Anatomy and Physiology The Central Nervous System 02 / 04 / 2013

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The CNS Notes and Review Mon. 02/04/13

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Anatomy and Physiology The Central Nervous System 02 / 04 / 2013

  1. 1. The Central Nervous SystemAnatomy and Physiology Mr. Hunter 02/04/2013
  2. 2. Anatomy and Physiology• Objective(s) 02/1/4/2013• SWBAT• Review Notes For Exam Friday – Quietly STUDY!!• Analyze components and functions of the major parts of the CNS• Understand the parts and function of the hypothalamus and hormone properties.• Bell Ringer: What are the two divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System?• : Exit: What are visceral effectors?• Assignment: Biology Text Book pg. 1034 vocabulary # 1-20 * make sure to number the words* & pg. 1042 # 1-4 – All work in Cornell Format!
  3. 3. Assignment 02/13/13 Anatomy and Physiology Note Questions Cornell Format – Use Your Text Book1. What is the function of the corpus callosum?2. How many lobes are the cerebral hemispheres divided into?3. What are the names of the lobes of the cerebral hemispheres?4. Where is the cerebral cortex located?5. What is the function and location of basal nuclei?6. What are the functions of the cerebrum?7. What occurs in a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)?8. What are the functions of specific areas of the cerebral cortex?9. What is the average length and location of the spinal cord?10. What is the core and the outer portion of the spinal cord composed of?11. What are the functions of spinal tracts and what are they composed of?12. Describe the structure of the spinal meninges.13. What is the function and location of CSF?14. What is hydrocephalus and how can it be treated?15. What is the function of the peripheral nervous system?
  4. 4. Assignment 02/14/13 Anatomy and Physiology Study Note Questions Cornell Format – Use Your Text Book1. What is a lumbar puncture and what is it used for?2. How many pairs of cranial nerves are there and where are they located?3. From what locations do their fibers conduct impulses?4. What is the function of the 2ndcranial nerve?5. Where does the 3rd cranial nerve conduct impulses from?6. Where does the 10th cranial nerve conduct impulses from?7. List the cranial nerves and their functions.8. How many pairs of nerves are attached to the spinal cord?9. In which order are the nerves attached to the spinal cord?10. What are the functions of the spinal nerves?11. What are dermatomes?12. What are the functions of the two divisions of the ANS?13. Describe the neuron structures of the sympathetic and parasymapthetic nervous system.14. What is the function of the limbic system?
  5. 5. Anatomy and Physiology 02/07/2013• Objective(s)• SWBAT• Analyze components and functions of the major parts of the CNS• Understand the parts and function of the hypothalamus and hormone properties.• Bell Ringer: What structures protect the spinal cord?• Exit: What portion of the brain indirectly controls every cell in the body?• Assignment: Biology Text Book pg. 1034 vocabulary # 1-20 * make sure to number the words* & pg. 1042 # 1-4 – All work in Cornell Format!
  6. 6. Second Semester Guidelines Quiz1. How many behavior points will students start off with during the week?2. What must you have around your neck and visible at all times?3. What item of clothing must not be worn in class?4. True / False – Behavior points will be deducted for being tardy to class.5. True / False – The positive trait code for doing your best is p6. When you are done with your work in class what should you do? ____________________________
  7. 7. • The Central Nervous System (CNS)The CNS has two major structures the brain and the spinal cord. • The brain is protected by the cranial cavity and the spinal cord is surrounded by the spinal cavity in the vertebral column. • They are both covered by protective membranes called meninges. • Question(s): What are the two major structures of the CNS? • What are these structures protected by?
  8. 8. • The brainstem is the most inferior portion of the brain. It is composedThe CNS of the following sections: • Medulla Oblongata • Pons • Midbrain • The lowest part of the brainstem is the medulla oblongata. • It is an enlarged extension of the spinal cord. It lies inside the cranial cavity above the foramen magnum. • The medulla consists of gray and white matter mixing to form the reticular formation. • Question: What are the three parts of the brainstem?
  9. 9. • In the spinal cord, gray and white matter do not mix. The core of the cordThe CNS is gray and the white matter surrounds it. • The pons and the midbrain consists of white matter and scattered bits of gray matter. • All three parts of the brainstem function as two way conduction paths. • Sensory fibers conduct impulses up from the cord to other parts of the brain. • Motor fibers conduct impulses down from the brain to the cord. • Question: What are the functions of Sensory and motor fibers within the CNS?
