WHEN
TECHNOLOGY
FAILS
WHEN
TECHNOLOGY
FAILS
   A Manual for
    Self-Reliance &
    Planetary Survival




MATTHEW               STEIN




  # %...
Copyright © 2000 Matthew Stein
All rights reserved.

      No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any fo...
This book is dedicated to my wife Josie, whose deep insight and awesome
            healing abilities have been a constant...
Table of Contents
I An Introduction to Self-Reliance                            I         Flint and Steel • Starting a Fir...
Foraging for Food                                     107       Symptoms • Treatment for Shock
    Brief Guide to Wild Edi...
Footwear                                                269      XIII Utensils & Storage                                33...
Foreword
   It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to ...
We live in the "Information Age" and information is power. When Technology Fails is an excep-
tional source of information...
D                 An Introduction to Self-Reliance

     You must be the change you wish to see in                        ...
2    WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS


What if the next Los Angeles quake takes down 600
                                           ...
AN INTRODUCTION        TO SELF-RELIANCE       3


guide you to the best resources for accomplishing         PREINDUSTRIAL ...
4    WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS


around planet-friendly priorities. Agricultural prac-              of our ancestors. How many...
AN INTRODUCTION           TO SELF-RELIANCE      5


collection can make it through a Colorado or                  Standard...
6    WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS


your own fruits, vegetables, and livestock; preserving     information on animal husbandry, f...
D I Present Trend , Possible Futures

    Survival in the recent past does not predict                   (UCS), written an...
8   W H E N T E C H N O L O G Y FAILS


Sustainability and Limits to Growth                      the results. From the sto...
PRESENT TRENDS, POSSIBLE FUTURES            9


                                                                          ...
io        WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS

prescient proclamation was rejected by the oil indus-          irrigated cropland, and th...
PRESENT TRENDS, POSSIBLE FUTURES           11


degrees of change will have far-reaching effects that      er-related loss...
12    WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS


adequate shock absorbers is "underdamped." The
automobile hits a bump and starts bouncing; b...
PRESENT TRENDS,    POSSIBLE FUTURES        13


                                                               tive blanke...
14   WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS


                                                                                 growth rain ...
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Stein,  Matthew    When  Technology  Fails,  A  Manual For  Self Reliance &  Planetary  Survival (2000)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Stein, Matthew When Technology Fails, A Manual For Self Reliance & Planetary Survival (2000)

29,317 views

Published on

0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
29,317
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
277
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Stein, Matthew When Technology Fails, A Manual For Self Reliance & Planetary Survival (2000)

