mainly subsistence farming Inadequate agro-processing Non-mechanized farming Fragmented land/plots Dependence largely on nature 6
  • 7. Importance of agriculture 21% GDP 48% labor force Source of raw materials as backward and forward linkage for agro based industries Agriculture determines people’s lives and livelihood of this region People living in rural areas 77% Export value 12% 7
  • 8. Some challenges  Rapid shrinkage of agricultural land @1% p.a.  Population growth @1.48% p.a.  Climate change and variations  Rapid urbanization growth @12% p.a.  Agricultural research and education (manpower shortage, updating course curriculum)  Technology generation (needs expertise, time and money)  Technology dissemination (needs expertise, time, logistics support)  Alternate livelihoods/rehabilitation program  Inadequate value addition /food processing 8
  • 9. Challenges continued… Climate change adaptation & mitigation Developing stress tolerant varieties Transferring updated information and technologies to the field Attaining irrigation efficiency Regaining soil fertility and natural ingredients Research-extension-farmer-market linkage Shortage of Agril labour at peak seasons 9
  • 10. Prospects of Agriculture:  Modern technological know-how is available for dissemination  Scope for expanding hybrid technology exists(10%)  Prospects for adoption of advanced technology in agriculture are bright  Potentials for proper utilization of hilly/coastal areas including agro-ecologically disadvantaged regions exist  Export potentials exist for high-value crops  Scope for crop diversification, intensification and value addition to agricultural produces  Agriculture sector has capacity to absorb labor force and to generate income  Scope for reducing yield gaps exists 10
  • 11. Why Climate Change matters for agriculture? Heavily depends on natural rainfall, weather & temperature, water level, soil condition etc. Uncontrolled farming environment Rice based agriculture greatly depends availability of fresh surface and ground water Seasonal farming Lack of stress tolerant varieties Changed cropping pattern 11
  • 12. Types of climate change problems Sea Level Rise (SLR) Floods Riverbank erosion Drought Salinity intrusion Loss of homestead and livelihoods Pest infestation Land scarcity 12
  • 13. Factors related to climate change Indiscriminate use of natural resources Excessive and unplanned urbanization Unplanned industrial growth Imbalanced use of agricultural inputs and extreme farming Population pressure Effect of industrial pollution by developed countries 13
  • 14. Combating Climate Change Impact Adaptation:  Stress (flood, drought, submergence, salinity, heat, cold..) tolerant varieties  Short duration crops  Innovative farming practices  Floating cultivation method  Crop diversification  Changing/shifting cropping pattern  Alternate wetting and drying irrigation methods 14
  • 15. Continued… Mitigation  Coastal green belt  Embankment/Dam  Tidal River Management  Early warning and weather forecasting  Cyclone shelters  Crop insurance 15
  • 16. Collective efforts needed Politicalcommitment Educational Institutions Civil society NGOs Media Research organizations Department of Agricultural Extension/Extension service providers Global cooperation 16
  • 17. Recurrent natural calamities Cyclones 1970, 1991, 2007(Sidr), 2009(Ayla) Floods 1988, 2000, 2004, 2007 Erratic rainfall (e.g. late rainfall Aug/’09) Severe drought Heat and cold waves Northwestern storm Pest infestation Draw down/Declining Water Table 17
  • 18. Last two decades agricultural growth  Inputs based growth (intensive use of HYV/Hybrid seeds, irrigation, fertilizer, pesticides, etc.)  Less mechanized farming  Insignificant methodological change of farming  Crop diversification  Combination of vertical & horizontal growth  Presently less scope of horizontal growth 18
  • 19. National Agriculture Policy[1999; 2009(draft)] Policy support New Agricultural Extension Policy National Food Policy National Seed Policy National IPM policy Fertilizer Management (Amendment) Act,2009 The Pesticide Act, 2009 Rural Credit Policy (Farmers friendly) Land Policy & National Land use policy 19
  • 20. PRSP- Agriculture and Rural Development PRSP places agriculture and rural development as key driver of pro-poor growth strategy. Government’s policy is to create enabling environment and support transformation of subsistence agriculture to a more diversified agribusiness with increased participation of private sector. 20
  • 21. Continued…  Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), entitled “Unlocking the Potential –National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction” (2005), highlights the need for - higher growth in rural areas, development of agriculture and rural non-farm economic activities as one of the four priority areas to accelerating pro-poor economic growth. 21
  • 22. Continued… PRSP puts emphasis on achieving productivity and profitability gains, broad-based support to agriculture, diversification and commercialization of agricultural enterprises. PRSP also stressed on agricultural research and technology generation, farmers’ demand-led extension services, energizing agricultural marketing and agro-processing, land use and women in agriculture. 22
  • 23. Continued… The most important feature of PRSP is the formulation of precise and workable policy matrix, which identifies 22 crucially important strategic goals, fixes up targets against these goals, charts actions already taken, sets future policy agenda and priorities and delineates responsibilities for the concerned ministries. 23
  • 24. Government’s recent interventions Farmers database and Farmers Inputs Support Card to 1 Crore 82 Lakh farmers. Increased subsidy on Agricultural Inputs (Fertilizer, diesel, electricity, seeds) Farmer friendly agricultural credit policy 1 Crore 82 Lakh farmers’ new bank accounts being opened 100 Hr. free supplementary irrigation Enhanced Agricultural rehab grants to victims of natural calamities Support for accelerated mechanization of agriculture Surface water irrigation 24
  • 25. Conclusion: Agriculture is the determining factor for food security as well as pro-poor development of Bangladesh economy. The Problems of agriculture are multifaceted. So the ways of addressing the challenges should be comprehensive, global and participatory for sustainable agricultural development. 25
  • 26. 26