Applied Anatomy Of Hip
PMR PG Teaching- August 2016
-Dr. Kamal Kant Sain
Resident, Deptt. Of PMR
SMS Medical College, Jaipur
The Hip Joint
• Type- Ball and socket variety of synovial joint
• Articular surfaces- The head of femur
articulates with acetabulam of hip bone.
• Largest joint of the body
• Unique in having high degree of stability as
well as mobility.
• Horseshoe shaped structure
• Formed by the pubis ilium and ischium bones
• Allows the proximal transmission of weight from the
axial skeleton to the lower extremity
• Its development starts by the age of 8yrs and depth
incresase in puberty due to development of three
secondary centres of ossification
• It forms lunate articular surface,an acetabular notch
and acetabular fossa.
• A fibrocartilaginous ring called acetabular labrum
deepens the acetaulam
• Longest bone of the body consists of head,neck and
greater and lesser trochenter
• Head of femur is covered with hyaline cartilage except
for fovea capitis which serves as attachment for
• The femoral neck is externally rotated with respect to
the shaft and also forms an angle of
• In normal adults neck forms an angle of 135 degree
with respect to the shaft.
• Femoral neck and head is formed by trabecular bone
core with thin cortical bone shell.
The angle of inclination
• In normal adults it is 120-135 degree.
• In coxa valga - >135 degree
• In coxa vara - <120 degree
• A cylindrical Sleeve
• Proximally : Pelvis
• Laterally : Acetabular labrum and extends laterally to the femoral head
• Anteriorly : Intertrochanteric line
• Posterorly : neck of the femur 1cm medial to the intertrochentric crest
• Both the capsule and the articular cartilage are thicker anterosuperiorly
consequently thinner posteroinferiorly
• Anteerosupeirorly part has maximum tension in the standing posture
• Supported by muscles and by intra/extra articular ligaments
• Capsule has circular and longitudional fibres.
• Circular fibres forms collar around the neck called zona orbicularis
• Longitudional fibres travels along the neck and carries blood vessels
Ligaments of Hip joint
• It includes-
• Intraarticular- 1.the ligamentum teres
2.the transverse acetabular liga.
3. the acetabular labrum
Extraarticular- 1.the iliofemoral ligament
2.the pubofemoral ligament
3.the ischiofemoral ligament
The ligamentum teres
• Also called round ligament
• Flat triangular ligament
• Apex is attach to the fovea capatis and base to the
transverse ligament and margins of acetabular notch.
• It transmits arteries to the head of femur(acetabular
branches of obturator and medial circumflex femoral
• It tightens during adduction,flexion and external rotation.
• It prevents subluxation of femoral head superiorly and
laterally in adduction and external rotation movements
The transverse acetabular ligament
• Fibrous link from the inferior acetabular notch that
connects the anteroinferior and posteroinferior
horns of the semilunar surface of the acetabulum
• Posterior aspect: bone beneath the lunate surface
• Anterior aspect: labrum
• Due to this acetabular notch converted into a
foramen which transmits vessel and nerves to the
The acetabular labrum
• It is a fibrocartilaginous rim attached to the margins
• It narrows the mouth of acetabulam.
• Mostly made up of type 1 collagen fibres
• It helps in holding head of femur in position.
• It provide stability by creating negative
intraarticular pressure in the hip joint.
• It improve mobility of hip by providing elastic
alternative to bony rim.
The iliofemoral ligament
• Also called ligament of bigelow
• It is inverted Y shaped
• Strongest ligament of the body
• Triangular in shape.
• It consists of 2 parts- inferior(medial) and superior(lateral)
• Apex is attached to the lower half of the anterior inferior iliac
spine and base to the intertrochantric line.
• It blends with the iliopsoas muscle
• It limits hyperextension of hip and prevents the trunk from
falling backwards in the standing posture.
The pubofemoral ligament
• It supports the joint inferiomedially.