  1. 1. WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS
  2. 2. WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS A Manual for Self-Reliance & Planetary Survival MATTHEW STEIN # % Clear Light Publishers <j>u¿> Santa Fe, New Mexico
  3. 3. Copyright © 2000 Matthew Stein All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. This book is designed to present current general information on a wide variety of topics as a starting point to further study in specified areas of interest. As such, neither the author nor the publisher is to be held liable for any possible negative situation arising as a result of its use. Clear Light Publishers 823 Don Diego, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 Web: www.clearlightbooks.com First Edition 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 4~* Printed on Recycled Paper ** ** Printed in Canada Cover photograph "A View of North America from Apollo 16" (NASA photo number: AS16-118-18873) and back cover photograph "A View of'Africa and Saudi Arabia from Apollo 17" (NASA photo number: AS 17-148-22727) from the NSSDC Photo Gallery: Earth (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/photo_gallery/photogallery-earth.html) Cover design by Marcia Keegan and Carol O'Shea Interior design and typography by Carol O'Shea Interior illustrations by Merri Mckee, Karen Frances, and Kristen Schwartz Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Stein, Matthew I. When technology fails : the low-tech guide to self-reliance & planetary survival / Matthew Stein. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-57416-046-X (cloth)-ISBN 1-57416-047-8 (pbk.) 1. Survival skills. I. Title. GF86 .S75 2000 640'.49-dc21 00-024031 Permission to reprint copyrighted material has been granted from the following publishers: The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight, by Thom Hartmann, Copyright © 1998, 1999 by Mythical Intelligence, Inc., Reprinted by permission of Harmony Books, a division of Random House, Inc. The Prophet's Way, by Thom Hartmann, Copyright © 1997 by Mythical Intelligence, Inc., Reprinted by permission of Harmony Books, a division of Random House, Inc. The Indian Tipi: Its History, Construction, and Use, by Reginald and Gladys Laubin, Copyright © 1957, 1977 by the University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Publishing Division of the University. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the U.S.A. First edition, 1957. Second, revised edition, 1977. First Paperback print- ing, 1989. For information contact web site www.ou.edu/oupress. The Straw Bale House, Copyright © 1994 by Athena Swentzell Steen, Bill Steen, and David Bainbridge, with permission from Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, Vermont. 800-639-4099. www.chelseagreen.com. The Rammed Earth House, Copyright © 1996 by David Easton, Photographs copyright © 1996 Cynthia Wright and illustrations © 1996 Jeff Reed, with permission from Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, Vermont. 800-639-4099. www.chelseagreen.com. The Passive Solar House: Using Solar Design to Heat & Cool Your Home, Copyright © 1997 by James Kachadorian, Illustrations copyright © 1997 Michael Middleton, with permission from Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, Vermont. 800- 639-4099. www.chelseagreen.com. How to Grow More Vegetables, Fruits, Nuts, Berries, Grains, and Other Crops Than You Ever Thought Possible on Less Land Than You Can Imagine, by John Jeavons, Copyright © 1974, 1979, 1982, 1990, 1991, 1995 by Ecology Action of the Midpeninsula, Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA. Available from your local bookseller, by calling Ten Speed Press at 800-841-2665, or by visiting us online at www.tenspeed.com. The Complete Modern Blacksmith, by Alexander G. Weygers, Copyright © 1997 by Peter Parch, Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA. Available from your local bookseller, by calling Ten Speed Press at 800-841-2665, or by visiting us online at www.tenspeed.com. Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual, by Michael R. Lindeburg, with permission from the publisher, Professional Publications, Inc., Belmont, CA (650) 593-9119, Copyright © 1998.
  4. 4. This book is dedicated to my wife Josie, whose deep insight and awesome healing abilities have been a constant source of wonder and inspiration. Acknowledgments It is quite a large undertaking to write a book with a huge To John Jeavons and the rest of the Ecology Action crew scope, such as When Technology Fails. I would be dishonest for their assistance and support. if I said that I was an expert on all the varied topics I am very grateful for the assistance of Harmon covered by this book. I owe quite a debt of gratitude to the Houghton, Barbara Kohl, Sara Held, and Carol O'Shea of many different experts who reviewed chapters, corrected, Clear Light Publishers. Without them, this book would still suggested, and otherwise contributed their years of experi- be just a dream. Thanks to Howard Rheingold and Michael ence toward making this book a practical and useful guide Larsen for giving me the professional encouragement and for the reader. guidance to keep me going in the early stages of this project. First, I would like to thank God, a higher power, the Much credit must go to Merri Mckee (line art technical illus- Christ, my spirit guides, or whatever you may wish to call trations), Karen Frances (shaded drawings with people and it, for the inspiration to write this book. Shortly before landscape), and Kristen Schwartz (edible plants) for Thanksgiving in 1997, during my daily session of medita- contributing their artistic talents to the illustrations. tion and prayer, I "received" the inspiration for this book in Others who contributed measurably to this project an instantaneous flash. Ideas usually tend to grow slowly, include Dave Ward, Keith Robertson, James T. West, changing and evolving with time. This idea was completely Joseph Nuuanu, Shelly and Phil Rodgers; Andreas Kaupert different. From the moment that I received it, the concept (emergency preparedness); Dan Vorhis and Howard and scope have remained unchanged. It is only my execu- Backer, M.D. (water); Fred Walters, Richard Nielsen and tion that has changed, and will continue to change, as I Amigo Cantisano (food); Glen Nadar (animals); Joe make additions, corrections, and improvements. Tibbets, Rick Heede, Will Beemer, Fred Webster, Ph.D., Second, I would like to thank my wonderful wife, P.E., Michael Frerking, Harris Lowenhaupt, and Joaquim Josie, for her editing help, clarity, suggestions, and Karcher (green building); Jennifer Lawler, Kimbal patience putting up with me while I tackled this massive Chatfield, O.M.D., L.Ac., and James Duke, Ph.D. (herbs); project. Special thanks to my father, Ben, who has given us Huida Regehr Clark, Ph.D., N.D. (naturopathy and herbs); tremendous support while I focused on this book and let David Edwards, M.D. (healing and homeopathy); Diane my engineering design business slide. To my sister Jennifer Soucy, Allison Judge, and Carrol Collins (fiber arts); Matt Barker, who has lived a mostly self-sufficient lifestyle for Richards, John McPherson, and Worth Jackson (tanning the past fifteen years, and helped me with advice, informa- and leather); Jon Hill, Richard Perez, Windy Dankoff, Don tion, and contacts for several chapters. To my son Joshua, Harris, Paul Cunningham, Chuck Marken, Glenn for library research and assistance. To Rick Sylvester whose Rambach, Kevin Cook, Skip Goebel, Ray Darby, Zac encouragement and faith in my ability to write helped get Pierce, and Chris Worchester (renewable energy); Hans this project going. To Carla Emery for her wonderful book Standteiner, John Septien, and Stewart Marshall (metals); that is a great source of information and is recommended Pamela Vandiver, Ph.D., and Dan Martinez (ceramics). To in several of my chapters. To Thorn Hartman, Lester the rest of you who contributed measurably, but whose Brown, Amory Lovins, Richard Heede, and other folks at names I neglected to list, thank you for your help and The Worldwatch Institute and the Rocky Mountain please forgive my oversight. Institute for their inspirational writings and information.
