Bureaucracy Media


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It focuses on the relation of bureaucracy and how media can be engaged

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Bureaucracy Media

  1. 1. Bureaucracy and Media How to establish equilibrium? Dr. Mrinal Chatterjee Professor Indian Institute of Mass Communication, Sanchar Marg, Dhenkanal 759 001, Orissa
  2. 2. First, a bit of history <ul><li>News media hostility to bureaucracy is a fixed field in Indian political culture that has its roots in the 19th-century antigovernment agitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Post-independence media has taken onto themselves the role of ‘constructive opposition’. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Therefore.. <ul><li>Contemporary negative coverage must be understood as deeply embedded. </li></ul>
  4. 4. All responses to it must be based on that premise.
  5. 5. While some public administrators in occasional situations may receive positive coverage, that is the exception, rather than the rule.
  6. 6. Civil servants need to accept this harsh media environment rather than bemoan it.
  7. 7. Please remember.. <ul><li>Media is not merely a PR tool. </li></ul><ul><li>Media can play a critical role as an agent of change. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: India’s independence. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Having said that, let us examine can the situation improve? Can we establish equilibrium?
  9. 9. That precisely mean <ul><li>Can we get good press? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we minimize negative coverage? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we make the media an ally in the development process? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we engage media in a constructive way? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we engage media in the way we want? </li></ul>
  10. 10. We can. For that we have to understand the dynamics of media.
  11. 11. Media dynamics <ul><li>Reporter sends news for processing by sub-editor at the desk for possible use </li></ul><ul><li>News-editor decides on a day to day basis, what goes in a newspaper/channel </li></ul><ul><li>Articles may be both by staffers or outsiders, commissioned or voluntary contribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietor and/or Editor frames broad policies </li></ul>
  12. 12. Strength and weakness of Media in India: Strength <ul><ul><li>Press enjoys and jealously guards its ‘freedom of press’. It enjoys strong legal and extra-legal protection in India. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Press enjoys societal sanction and credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of the journalists have impeccable integrity. They work for ‘social cause’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media is irreverent. ‘This may be bad news for official managers of the society, but it is good news for democracy’. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Strength and weakness of Media in India: Weakness <ul><ul><li>News-media is increasingly becoming capital-intensive, making it vulnerable to financial pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politicians and sundry moneybags are entering this field for their vested interest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no check at the entry to journalism as profession. Hence one finds all kinds of persons here. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Media in Orissa: Mainstream Media <ul><ul><li>42 daily Oriya newspapers (8-10 major), 4 major daily English newspapers, 3 TV channels, including Doordarshan, 4 radio channels including 3 private radio; AIR has 13 stations in Orissa, 15-20 websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major National and International media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30-32 in print, 18-20 in TV and radio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local media </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Media in Orissa: Alternate/Social Media <ul><li>Newspapers like Janavani </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines like Samadrusti , Ganuli Vichar , etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>E-groups </li></ul>
  16. 16. We are more concerned about mainstream media.
  17. 17. What you expect from media <ul><li>Good publicity for the cause you are championing/ work you are doing </li></ul><ul><li>Good image of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Fair coverage </li></ul><ul><li>‘Leave us alone’ </li></ul><ul><li>No bad publicity </li></ul>
  18. 18. What the media expect from us? <ul><li>News- Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the correspondents of national, international and state-level media want news/story. News in a form and format that they can use. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advertisement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some correspondents of state-level media and most from the local media want advt. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other gratification </li></ul>
  19. 19. How do we meet the expectations of the media? And achieve ours’ <ul><li>I will restrict my deliberation only to the news/information part. </li></ul><ul><li>Regarding gratification, I can only tell you that no self-respecting media/journalist wants gratification. Those who do, are not important enough to be considered. </li></ul><ul><li>Advt.- follow existing policy to the letter. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Decide your Communication goals and key messages <ul><li>Communications goals begin with clear, concise and compelling messages. Whether you are pursuing a public policy initiative, launching a project or responding to negative attacks in the news media, in order to advance your position you must have a solid message foundation. </li></ul>
  21. 21. How to form key messages <ul><li>Run a message session with key stakeholders to develop a &quot;message platform&quot; - a concise set of messages that form the basis for the strongest strategic message position. The session should include: </li></ul><ul><li> A strategic analysis of the communications environment, including an assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities; </li></ul><ul><li>   Creating a message platform of defining messages and affirmative responses to negative attacks. </li></ul>
  22. 22. How to get the message across <ul><li>Advertisement </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement with press/mainstream media </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement with alternate/social media </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement with people at the grassroots </li></ul>