• It is also triangular in shape
• Superiorly- attached to iliopubic eminence, the
obturator crest and obturator membrane.
• Inferiorly –merge with the anteroinferior part of
the capsule and with the lower band of the
• It tightens during extension and abduction.
The ischiofemoral ligament
• It is a weak ligament
• It covers the joint posteriorly
• It arises from the posteroinferior margin of the
acetabulam rim and passes laterally to the
capsule and blends with the zona orbicularis.
• It tighten with internal rotation of hip
• It is more commonly injured ligament than other
Muscles producing movements at the hip joint
movements chief muscles accessory muscles
1.Flexion Psoas major and iliacus Pectineus,rectus
2.Extension Gluteus maximus,biceps
3.Adduction Adductor longus,brevis magnus Pectineus and gracilis
4.Abduction Glutei medius,minimus,tensor fasciae
5.Medial rotation Tensor fasciae latae and anterior
fibres of glutei medius and minimus
6.Lateral rotation Obturator internus,externus,gemellus
femoris,gluteus maximus sartorius
Piriformis ,biceps femoris
• Flexion- the head of femur rotates along a
transverse axis that passes through the
• It limited by thigh touching the abdomen, the
range is 120 degree.
• Mainly due to contraction of iliopsoas muscles
with the help of sartorius,rectus femoris and
• Extension- rotates around the transverse axis
• It is limited by tension in iliofemoral ligament
• Range is 20 degree.
• Mainly due to gluteus maximus muscles with
the help of hamstring muscles.
• Flexion and extension occurs around a transverse
axis.range of flexion is 120 degree limited by thigh
touching the abdomen and extension is 20
degree,limited by tension in iliofemoral ligament.
• Abduction and adduction occur around an
anteroposterior axis.Adduction is limited by ontact
with other leg, range is 30 degree . Abduction is
limited by tension in adductors and pubofemoral
ligament,range is 60 degree.
• Medial and lateral rotation occur around vertical
axis.range is around 40 degree.
Bursae around the hip
• Iliopsoas bursa
• Largest and most constant bursa about the hip present
in 98% of adult individuals
• Situated deep to the iliopsoas tendon and serves to
cushion the tendon from the structures on the anterior
aspect of the hip joint
• Can become inflamed and distendend MC: RA; can also
be associated with athletic activity; overuse and
impingement syndromes; OA; pigmented villonodular
synovitis; villonodular synovitis, synovial chndromatosis,
infection, pseudogout, metastatic bone disease and in
rare cases after total hip athroplasty
• Trochanteric bursa
• 2 clinical significant trochanteric bursae: one between the
gluteus medius and minimus and a superficial one located
between the greater trochanter and the TFL; compression
and friction of the bursa from an adaptively shortened TFL
can result in trochanteric bursitis
• Ischiogluteal bursa
• Located between the ischium and the gluteus maximus; can
be painfully squeezed between the ischial tuberosity and
the hard surface of a chair during sitting, producing an
ischial bursitis (weaver’s bottom)
• Medial and lateral femoral circumflex supplies
• Femoral head is supplied by a small branch off
• Acetabulum is supplied by branches from
superior and inferior gluteal arteries
• Posterior Gluteal Region (Cutaneous)
• Subcostal nerve
• Iliohypogastric nerve
• Posterior Rami of L1-L3
• Posterior Primary Rami of S1-S3
• Anterior Region (Cutaneous)
• Iliohypogastric nerve (superior to the inguinal ligament)
• Subcostal nerve (inferior to the inguinal ligament)
• Fermal branch of the genitofemoral nerve
• Ilioinguinal nerve
Pain referred from the hip joint may be felt anywhere in the
thigh leg or foot
Congenital dislocation of hip
• Head of femur slips upwards on to the gluteal
surface of the ilium because of
developmentaly deficient upper margin of
• Lurching gai
• Trendelenburg test is positive