  10. 10. • Many important reflex centers areThe CNS located within the brainstem. • Cardiac • Respiratory • Vasomotor • Collectively these centers are called vital centers and are located within the brainstem. • Impulse from these centers control heart beat, respiration, and blood vessel diameter – regulates blood pressure. • Question: What reflex centers make up vital centers in the brain?
  11. 11. 1. What are the two major components of the CNS? 2. What membrane is responsible forThe CNS Review 02/04 protecting both the brain and spinal cord? 3. What is the most inferior portion of the brain called? 4. What are the three parts to the most inferior portion of the brain? 5. Just above what cranial structure does the medulla oblongata lie? 6. What does the reticular formation consist of? 7. What function do all three parts of the brainstem serve as? 8. What are the functions of sensory and motor fibers within the CNS? * You may select one of the above questions as an exit ticket question.
  12. 12. • The cerebellum is the second largest part of the human brain.The CNS • It is located under the occipital lobe of the cerebrum. • The thin, folded outer layer forms a large surface area and is composed of gray matter. • White matter forms most of the interior portion of the cerebellum. The white matter tracts form a tree-like pattern called the arbor vitae. • Functions of the cerebellum are: • smooth, coordinated movements, maintain equilibrium, and sustain normal posture. • It also may play a role in an overall coordinating function of the entire brain. • Question: What is the second largest part of the brain?
  13. 13. • The diencephalon is a small, important region of the brain. It is locatedThe CNS between the midbrain and the cerebrum. • The diencephalon consists of three major structures: • Hypothalamus • Thalamus • Pineal gland • The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus. • The pituitary gland and the walls of the third ventricle are extensions of the hypothalamus. • Question: What are the three major parts of the diencephalon?
  14. 14. • The hypothalamus is one of the most important brain structures.The CNS • The hypothalamus controls virtually all internal organs. • The hypothalamus controls: • Heartbeat • Constriction and dilation of blood vessels. • Contraction of the stomach and intestines • Body temperature • Sleep cycles • Appetite and emotions • Some neurons of the hypothalamus function to make hormones that the posterior pituitary secretes into the blood. One of these hormones is called ADH (antidiuretic hormone) which affects the volume of urine excreted. • Question: What is the name of one of the hormones released by the hypothalamus?
  15. 15. • Some of the neurons of theThe CNS hypothalamus function as glands. • Their axons secrete chemical releasing hormones into the blood. • These hormones then cause other hormones to be released by the anterior pituitary gland. • This action influences the hormone secretion of other endocrine glands. • The hypothalamus indirectly helps to control every cell in the body. • Question: What are the functions of chemical releasing hormones?
  16. 16. 1. What is the second largest part of the human brain?The CNS Review 2. What form of matter forms most of the 02/05 interior of the cerebellum? 3. What are the functions of the cerebellum? 4. Where is the diencephalon located? 5. What are the three major structures of the diencephalon? 6. What two structures are extensions of the hypothalamus? 7. Where is the hypothalamus located? 8. What are the functions of the hypothalamus? 9. What function does the ADH hormone have? 10. Significant elevation in body temperature in the absence of disease may be the result of injury to what diencephalon structure? * Select one review question as an exit slip question
  17. 17. • The thalamus is located just aboveThe CNS the hypothalamus. • It is a dumbbell –shaped section of gray matter. • Each end of the dumbbell lies in a lateral wall of a fluid filled chamber called the third-ventricle. • The thalamus is composed of dendrites and cell bodies of neurons that have axons extending up toward sensory areas of the cerebrum.
  18. 18. • The functions of the thalamus include:The CNS • Producing sensations • Associates sensations with emotions • The pineal gland: Located posterior to the thalamus protruding from the back of the diencephalon. • Receives information about the strength of light seen by the eyes and adjusts its output with the hormone melatonin • Melatonin helps to keep the body’s clock on time with daily, monthly and seasonal cycles of sunlight and moonlight.
  19. 19. • The cerebrum is the largest portionThe CNS of the brain. • It contains many convolutions (gyri) and grooves called sulci. • The deepest sulci are called fissures • Fissures divide the cerebrum into right and left hemispheres.
  20. 20. 1. Where is the thalamus locatedThe CNS – Review 2. How is it shaped? Cornell Format 02/06 3. What is the thalamus composed of? 4. Where does each end of the thalamus lie? 5. Where do axons of the thalamus extend? 6. What are the functions of the thalamus? 7. Where is the pineal gland located? 8. What information is received by the pineal gland? 9. What is the function of melatonin? 10. What is the name of the largest portion of the brain? * Exit slip selected from one of the review questions

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