  5. 5. Table of Contents I An Introduction to Self-Reliance I Flint and Steel • Starting a Fire with Bow and Drill • Starting a Fire with a Hand Drill • An Uncertain Future I Starting a Fire with a Fire Plough Why This Book 2 Food 57 Preindustrial Self-Sufficiency 3 Basic Guidelines • Plants • Insects, Grubs, and Old-Fashioned Self-Reliance and Modern Worms Sustainable Technology 4 Shelter 59 References 5 Location • Squirrel's Nest • Building on Fallen Trunks and Trees • Scout Pits and Coal Beds • II Present Trends, Possible Futures Snow Shelters 7 Emergency Snow Shoes 61 Current Trends 7 Cordage 62 Sustainability and Limits to Growth Recommended Plant Fibers • Fiber Test • Preparing Oil Reserves 9 Fibers • Spinning Fibers into Cord • Splicing Water and Food IO Simple Tools 64 What about the Weather? IO Discoidal Stone Knives • Bone Tools Systems Modeling and Systems Response References & Resources 66 Earthquakes and Volcanoes i8 Prophecies 20 V Water 7° What Can I Do? 21 Water Requirements 7° Planning for the Future 22 Stocking Up for Emergencies 7° The Hundredth Monkey Phenomenon • Guidelines for Coping with Disaster 71 Effective Action 2 5 Water Pollution 71 References & Resources Types of Contamination III Supplies & Preparation Disinfecting Your Water 74 31 Are You Prepared? Heat Sterilization • Portable Water Filters • My 3l Filter Recommendations • Chemical Planning for the Short Term 32 Sterilization Short-Term Preparedness Checklist • 72-Hour Preserving Water by Using Silver 80 Survival Kits • First Aid Kits • Earthquake Using Silver to Preserve Water Precautions • A Short-Term Survival Manual Treating and Finding Water the Low-Tech Way 80 Longer-Term Planning and Storage 35 Treating Water • Finding Water • Wells Basic Supplies and Portable Equipment • Protecting Your Water Source 86 Calculating a Year's Food Supply • Storage Tips • Modern Water Treatment 87 Dry Ice Fumigation • Vacuum Packaging • Chlorine Treatment • Ozone Treatment • Shelf Life Guide Activated Carbon Filtration • Reverse Osmosis • Notes on Camping Gear 40 Distillation Tents • Clothing • Sleeping Bags • Insulating References & Resources 89 Sleeping Mats • Backpacks • Stoves • Cookware • Footgear 42 VI Food: Growing, Foraging, Hunting Planning for the Long-Term Future 43 & Storing 91 References & Resources World Population and Food Supply 91 IV Emergency Measures for Survival 46 Agricultural Productivity • Irrigation Gains and Survival Strategies 46 Losses • Soil Health and Soil Losses • Basic Strategies • Compact Survival Kit Sustainable Agriculture Developing a Survivor Personality 50 "Grow Biointensive" 97 Typical Survivor Personality Traits • Intuition: A Double-Dug, Raised Beds • Intensive Planting • Survivor's Powerful Ally Composting • Companion Planting • Whole Water Gardening • Seed Propagation • Pest Control • Requirements • Recommended Emergency Extending the Harvest in Cold Climates Measures • Dehydration • Conserving Water Sprouting: Your Own Minigarden on a Fire 53 Windowsill 105 Starting a Fire with Matches • Starting a Fire with The Sprouting Process
  6. 6. Foraging for Food 107 Symptoms • Treatment for Shock Brief Guide to Wild Edible Foods • Poisonous Fractures and Dislocations i87 Plants to Avoid General Guidelines for Treating Dislocations and Preserving and Storing Food Fractures • Special Precautions for Fractures • Root Cellars and Other Cold Storage • "5 Reducing Dislocations • Sprains and Strains Drying and Smoking Food • Bites and Stings 191 Preserving Meat Animal Bites • Snake Bites • Spider Bites • Tick Dairy, Tofu, and Tempeh 117 Bites • Stings Making Butter • Ghee • Yogurt • Cheese • Making Eyes 192 Rennet for Cheese First Aid for Foreign Object in Eye Raising Animals 120 Moving Injured People 193 Hunting and Trapping 121 Clothing Drag for Single Rescuer • Multi-Helper Bow and Arrow • Traps • Skinning and Cleaning "Stretcher" Rescue • One- and Two-Person Fishing 125 Carries Angling • Catching Fish by Hand • Spearing Fish • Emergency Childbirth i97 Fishing with Nets Signs of Impending Delivery • Stages of Labor • References & Resources 128 Emergency Childbirth Supplies • Delivery • After Delivery VII Shelter & Buildings i31 References Green Buildings i31 Rammed Earth 139 IX Low-Tech Medicine & Healing 202 The Process • Soils • Moisture Test • The Forms • The Holistic Health Movement 203 Wall Systems • Windows and Doors The Low-Tech Medicine Cabinet 203 Adobe H5 The Essence of Healing 207 Modern Adobe Methods • Adobe Blocks • Adobe Genetics and Cellular Growth • Body Energy Walls • Adobe Roofs Colloidal Silver 208 Cast Earth H9 Healing with Herbs Straw Bales H9 Types of Herbal Preparations • Powerful Herbal In-Fill (Non-Load-Bearing) Straw Bale Combinations for Better Health • Caisse's Tea Construction • Load-Bearing Straw Bale (Essiac) • Jason Winters' Herbal Tea • Dr. Construction • Finishing Straw Bale Walls Clark's Herbal Parasite Cleanse • Kidney Building with Insulated Concrete Forms 153 Cleanse • Liver Cleanse Pumice-Crete Detoxification Passive Solar Design Naturopathic Healing • Fasting Passive Solar "Rules of Thumb" • James Supplements and Food 223 Kachadorian's Patented Solar Slab Homeopathy 224 Traditional Low-Tech Structures i58 The Origins of Homeopathy • Homeopathic Log Cabins • Timber Frame Construction • Tipis, "Potencies" • Effectiveness of Homeopathy • Yurts, Wickiups, and Wigwams Homeopathy Practices Earthquake Resistance i65 227 Healing with Energy Improving Earthquake Resistance The Power of Prayer 228 References & Resources 167 230 Shamanic Healing Hypnosis for Pain Control and Healing 231 VIII First Aid 1 j6 Fractional Relaxation Induction • Hypnotic Initial Evaluation IJ6 Suggestion • Awakening Technique 2 Survey the Scene • Consent and Liability Visualization and Mind-Body Healing 35 ABCs of First Aid 177 General Guidelines • Visualization for Mending a Treatment Priority • Unconscious Victim Broken Bone • Egyptian Healing Visualization Some Notes on Death and Dying 236 CPR 180 References & Resources 257 Survey for Injuries and Control Bleeding 181 Pressure Points • Tourniquets Wounds 183 X Clothing & Textiles 25I Abrasions • Incisions • Puncture Wounds • Fiber Arts 2 5I Abdominal Wounds • Head Wounds • Chest Preparing Fibers • Sustainable Fibers • Spinning • Wounds Weaving • Knitting and Crocheting Choking Furs and Skins 258 Heimlich Maneuver Brain Tanning Overview • Dealing with Furs • Bandages and Dressings Bark Tanning Leather Patterns and Custom-Tailored Clothing 267 Shock
  7. 7. Footwear 269 XIII Utensils & Storage 334 References & Resources 27I Making a Simple Wooden Cup or Bowl 334 Basket Basics 335 XI Energy, Heat & Power 276 Materials • Making a Basket Shifting to Renewable Energy (RE) 277 Gourds 338 Why Renewable Energy? • Energy Conservation, Growing Gourds • Curing Gourds • Cleaning "Negawatts," and RE Gourds • Sealing Gourds RE Systems 2 Storing Fluids in Skins and Other Animal Parts 19 339 Net Metering • AC Versus DC • Alternatives for Primitive Pottery 339 High-Energy-Consuming Appliances • Clay • Pinch Pots • Coil Pottery • Slab Pottery • Photovoltaics Versus Wind Versus Micro- Throwing on the Wheel • Primitive Kilns Hydros Batteries • Backup Generators • References System Sizing 349 Photovoltaics 288 Insolation • Solar Array Sizing • Panel XIV Better Living Through Low-Tech Orientation • Maximum Power Point Trackers Chemistry 350 Wind Power 290 Soap 35° Wind Energy Tips Soapy Plants • Lye Soap • Lye Precautions 291 Candles 356 Micro-Hydropower Wicking • Making Candles Micro-Hydro Considerations 2 93 Alcohol 351 Solar Hot Water Malt • Mash • Fermentation • Distillation Passive Solar "Batch" Heating • Direct Pump Vinegar 362 Solar Water Heating • Active Solar Hot Water 2 Natural Glues 362 95 Solar Space Heating 296 Pitch Glue • Hide Glue Solar Water Pumping 297 Vegetable Oils 362 Steam Energy 298 References 363 Fuel Cells How Fuel Cells Work • Efficiency and XV Engineering, Machines & Materials 366 Environmental Considerations • Fuel Cells in Engineering 366 the Home 3OI Forces and Statics • Stress and Strength Heating with Wood (Mechanics) Efficient Stove Features 302 Fluids 312 Energy, Power, and Electricity Primer Materials 312 Energy • Power • Electricity • Proper Wire Sizing • Mathematics 312 Battery Voltage: 12 volts versus 24 volts versus Trigonometry • Logarithms 48 volts? • Capacitance • Inductance 208 References & Resources 382 References & Resources XII Metalworking 316 316 Afterword 386 A Brief Introduction to Metals Casting Metal 318 Bibliography 387 Sand Casting • Furnace Forging 321 Index 400 Low-Tech Heat Treating 329 References & Resources
