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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles as Mobile Multi-sensor Platforms

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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles as Mobile Multi-sensor Platforms

  1. 1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles as Mobile Multi-sensor Platforms Matthes Rieke, Theodor Foerster, Arne Broering Institute for Geoinformatics – University of Muenster AGILE 2011 Conference, Utrecht, 2011-04-19 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  2. 2. Overview 1. Introduction 2. Sensor platforms 3. Framework Approach 4. Integration into the Sensor Web 5. Future Work and Impressions 2 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  3. 3. Introduction ● Use case from landscape ecology ● Determine meteorological inversions in the Prandtl-Layer 3 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  4. 4. Introduction ● Mobile Multi-sensor Platform ● Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as base ● Extended with several sensors ● Problems raised from this approach ● Different UAVs - different data encodings ● Varying sensors with specific low-level protocols ● How to integrate gathered data into the Sensor Web? 4 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  5. 5. Introduction ● Quick answer ● Abstract the integration layer from protocol specifics ● Framework Approach – described later on 5 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  6. 6. Overview 1. Introduction 2. Sensor platforms 3. Framework Approach 4. Integration into the Sensor Web 5. Future Work and Impressions 6 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  7. 7. Sensor platforms ● Several UAVs available in the civilian domain ● Community Projects - e.g. ● Mikrokopter ● ArduCopter ● Commercial Projects - e.g. ● Microdrone ● AscTec 7 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  8. 8. Sensor platforms ● Basis is a building kit by www.mikrokopter.de ● Wireless downlink included 8 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  9. 9. Sensor platforms ● How to measure phenomena? ● Integrate independent computing unit ● Actual sensors are operated ● Independent wireless downlink 9 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  10. 10. Sensor platforms ● System summary ● Mikrokopter UAV with downlink for GPS tracking ● Independent „Sensor Board“ for phenomena measurement → Two separated data streams New problem: How to fuse streams to enable real-time data provision? 10 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  11. 11. Overview 1. Introduction 2. Sensor platforms 3. Framework Approach 4. Integration into the Sensor Web 5. Future Work and Impressions 11 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  12. 12. Framework Approach ● Requirement summary ● Support for different UAV platforms ● Synchronization of multiple data streams to enable real-time measurement capabilities ● Sensor Web integration mechanism ● Realized using Software Framework 12 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  13. 13. Framework Approach ● Architecture 13 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  14. 14. Framework Approach ● Basis is description of Plugin Behaviour ● Input/Output phenomena using SensorML ● When to create Output? 14 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  15. 15. Framework Approach <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <spf:plugin xmlns:spf=http://ifgi.uni-muenster.de/~m_riek02/spf/0.1 name="urn:ifgi:id:ifgicopter2"> <spf:output> <spf:AvailabilityBehaviour> <spf:outputProperties> <spf:property>temperature</spf:property> <spf:property>humidity</spf:property> </spf:outputProperties> </spf:AvailabilityBehaviour> <spf:mandatoryProperties> <spf:property>position</spf:property> </spf:mandatoryProperties> </spf:output> <SensorML /> </spf:plugin> 15 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  16. 16. Framework Approach ● Synchronization of sensor streams ● Why synchronize streams? ● Have geotagged observations in real-time ● e.g. used by Complex Event Processing ● Overcome bandwidth issues (details later) ● Use of interpolation mechanism ● Abstract – easily adjustable for application ● Additional processing capabilities 16 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  17. 17. Framework Approach ● Called once internal output is created Reminder: ● Functionality only triggered by framework ● No limitations 17 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  18. 18. Overview 1. Introduction 2. Sensor platforms 3. Framework Approach 4. Integration into the Sensor Web 5. Future Work and Impressions 18 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  19. 19. Integration into the Sensor Web 19 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  20. 20. Integration into the Sensor Web ● achieved using Output-Plugin for the so-called Sensor Bus • communication infrastructure which underlies the different Sensor Web services (SOS, SES, SPS, etc.) • Well-defined communication protocol 20 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  21. 21. Integration into the Sensor Web ● Establish connection to Sensor Bus → integration into connected SWE services 21 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  22. 22. Integration into the Sensor Web Test evaluations 22 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  23. 23. Overview 1. Introduction 2. Sensor platforms 3. Framework Approach 4. Integration into the Sensor Web 5. Future Work and Impressions 23 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  24. 24. Future Work ● Differential GPS: Orthophotos without Ground Control Points ● Exterior Orientation ● Position (GPS) ● Rotation (IMU) ● Interior Orientation ● Principal point and distance (Camera calibration file) ● Terrain Model ● → Orthophoto 24 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  25. 25. Future Work ● Visualization ● Additional sensors ● Fine dust ● Gas sensors ● Digital elevation models ● Autonomic flight (security and surveillance) 25 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  26. 26. Source Code available at: 26 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter
  27. 27. Thank you for your kind attention! Questions? http://purl.net/ifgi/copter → UAV Workshop @ Geoinformatik 2011 27 http://purl.net/ifgi/copter

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