  23. 23. Engagement with Media <ul><li>Constructive responses can include professionalizing public information activities, being sensitive to public relations implications during the policy development process, and… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I’ll tell about the ‘and’ at the end. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Engagement with Media: Content <ul><li>Provide information that the media can use. Appreciate their need. News for them is information that is interesting and/or important for their audience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct ‘so-what’ test. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide back-ground materials </li></ul><ul><li>Provide need-based information-on request. </li></ul><ul><li>Information need for different journalist may be different. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Engagement with Media: Form <ul><li>Provide information in a easily understandable and usable form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not expect the journalists to know technicalities and the jargons. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide photographs, info graphs, etc. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Engagement with Media: Response <ul><li>Continuous engagement with media is desirable </li></ul><ul><li>When situation warrants, try to respond as promptly as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Reporters, editors and producers are on constant deadline. If they don't get what they want from you quickly -- they WON'T wait -- they WILL move on to another source. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Engagement with Media: Ways and Means <ul><li>Press release </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard copy, e-mail, VNR(Video News Release), down-loadable posting in website </li></ul></ul><ul><li>News availability </li></ul><ul><li>Press Briefing </li></ul><ul><li>Press Conference </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Perso-professional’ relationship. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caution: Don’t get too personal. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Engagement with Media: Relationship <ul><li>Cultivate relationships before you need them. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a media resource </li></ul>
  29. 29. Engagement with Media The Spokesperson <ul><li>There should be designated spokesperson. </li></ul><ul><li>In normal situation, the PRO or a person designated should engage the media. </li></ul><ul><li>In crisis situation it is important that one individual(with a back-up team) should be designated as spokesperson to make official statements and answer media questions through out the crisis. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Handling antagonistic media <ul><li>At times one finds antagonistic media. Reasons may vary. From personal ego tussle to ideological differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to handle antagonistic media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to find out the reasons, and sort it out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide your side of the story. Credibly and fast. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to good-humour concerned media, but never over-do it. That will be counter-productive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat the journalists with respect and dignity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not take things lying down, if it is from large/alternative media, react. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is from fringe media, ignore. But if antagonism persists, take legal action. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. FAQ: How do I ensure my opinions are not misrepresented? <ul><li>Please note that it is usually not intentional. </li></ul><ul><li>News, often is subjective, based upon the journalist/chief of staff/editor’s particular view on life </li></ul><ul><li>there are some things you can do to try and alleviate this concern. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present the journalist with background information that supports your opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing written support documentation gives the journalist something to refer to when composing their article. The interview they conducted with you backs up the written material, lessening the chances of misunderstanding and potentially misrepresentation </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. FAQ: How do I control the interview to ensure the points I want to make are made? <ul><li>A journalist likes to be in charge of an interview. However, there are some ways you can get your point across. Always answer the question, then move from your response into a particular point you might want to make. Make sure there is some relevance to the comment or you’ll lose your credibility. And if you present your opinions using descriptive, non-jargon language, in ways that are relevant to the journalists’ listeners/viewers/or readers, your points are more likely to be included. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Now, about that ‘and’…
  34. 34. … And <ul><li>…. with the development of more sophisticated e-government technologies, bypassing the mainstream media to reach the public directly. </li></ul>
  35. 35. New Horizons: Internet <ul><li>The prevalence of high speed Internet is facilitating a new era of digital communication. With streaming video and podcasting- it is changing the media scene. </li></ul><ul><li>All govt. dept.s must have its interactive website. It has to be maintained and updated regularly. </li></ul>
  36. 36. New Horizons: Mobile phones <ul><li>Mobile platforms with multi-media capabilities are fast becoming a staple of media landscape. Mobile phones are emerging as primary source of telecommunication in India. </li></ul><ul><li>These phones’ streaming capabilities improve substantially with each passing year. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be used to dessiminate info. Fast. </li></ul>
  37. 37. New Horizons: Social Media <ul><li>Bloggers </li></ul><ul><li>Activist Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Social Network sites </li></ul><ul><li>Photo and Video Uploading sites, etc. </li></ul>
  38. 38. New Horizons: Online community <ul><li>Online communities are growing rapidly. These emerging online communities represent a powerful new venue for disseminating information and hold tremendous potential for engaging social and political activists </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking sites continue to emerge as influential venues for online communication . As new and different loci for community building continue to emerge, tactics for engaging users will have to evolve accordingly. </li></ul>
  39. 39. To end, some tips to deal with media <ul><li>Respect media persons, treat them with dignity. But don’t mully-cuddle them. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t restrict information </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to mislead </li></ul><ul><li>The approach should be: engagement, not management </li></ul>
  40. 40. Articles you can read <ul><li>http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a792052621~db=all~jumptype=rss </li></ul>
  41. 41. Books you can refer.. <ul><li>Bland Michael, The Art and Science of Public Relations: Effective Media Relations: How to get results, Vol-1, Crest Publishing House, New Delhi. </li></ul><ul><li>Treadwell Donald F. Public Relations Writing: Principles in Practice, Sage Publications, London </li></ul><ul><li>Shrivastava K.M., Public Relations in the Digital Era, Pilgrims Publishing, Varanasi </li></ul>
  42. 42. Surf the following sites for more info. <ul><li>www.positivemedia.com.au </li></ul><ul><li>www.unicef.org/sowc03/childrenskit/pdf/ media -tips-eng.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.spreadthenewspr.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.newtactics.org/en/announcements/engaging-media-human-rights#comment-736 </li></ul>
  43. 43. For info regarding short courses, training in media handling, surf.. <ul><li>http://www.essex.ac.uk/comms/what/media.htm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Essex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.spaethcom.com/mastering.php?sec=2&amp;sub=1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spaeth Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.as.bham.ac.uk/study/assess/psa/modules/media.shtml </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Birmingham </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://vestcomm.com/index.html </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vest Communications </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Thank You. I’ll be grateful for your feedback. [email_address] 06762 225975, 224274