  8. 8. Foreword It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change. —Charles Darwin When Technology Fails is a book about our future. On the one hand, it is about preparing for possi- ble future instabilities and failures in technology and the central services that we have come to rely on for our daily sustenance and commerce. On the other hand, it is about awakening to the fact that w are all occupants of a fragile planetary ecosystem that is showing severe signs of strain from expandin global population and the business-as-usual ideal of continuously increasing consumption. When Technology Fails is a clear, useable, practical handbook. It provides basic information and instruc- tions on widely ranging subjects falling under the loose guidelines of self-reliance, a sustainable futur for our planet, and primitive living skills that could come in handy if you should someday find your- self and family deprived of modern conveniences. Since one single book couldn't possibly provide in- depth coverage for all of the relevant subjects, each chapter includes a resource guide to the best applicable literature, web sites, and sources for materials. In today's world of global warming, superstorms, record-breaking floods, severe droughts, anti- quated and overloaded electrical distribution systems, it is likely that most of us will see significant disruptions in theflowof electricity and goods at some point in our lives. An old Chinese saying ask "Is it not already too late if one waits until one is thirsty to begin digging a well?" This saying appli equally at both the personal and planetary levels. On the micro level (personal survival), a little pla ning, training, education, and individual action can significantly reduce one's sense of helplessness the macro level (global sustainability), large numbers of people must be awakened to the need for change before governments and the majority of businesses make a sustainable future their number on priority. On both levels, action is required to promote a positive outcome.
  9. 9. We live in the "Information Age" and information is power. When Technology Fails is an excep- tional source of information, providing something of value for almost everyone. Whether you wish to cope with possible future instabilities and emergencies, grow your own food in sustainable ways, build an earth-friendly home, develop your own independent power system or expand your alternative heal- ing repertoire, When Technology Fails provides valuable guidance and instruction. Going far beyond survivalist books, its broadbased appeal ranges from the environmentalist who wishes to reduce humanity s impact on the planet to the average person who simply wishes to provide for friends and family in the event of an emergency. Whoever you are, I hope that youfindWhen Technology Fails as fascinating to read as I found it to write. We are all in this together! Let us create a future that we can all live with.
  10. 10. D An Introduction to Self-Reliance You must be the change you wish to see in shut down again. This is one isolated example of the the world. fragility of the complex centralized systems that most —Mohandas Gandi of us rely upon for our daily food, fuel, and commerce. Imagine that you are driving across some deso- late part of the western states on your family vaca- AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE tion. You pull up to the pumps at a lonely gas When I was a kid, gasoline pumps and cash registers station in the middle of nowhere. As you reach for had hand cranks to dispense gas and receive cash the gas pump, the attendant says, "Don't bother, the when the power went out. Not so anymore. Modern power's out." You ask him, "How long has it been advances in electronics, coupled with years of a reli- out? Do you know what's going on?" He replies, "I ably consistent supply of electricity, have turned have no idea what's happening. The power's been most appliances and machines into sleek micro- out for hours. TV and radio don't work and the processor-controlled wonders of high technology, phones are dead." Hours stretch into days. You are which stand mute and motionless when the power in a desert location. All the drinking water relies on goes out. Without electricity, air conditioners, credit electric pumps to move the water to the surface card machines, gasoline pumps, and cash registers from deep inside the earth. What do you do? Does cease to function. A few hours after the power goes this scenario sound farfetched, or does it strike a out, most long-distance automotive traffic runs out chord? Do you sense that perhaps this scenario of gas and comes to a halt. could happen all too easily? One hundred years ago, most small communi- In the summer of 1996, a major power outage blacked out several ties in this country had all the low technology western states for most of one day. Dave and Linda, my brother and resources necessary to grow, hunt, or fabricate what sister-in-law, were driving down California's Central Valley on that they needed to live comfortably. Today, our high- particular day and remember it well. The heat was a blistering tech society is based on a pyramid of very special- 115°F. It was the kind of day that melts asphalt and could fry an egg ized, yet extremely interdependent, industries and in the sun. When their gas tank reached empty, they reluctantly technologies. Iffiveor six of your friends were trans- joined long lines of sweating motorists waiting at the pumps for the ported to a remote location deep in the heart of a power to come back on. They waited for five long hours before they vast wilderness, how much of our technology do you were able to buy gas and a cold drink. think they could reproduce without assistance or modern tools? If a couple of key cornerstones of our What caused this multistate blackout? Was it some society—such as gasoline and electricity—were terrorist act? Was it a calamitous act of nature? No, it knocked out, wouldn't most of us stumble back into was caused by sagging power lines on a particularly hot the Stone Age? summer's day in Oregon (CNN 1996). In the swelter- How well will you fare when a real disaster ing heat, the lines stretched and expanded, sagging into strikes—like a major hurricane, flood, or severe improperly pruned trees. Because of excessively high earthquake? When the Northridge quake destroyed demand for electricity from millions of air condition- or severely damaged a few hundred buildings and ers, each time the utility tried to restart the West Coast's took down several freeway interchanges, traffic was electrical power grid, it overloaded somewhere and snarled for nine months in the Los Angeles basin.
