Anatomy and Physiology Generating muscle mass article 12 / 04 / 12
Key Part of Old Mystery in Generating Muscle compared to that seen in mice with normal satelliteMass Solved cell function, suggesting that myostatin is able to act, at least partially, without full satellite cell function.Name ______________ Date_____ Per# ___ Second, the researchers guessed that if myostatinMice without the gene for myostatin (right) have directly inhibits the growth of satellite cells, theirnearly twice as much muscle mass as normal mice numbers should increase in the absence of myostatin.(left). (Credit: Se-Jin Lee Lab) The researchers marked the satellite cells with a permanent dye and then blocked myostatin activityScienceDaily (Sep. 27, 2012) — Working with mice, with a drug. Mouse muscle mass increasedJohns Hopkins researchers have solved a key part of significantly as expected, but the satellite cells dida muscle regeneration mystery plaguing scientists for not increase in number, nor were they found fusingyears, adding strong support to the theory that muscle with muscle fibers at a higher rate. According to Lee,mass can be built without a complete, fully functional these results strongly suggest that myostatin does notsupply of muscle stem cells. suppress satellite cell proliferation."This is good news for those with muscular Third, to further confirm their theory that myostatindystrophy and other muscle wasting disorders that acts primarily through muscle cells and not satelliteinvolve diminished stem cell function," says Se-Jin cells, the team engineered mice with muscle cellsLee, M.D., Ph.D., lead author of a report on the lacking a protein receptor that binds to myostatin. Ifresearch in the August issue of the Proceedings of satellite cells harbor most of the myostatin receptors,the National Academy of Sciences, and professor of removal of receptors in muscle cells should not altermolecular biology and genetics at the Johns Hopkins myostatin activity, and should result in muscles ofUniversity School of Medicine. normal girth. Instead, what the researchers saw was a moderate, but statistically significant, increase in muscle mass. The evidence once again, they said,Muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells, reside suggested that muscle cells are themselves importantnext to muscle fibers and are usually dormant in adult receivers of myostatin signals.mammals, including humans. After exercise orinjury, they are stimulated to divide and fuse, eitherwith themselves or with nearby muscle fibers, to Lee notes that, since the results give no evidence thatincrease or replace muscle mass. In muscle wasting satellite cells are of primary importance to thedisorders, like muscular dystrophy, muscle myostatin pathway, even patients with low muscledegeneration initially activates satellite cells to mass due to compromised satellite cell function mayregenerate lost tissue, but eventually the renewal be able to rebuild some of their muscle tone throughcycle is exhausted and the balance tips in favor of drug therapy that blocks myostatin activity.degeneration, the researchers explain. "Everybody loses muscle mass as they age, and theMuscle maintenance and growth under healthy, non- most popular explanation is that this occurs as ainjury conditions have been more of a mystery, result of satellite cell loss. If you block the myostatinincluding the role of myostatin, a protein secreted pathway, can you increase muscle mass, mobility andfrom muscle cells to stop muscle growth. Blocking independence for our aging population?" asks Lee.myostatin function in normal mice causes them to "Our results in mice suggest that, indeed, this strategybulk up by 25 to 50 percent. What is not known is may be a way to get around the satellite cellwhich cells receive and react to the myostatin signal. problem."Current suspects include satellite cells and musclecells themselves. Review Question(s)In this latest study, researchers used three approaches 1. What is the date this article was written?to figure out whether satellite cells are required for 2. What is the main idea presented in themyostatin activity. They first looked at specially bred research article?mice with severe defects in either satellite cellfunction or number. When they used drugs or genetic 3. Describe supporting ideas of the main topic.engineering to block myostatin function in both types 4. What was the conclusion of the researchof mice, muscle mass still increased significantly presented in the article?
5. Write a brief 1 / 2 – 1 page summary of the article.