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How to write a paper - Dr U Singh

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How to write a paper - Dr U Singh

  1. 1. How to Write a Paper Dr U Singh Professor and Head PMR, AIIMS, New Delhi
  2. 2. Outline • Importance • Research Components • Order of Writing • Guide on Writing • Common Mistakes • Choosing Journals
  3. 3. Publish or Perish • Responsibility of the Job • Job interviews • Promotion • Sharing knowledge • Proving your worth
  4. 4. Inspiration • Story telling Moral of the Story ?
  5. 5. Sources • Better Medical Writing in India, NMJI • Being an editor • Being a reviewer • Innominate
  6. 6. Research? • What is the question? • Does literature answer it? • Design the study • Interpret the results • Did you find the answer? If No
  7. 7. Writing Guide • Why did you start? • What did you do? • What answers did you get? • What does it mean? Introduction Methods Results Discussion
  8. 8. Author’s order • Intellectual responsibility • Order 1. Who writes the draft 2. Who has contributed Beware: Data invention Avoid Guest Authorship
  9. 9. Because: People know what you did…!
  10. 10. Order of Writing 1. Results 2. Methods 3. Discussion 4. Introduction 5. Abstract 6. Title
  11. 11. Results • Outline first • Style can wait • What you found Chart, Table, Text Don’t repeat information
  12. 12. Methods • Detail: What did you do • How: Ensure reproducibility • Illustrate: Diagrams or photos • Statistics: Power and detail Give References
  13. 13. Discussion: Style • Write on your own • Have a logical thread • Explain: meaning of results • How your study is different • End up with a message
  14. 14. Discussion: Content • Recapitulate main findings • Discuss the method used • Argue conflict of results with other studies Why yours are more convincing Implications of your study
  15. 15. Introduction • Should be brief • State the Reason: Why you started this study Caution: The question posed here must be answered in the discussion
  16. 16. Abstract • Word limit: < 150* • Title – Should be short – Yet contain maximum information – Should be retrievable Avoid: “A Study of” No Abbreviations
  17. 17. Acknowledgements • Contributors but not authors • Financial & Material support
  18. 18. References • You should read them all • Should be retrievable Check accuracy Should be Relevant
  19. 19. Case Reports - tips • Why you started? • What is interesting? • Give complete details of case • Why it is different ? • What are the implications? Keep it short: 600-1000 words
  20. 20. Incubation and Drafts • Wait after first draft • Relook in 3 wks • Colleague Treatment • Outsider Treatment • Format for the journal Redraft at each Step More drafts: Easy Publication
  21. 21. Which Journal • Requirements as per –Types of Papers –Style of Papers • Check special requirements • Reason why that journal
  22. 22. Additional Needs • Ethical Clearance • Declarations: –Authorship –Originality –Not published earlier –Not sent to any other journal –Conflict of interest
  23. 23. What happens after submission • Assessment by reviewers • Cross checking of references • Possible revisions
  24. 24. Decision based on • Is there a clear message? • Would this change thinking? • Is the language appropriate?
  25. 25. Common Mistakes • Un-necessary details • Conclusions not based on study but presumed • Figures without legends
  26. 26. Common Mistakes ..contd. • Format not as per journal • References not as per format • Word limit crossed • Author details incomplete • Declarations not attached
  27. 27. Grammar …..Mistakes ..contd. • Past Tense –What you did –What you found • Sentences –Short –Avoid tortuous Present tense for Universal Truths only Avoid sentences Ending with ‘ing’
  28. 28. Grammar …..Mistakes ..contd. • Commas: Be cautious! Don’t, Go! Don’t stop, Go! Don’t Go!
  29. 29. Polish you Grammar Raymond Murphy
  30. 30. Photographs • Poor perspective and lighting • X-ray pictures with flash on • Wide angles (Mobile phones) • Skewed images (hand held) • Bad aspect ratios Learn Medical Photography Respect Copyright
  31. 31. Avoid photos with mobiles
  32. 32. Lens Angle Variation
  33. 33. Aspect Ratio
  34. 34. Avoid wrong Angle photos
  35. 35. Wrong Angle photos Better
  36. 36. No flash for transparencies
  37. 37. Predators • Predatory Journals Identify –May be indexed –Payment for publications –Fast publications –Peer review doubtful –Mostly not read or printed
  38. 38. Predators vs Mainstream • Predatory Journals Problems –Not cited –Papers published are lost • Mainstream Journals –High rejection rate (85-90%) –Long time taken to publish Question Remains: Perish or?
  39. 39. Before Submission: Critical Appraisal (3rd Party) • Why did they start? • What did they do? • What did they find? • What did it mean? • What is the message? Use Critical Appraisal Tools “CASP” “icmje.org”
  40. 40. Take home message • Done research: Write • Drafts: Re-check & Prune • Follow journal guidelines • Do appraisal, then send • Good journals: Predators ?? Please: Polish your English

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