  11. 11. 2 WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS What if the next Los Angeles quake takes down 600 WHY THIS BOOK? freeway interchanges? Or what if the nationwide grid of electrical power distribution were shut down for a The future belongs to those who prepare for it. few weeks instead of a few hours? It could happen —Ralph Waldo Emerson and already has happened numerous times across the world, just not in recent U.S. history. With all these future uncertainties and issues and The long-term future of our food supply is problems competing for attention, it is easy to increasingly in question. The destruction of native become confused and paralyzed into inaction. plant cover, monocropping, and sod-busting prac- Meanwhile, a little bit of education and preparation tices of tilling soil exacerbated the effects of an can go a long way toward reducing one's personal extended drought to create the Dust Bowl catastro- sense of fear and helplessness. When Technology Fails phe of the 1930s, which resulted in the destruction can help you plan and prepare for the possibility of of millions of acres of farmland. Modern chemical- short-term or long-term disruptions in theflowof intensive farming continues to deplete the nation's the goods and services that we have become so farmlands of topsoil and nutrients. A third of the dependent on. If you are caught in some natural original topsoil in the continental United States is disaster, this guide can provide you with basic gone, and most of the rest is significantly depleted of survival information to help you cope with whatever nutrients and degraded by pesticides and chemical comes your way. fertilizers. Changes in weather patterns may be When Technology Fails is more than just a guide harbingers of long-term changes in climate that for personal survival; it is also a guide to sustainable would drastically affect global food production. technologies and a tool for spreading the awareness Most people agree that our weather patterns of sustainable options. We are living in afiniteworld seem more erratic now than at any other time in with growing populations, whose expanding recent history. In 1998, Central America saw the appetites for consuming the world's resources are most devastating hurricane in 150 years. It is esti- threatening the quality of life on the planet. We mated that it will take Hondurans fullyfiftyyears to cannot continue to consume resources at our rebuild their country. That was also the year of an current rate much longer, and certainly can't main- unprecedented, record-breaking heat wave across the tain a continuously increasing rate. Business-as- southeastern United States; severe destruction of usual has already taken a severe toll on our planet's crops and livestock due to heat and drought in major ecosystems and is beginning to reap frighten- Texas; the worst financial crisis to strike Asian ing results, such as global warming, severe weather, nations since the stock market crash of 1929; and crop failures, failedfisheries,and epidemics of planes crashing in Indonesia because pilots could modern diseases like AIDS, hepatitis, and cancer. not see through the dense smoke rising from burn- Sustainable technologies can build a positive future ing rain forests. The same droughts that allowed the for our children and our children's children. rain forests to burn out of control also brought Whether you wish simply to weather the storms of famine and starvation to many people in Southeast short-term emergencies and disruptions, or are Asia. The past decade has seen record high tempera- concerned about long-term societal conditions, this tures over most of the planet—witness Hurricane book can help you plan and prepare for the future. Andrew's record-breaking destruction in Florida; Perhaps you are simply seeking to change your record high floods along the Mississippi River and in lifestyle in order to become more self-sufficient. Do Europe; and deadly earthquakes in Japan, California, you wish to build an energy-efficient home, grow China, Indonesia, Pakistan, Peru, Columbia, Turkey, your own food, or live independently from the elec- Greece, Taiwan, and the former Soviet Union. People tric power distribution grid? In this case, When are asking themselves, What is going on with our Technology Fails can provide you with basic infor- world? How can we prepare ourselves for the future? mation to help you plan your lifestyle change and
  12. 12. AN INTRODUCTION TO SELF-RELIANCE 3 guide you to the best resources for accomplishing PREINDUSTRIAL SELF-SUFFICIENCY your goals. In addition to providing basic practical instruc- For at least 100,000 years, tribal cultures have existed tions and guidance on a wide variety of subjects, across the planet, living in sustainable harmony with When Technology Fails offers brief descriptions and nature. As recently as the 1800s, tribes populated half reviews of several books on each topic, to help you the earth, but now comprise only 1 to 2 percent of choose the best resources to meet your interests and the world's population. Contrary to popular opin- supply you with reliable up-to-date information. I ion, studies of a number of tribes, such as the encourage you to use the recommendations in each Shoshone culture and the !Kung and Hotentots of chapter to add to your library of resources for Africa, indicate that members of many "primitive" personal and planetary survival and self-sufficiency. tribes spend an average of only two to four hours a Some will want to read this book from cover to day attending to gathering food and other necessities cover, but others will focus on a few chapters of of life. The rest of their time is devoted to family, primary interest. For those of you who bought this arts, music, and other leisure activities. Few of us in book "just in case," I encourage you to skim the the western world could claim similar amounts of entire book to familiarize yourself with the topics leisure time. Another common fallacy is that of poor and issues it covers. You may find yourself drawn health and short lifespan among hunter-gatherers. to chapters that you might think would hold little Anthropologist Mark Nathan Cohen, in his book interest. If you purchased this book to prepare Health and the Rise of Civilization, points out that yourself for possible emergencies, you should thor- the lifespans of agricultural peoples have exceeded oughly read Chapter 3, Supplies & Preparations. At those of hunter-gatherers and foragers only during a minimum, I recommend that you follow the the last 100 years (Cohen 1989, 135). Apparently, guidelines for short-term planning and prepara- most of this gain has been since the introduction of tion. I also urge you to read Chapter 2, Present sulfa drugs, penicillin, and other modern antibiotics. Trends, Possible Futures. It will give you a realistic Prior to the advent of modern medicine, archaeolog- view of future trends and help you decide which ical records indicate that hunter-gatherers averaged 5 preparations and lifestyle changes make the most to 6 inches taller, had more teeth left at the time of sense to you. I recommend that all readers famil- death, and lived longer than agricultural peoples. iarize themselves with the principles of first aid (see Chapter 8) and get proper first aid and CPR The older people used to say that the trees, the training. If you are suffering from significant rocks, the birds, and the animals used to talk. health problems, or have an interest in alternative They had a voice, and today, as I realize it, healing, you should read Chapter 9, Low-Tech they still have a voice. My People always say Medicine & Healing. that you have to take care of them in order for If you bought this book for short-term survival you to continue on. If you don't, when they die skills and emergency preparations, the chapters on off, you are going to die off with them. planning, survival, water, food, and shelter will be —Corbin Harney, spiritual leader of the the most valuable to you. If you are concerned with Western Shoshone Nation, from longer-term self-sufficiency and independence from The Way It Is the grid, all chapters will be of interest. If you find yourself subject to a long-term breakdown in central Indigenous societies typically honor all of creation services, your ability to forage and/or grow food will as part of their "mother" earth. To destroy their moth- be critical to your success. If you simply want to live er would be like cutting off their own hands, an a more self-sufficient, planet-friendly lifestyle, the unthinkable act. If we are to survive as a species, it may chapters on food, healing, shelter, and energy will be critical that we adopt this kind of reverence for our probably interest you most. planet and restructure our businesses and industries
