MLA Parenthetical Citations

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MLA Parenthetical Citations

  1. 1. Parenthetical Citations in disgustingly gross detail. CODE: CD6
  2. 2. Reminder: <ul><li>We use parenthetical citations to give credit to the people’s thoughts we use. </li></ul><ul><li>We give credit for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct quotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paraphrasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>summarizing </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The general, garden variety citation: <ul><li>We see Scout admit that she lies to her father when she says, “I said I could like it very much, which was a lie, but one must lie under certain circumstances” (Lee 128). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Two things to note: <ul><li>We see Scout admit that she lies to her father when she says, “I said I could like it very much, which was a lie, but one must lie under certain circumstances” (Lee 128) . </li></ul><ul><li>The author’s name and page number appear without a “p” or comma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we know the number is a page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we don’t need a comma, either </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punctuation appears outside the quotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>there are certain circumstances that require punctuation inside the quotation… </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. “ Certain circumstances:” <ul><li>When the quotation has pertinent punctuation in it that change the meaning if omitted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The older waiter in Hemingway's &quot;A Clean, Well-Lighted Place&quot; asks himself, &quot;What did he fear?&quot; (79). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But notice, there is still a closing punctuation mark after the citation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Speaking of Hemingway… <ul><li>You might have noticed that the citation didn’t have an author in it! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The older waiter in Hemingway's &quot;A Clean, Well-Lighted Place&quot; asks himself, &quot;What did he fear?&quot; (79). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>That’s because I already gave the author credit! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you see it? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Trickery: <ul><li>Citing the author this way (in the sentence itself) accomplishes two things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it cites the author (duh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it varies your sentence structure automatically for you! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this = good writing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What about those pesky internet sources? <ul><li>Cite the author, forget the page number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no pages in cyberspace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No author? Should you really use the site? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if no one takes credit for it, is it a credible site? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you must, cite the website </li></ul>
  9. 9. Internet Example (Preferable) <ul><li>If you MUST use one without an author, use the article title: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no truth to the rumor that al-Qaeda has poisoned the Coca-Cola supply in our country (“Coca-Cola No Al Queda”). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Internet example (no title?): <ul><li>There is no truth to the rumor that al-Qaeda has poisoned the Coca-Cola supply in our country (snopes.com). </li></ul><ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>I did not give the complete URL, only a snippet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the complete URL goes on your Works Cited page. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also note that the good folks at “snopes.com” DO take credit for their work </li></ul><ul><li>Their names are Barbara and David Mickelson and they do a nice job fact-checking… </li></ul>
  11. 11. But again, <ul><li>Try to use as few unaccredited web pages as humanly possible </li></ul><ul><li>Source validity is a huge concern when the source takes no credit for their work </li></ul>
  12. 12. Multiple authors: <ul><li>If more than one author wrote your article, they need to be cited. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This applies to less than three authors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less than / including three, cite them all! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Multiple authors example: <ul><li>There has been a drastic increase in frivolous lawsuits in the United States in the last ten years (Dewey, Cheatum and Howe 45). </li></ul>Note all authors credited with last name only.
  14. 14. More than three authors? <ul><li>Bust out the Latin stick! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ et al” is your pal! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ et al” literally translates to “and others” </li></ul><ul><li>Cite the first author, then slap an “et al” after it! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only applies to references with more than three authors! </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Finally, the interview sources: <ul><li>Cite the last name of the interviewee </li></ul><ul><li>Then that it was an interview </li></ul>
  16. 16. Interview example: <ul><li>As junior students, we were told that this paper is “dummy proof and it’s impossible to do wrong if you try” (Lesh interview). </li></ul><ul><li>Note the same rules apply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no comma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>punctuation outside of the parentheses </li></ul></ul>

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