  13. 13. 4 WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS around planet-friendly priorities. Agricultural prac- of our ancestors. How many of us, after working tices of many indigenous peoples, such as the Hopi hard year after year, feel that we have little to show Indians and the Kayapo of Brazil, are wonderful for our work? Or perhaps we have prospered materi- examples of sustainable farming that honors the ally yet still feel that our lives lack deep, inner satis- earth while also providing food for tribal members faction or meaning. for hundreds of generations, without destroying the forest or other animal habitats. One of the other My grandmother grew up on a mini-farm in the small town of benefits of tribal life is a strong sense of community. Chelmsford, Massachusetts. At that time, over half of all Americans The tribe cares for each member. Food and responsi- lived on farms, but now only I percent of the population is engaged bilities are shared, such as caring for children and the in growing food. When Grandma was a little girl in the 1890s, the elderly. There is no fear of retirement, layoffs, family's small farm and other small businesses in her community orphanages for the young, or isolation for the elderly. provided practically everything that was needed to lead a reasonably Admittedly, most of us would not willingly give comfortable life. The miller ground the grain, the cobbler made up our modern conveniences for a return to the shoes, the tailor made fine clothes. Things like glassware and hunter-gatherer lifestyle of our ancestors. However, windows, iron for the blacksmith, plumbing components, and cloth to if we were to find ourselves in a survival situation, sew into dresses came from large industrial factories and mills, but some of their skills could help us to survive and almost everything else was made or grown locally. Once every perhaps live comfortably until such time as things month or two, the family took a trip to Boston to enjoy the city and returned to normal. Over the past 30 years, there has to purchase supplies that were not as available in their small town. been a resurgence of interest in traditional tribal Even though Boston is only 30 miles from Chelmsford, in those days skills such as techniques for starting a fire, making it was a 2-day round trip by horse cart. Today, that same town is part stone knives, tanning animal hides, and fabricating of the giant suburban sprawl on the outskirts of the Boston metro- utensils, shelters, and crude twine and ropes from politan area. foraged plant fibers. There is a sense of trying to recover something important, something valuable In the event of a breakdown in the centralized that has been lost. systems that we rely upon for our daily needs and comforts, a working knowledge of our ancestors' tech- for books on primitive skills, which could make a huge nologies will go a long way toward helping us to live a difference in a survival situation, see Chapter 4, Emergency comfortable life. Unfortunately, many of the simple Measures for Survival. technologies of the pioneers are no longer sustainable with today's global population of over six billion. A typical pioneering family might have cut OLD-FASHIONED SELF-RELIANCE down thirty cords of wood to burn infireplacesfor AND MODERN SUSTAINABLE heating their home during the long, hard New TECHNOLOGY England winters. A single cord is a considerable amount of wood, measuring a stack 4 feet wide by 4 Since before the days of the American Revolution, feet tall by 8 feet long. Is it any wonder that the Americans have admired the ideals of ingenuity, American pioneers cleared practically all the accessi- independence, and self-reliance. Much as we admire ble old growth forests in the eastern United States? those ideals, however, most of us have lost our ability Recent design improvements have created clean- to live a truly independent life. Somewhere between burning wood stoves, which heat very efficiently and the home mortgage, the supermarket, the cost of leave no visible smoke once the stove is warmed up medical care, the corporate work week, and the to operating temperatures. These EPA-rated stoves video store, the American ideal of rugged individual- can heat a modern, reasonably well-insulated 2,000- ity has slipped through our fingers. We sense there square-foot New England home on only a few cords was a simpler, yet more satisfying lifestyle in the days of wood. A superinsulated home with passive solar
  14. 14. AN INTRODUCTION TO SELF-RELIANCE 5 collection can make it through a Colorado or Standard U.S. agricultural practice today Montana winter on the heat given off by the hot requires at least 45,000 square feet of land to water heater and lightbulbs, with a little help from a feed a person on a high meat diet, or about wood stove on cloudy days. 10,000 for a vegetarian However, biointen- Using the best of modern technology combined sive gardening can provide for a vegetarian's with old-fashioned self-reliance can provide for a entire diet, plus the compost crops needed to comfortable and sustainable lifestyle. Neither the sustain the system indefinitely, on only 2,000 to agricultural practices of the 1800s nor today's 4,000 square feet, even starting with low quali- modern factory farms are sustainable. The good ty land This works so well that biointensive news is that advances in organic and biointensive agriculture is being practiced in 107 countries farming are offering sustainable alternatives to worldwide. chemical-intensive farming that can actually increase —Paul Hawken, Amory Lovins, and productivity while rebuilding depleted soils. L. Hunter Lovins, Natural Capitalism Unfortunately, agribusiness continues to deplete the topsoil and pollute the environment. As consumers, we can do our part by supporting organic farming and other planet-friendly practices. REFERENCES Even if you have no current plans to buy land and move to the country, you might want to pick up some of the following references. If your supply of food and modern goods were disrupted for an extended period of time, the skills found in the following books could be extremely useful. Books The Encyclopedia of Country Living: An Old- the guidance, wisdom, and experience of several Fashioned Recipe Book, by Carla Emery. 1998, old-timers. When one of her beloved old-timer 858 pp. (paperback), ISBN 0-912365-95-1. friends died, she realized how important it was to Published by Sasquatch Books, 615 Second Ave., record their wisdom and experience before it Seattle, WA 98104. Lists for $27.95. disappeared forever into an ocean of modern facto- With over 800 pages packed full of useful, practical ry farms and high technology. This massive under- information, this is the premier reference for taking is a true labor of love, spanning thirty years making the move from city to the country. If you and nine revised editions. wish to start growing and preserving your own food, raising your own livestock, and living a Back to Basics: How to Learn and Enjoy simpler more self-sufficient life, there is no better Traditional American Skills, from The Reader's book to start with than this. It will also be useful if Digest. 1999, 456 pp. (hardcover), ISBN 0- you are contemplating a less radical change, such as 89577-939-0. Published by The Reader's Digest planting a vegetable garden in your backyard. Carla Association, Pleasantville, NY. Lists for $30.00. and her husband Mike moved to the country This encyclopedic book is surprisingly good. It during the "back to nature" movement in the covers a wide variety of traditional skills and some 1960s. Like many other transplanted city folk, Carla new technologies, including adobe, log, stone, and found the transition difficult and genuine practical traditional post-and-beam construction; traditional "how-to" information lacking. She drew heavily on furniture and other woodworking skills; growing
  15. 15. 6 WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS your own fruits, vegetables, and livestock; preserving information on animal husbandry, food storage and and cooking food; and spinning, weaving, metal- preparation, alternative energy methods, self- working, and other crafts. It contains many fine medication, and healing. Each magazine also illustrations of traditional methods and tools. If you contains numerous advertisements for the latest ever need to reconstruct the technologies of our products (and catalogs) to assist you in your self- ancestors, this book will give you a good start. reliance efforts. The Foxfire Books: Hog Dressing, Log Cabin Back Home Magazine. Subscription: $18.97 per year Building, Mountain Crafts and Foods, Planting for 6 issues. Back Home Magazine, P.O. Box 70, by the Signs, Snake Lore, Hunting Tales, Faith Hendersonville, NC 28793. Call (800) 992-2546 or Healing, Moonshining, edited by Elliot see their web site at www.backhomemagazine.com. Wigginton. 1972, 384 pp. (paperback), ISBN 0- After The Mother Earth News was sold and moved to 385-07353-4. An Anchor Book, published by New York City, the magazine's original staff founded Doubleday Division of Bantam Doubleday Back Home magazine. This is a fine magazine, devot- Publishing Group, Inc., 1540 Broadway, New ed to self-reliance, sustainable living, and ecology. York, NY 10036. Lists for $15.95. Both the homesteader and the suburban dweller In the late 1960s, Elliot Wigginton and his students with a backyard garden can enjoy this magazine. created the Foxfire magazine to record and preserve the traditional folk culture, crafts, and skills of the Backwoods Home. Subscription: $19.95 per year for 6 southern Appalachian mountain people. Foxfire 1, issues. Backwoods Home Magazine, P.O. Box 712, the first compilation of articles from the magazine, Gold Beach, OR 97444. Call (800) 835-2418 or was so popular that it eventually expanded into a see their web site at www.backwoodshome.com. series of thirteen books. Very entertaining and My sister has lived off the grid, in remote mountain- informative, these books record traditional self-suffi- ous locations for the past twenty years, and this is her cient living skills and folklore. I recommend that you personal favorite. Lots of practical articles, with the pick up at least the first book plus Foxfire 2. Some focus on homesteading and self-reliance. The editorial folks buy the entire series. staff's strong libertarian political view and survivalist leanings might be difficult for some folks to handle. The Millennium Whole Earth Catalog: Access to Tools & Ideas for the Twenty-First Century, Countryside. Subscription: $18 per year for 6 issues. edited by Howard Rheingold. 1994, 384 pp. Countryside & Small Stock Journal, Wl 1564 (paperback, large format), ISBN 0-06-251059-2. Hwy. 64, Withee, WI 54498. Call (800) 551-5691 Published by Harper San Francisco, 1160 Battery or see their web site at St., 3rd Floor, San Francisco, CA 94111-1213. www.countrysidemag.com. Lists for $35.00. User-submitted articles on all aspects of self-reliant It's still a great guide to an enormous variety of country living. Focus is on the serious homesteader. resources. The Mother Earth News. Subscription: $15.97 per year for 6 issues. The Mother Earth News, 49 Magazines East 21st Street, 11th Floor, New York, NY The following magazines are devoted to the pursuit 10010. Call (800) 234-3368 or see their web site of self-sufficiency and lifestyles that express coopera- at www.motherearthnews.com. tion with the earth. They contain excellent "how-to" Since this magazine was sold to a New York publisher, and "how I did it" articles on a wide range of topics, it has become more citified. Urban or suburban including a multitude of gardening techniques and dwellers might find this magazine more to their liking.
  16. 16. D I Present Trend , Possible Futures Survival in the recent past does not predict (UCS), written and signed in 1993 by more survival in an unprecedented future. To realize than 600 of the world's most distinguished this, all you have to do is look at the thousands scientists, including a majority of the living of species that survived throughout history only Nobel laureates in the sciences to be exterminated in this century. To predict what's needed for the future, we can't just History is full of examples of once great civilizations consider the past—we must look to the future. that failed to adapt to diminishing resources and —Thorn Hartmann, The Last Hours of changing world conditions. In most instances their Ancient Sunlight decline and fall were the result of human behavior rather than the quirks of nature. The same truth What does the scientific community have to say applies to the contemporary world. It is more likely about the future of the world? Is the weather truly that our behavior rather than apocalyptic events will getting worse, or is it just a lot of media hype? If the bring us to the brink of social chaos, mass starva- weather is really getting worse, why is this happening tion, and a collapse of our way of life. We must and what might we expect in the next few decades? Is expect these consequences if population growth and global warming a real threat, or some environmental- the consumption of oil and other fossil fuels contin- ist's fabrication? What about other earth changes, like ue at anywhere near their current rates. An average major earthquakes? This chapter takes a realistic look high school student with enough knowledge of alge- at environmental trends, to help you understand bra to plot graphs of population growth, oil reserves, what to expect in our global future. With education oil demands, and world production of food can and an open mind, there is the possibility for us to demonstrate our predicament—and reach some very create positive change. If we close our eyes and discouraging conclusions. continue to deny the course we are on, we are like dry Many believe that science and the free market will leaves in the wind, with no control over our destiny. automatically produce technological solutions to our world energy and environmental problems. The ecological disasters of the former Soviet Union and in CURRENT TRENDS several African and Asian countries foreshadow The earth is finite. Its ability to provide for impending global suicide. We cannot continue to growing numbers of people is finite. Current count on reactive politics and technological break- economic practices which damage the environ- throughs to bail us out. A wiser approach is to evaluate ment, in both developed and underdeveloped current trends and conditions proactively, and develop nations, cannot be continued without the risk plans for attaining a positive, sustainable future. I truly that vital global systems will be damaged believe that the people of our world have the capacity beyond repair. Pressures resulting from unre- to find positive solutions to our problems. Thus far, we strained population growth put demands on the have inadequately used this capacity. As long as we natural world that can overwhelm any effort to collectively continue to pretend there is no problem, achieve a sustainable future. we cannot find or implement the basic societal —From World Scientists' Warning to changes required to provide a sustainable future for Humanity, the Union of concerned Scientists our children and our children's children.
  17. 17. 8 W H E N T E C H N O L O G Y FAILS Sustainability and Limits to Growth the results. From the storm of controversy surrounding Limits to Growth emerged the popular First, when it comes to population growth, what term "sustainability," meaning patterns of goes up exponentially must stabilize, or it will consumption coupled with population stabilization crash down. Second, with regard to forests and at a level that the earth can support forever. fish and other resources, what gets used up too For many parts of the planet, disruptions of rapidly and too thoughtlessly will ultimately apocalyptic proportions are already here. From the cease to exist. And finally, as for waste and villages of Rwanda to the streets of Kosovo, their pollution, what gets dumped—into the water, apocalypse is now! Thorn Hartmann's book The land, or air—spreads out, hangs around, and Prophet's Way contains several frightening personal creates havoc for generations to come. None of accounts of travels to dangerous areas of overpopu- these are desirable outcomes for the human proj- lated Third World countries. In his efforts to aid ect known as global civilization. poverty-stricken children, he has traveled where few —Alan AtKisson, Believing Cassandra tourists dare to tread. It is his belief that the almost unbelievable living conditions in the slums of In the early 1970s, a team of young scientists from Mexico City and Calcutta, and the lawless horrors of MIT spent two years developing and working with a the streets of Bogota, are previews of an all-too-close world computer simulation program called future in a world with too many people and not "World3." They included a multitude of variables in enough material goods to go around. The dissolution their computer model in an effort to make its output of the former Soviet Union was once heralded as a match the real world as nearly as possible. The giant step forward. The subsequent degeneration of computer model results were staggering and made the Russian Federation into a lawless country plagued quite a stir when first announced to the world, then by economic chaos, black marketeering, and organized subsequently published in Limits to Growth by crime was certainly neither the Western nor the Donella Meadows, Dennis Meadows, Jörgen Russian vision for their future. Randers, and William H. Behrens III. In one scenario The billion or so people severely affected by after another, the computer model invariably the spreading desertification of Africa have predicted that human population would swell to the already reached the threshold of tragic earth point where it overshot the planet's capability to changes. Even if the weather stays normal and we support the population, and then come crashing can continue to pump oil out of the ground at the down as one system after another failed in current rate forever (which we can't), we will have mankind's final attempts to keep people fed, clothed, a hard time providing food and a modest stan- and housed. dard of living for most of the planet even during What the computer model made clear was that the next few decades. At the 1999 world popula- the unavoidable result of exponential population tion growth rate of 1.3% per year, the world's growth and increasing levels of consumption is a population of 6 billion people will double over planet-wide crash and burn. Critics have pointed the next 54 years. Accounting for a continuation out that the time frame for this crash and burn in the current trend of declining birth rates, scenario was way off. The computer model was not population experts project that world population perfect. It underestimated the effects of some will increase to somewhere around 9 billion things, such as global soil losses, while overestimat- people by the year 2050 (Brown, et al. 2000b, 98). ing other factors, such as population growth. Most of this growth will be in Third World coun- Nevertheless, the model does show disturbing tries, which are the least capable of handling the trends of apocalyptic proportions, and indicates burgeoning population. that we must choose to use our collective powers of free will to change the course of history or suffer
  18. 18. PRESENT TRENDS, POSSIBLE FUTURES 9 engineers to implement large-scale oil replacement r technologies such as nuclear fusion or massive solar and wind power generators. Estimates from the L European Wind Energy Association are that wind power could provide as much as 10% of the world's electrical power generation by the year 2020, which 200,000BCJ I o J I moo-1 I IMMW sounds like a lot but is not much for a world 10000 UL-J 1000-J 1930-1 JM967 1060-1 i-197-í running short on oil (AWEA 1999, 1). Source U s C e n s u s Bureau Oil will not just run out one day. As reserves and Figure 2 - 1 . Population growth. supplies dwindle, maintaining current production Source: U.S. Census Bureau rates will become increasingly difficult and expen- The world's oceans are showing alarming indi- sive. Once production rates fall significantly below cations that we may have passed the level of global demands for oil, prices will rise at phenome- sustainable environmental impact. A large percent- nal rates, as they did during the OPEC oil embargo age of the world's coral reefs are now in distress or in the late 1970s. Oil prices rise rapidly even with dying, due to excessive water temperatures (proba- minor disruptions of supply. For example, following bly from global warming) and pollution. After two refinery fires in northern California in 1998, the peaking in 1996, world fish catches have begun to price of gasoline shot up about $0.60 per gallon decline. It is estimated that 73% of the world's higher than prices in the rest of the country, and in major fishing areas and 70% of the major fish the winter of 2000 a minor restriction of oil supplies species are either at maximum production or are in by OPEC sent gasoline prices over $2.00 per gallon decline (Brown et al., 1999a, 36). According to the in some areas. United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 11 of the world's 15 major fishing grounds The world currently is consuming 23 billion are seriously depleted. barrels of oil each year, but discovering only 6 billion barrels. Now that's a recipe for energy bankruptcy and therefore economic bankruptcy. OIL RESERVES — Charlie Richardson, A B C - T V , Over a Barrel In 1950 the U.S. was producing half the world's oil In 1998, America can't produce On October 30, 1998, 200 of the world's top oil even half its own petroleum needs. experts, including policymakers, scientists, geolo- —Dr. John Curtis, oil industry expert, gists, and oil and gas industry professionals, took World Oil Forum (AEI 1999, 6) part in the World Oil Forum. At this forum, experts gave predictions for the peak in world oil produc- Typical estimates for world petroleum reserves, given tion, which ranged from the year 2000 to the year by oil industry spokesmen, are that we have around 2020. According to Franco Bernabé, chief executive 45 years' worth of oil left (estimates range from of the Italian oil company ENI SpA, as early as the around 30 years to 100 years). It's hard to say how year 2003 and well before the year 2010, the world accurate oil reserve estimates are, because many Oil will probably face 1970s style oil price shocks due to Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) have increasing demand and decreasing production radically increased their reserve estimates in efforts (Banks, 6-15-98). Back in 1956, Dr. M. King Hubbert to increase production and profits. OPEC produc- stunned the U.S. government and the oil industry tion limits are based upon each country's estimated when he predicted that United States oil production oil reserves, so inflating their oil reserve estimates in the lower 48 states would peak around 1970 and allows individual OPEC countries to ship more oil. decline thereafter. At the time, the U.S. was the great- Forty years is not a lot of time for scientists and est petroleum producer in the world. Hubbert's
  19. 19. io WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS prescient proclamation was rejected by the oil indus- irrigated cropland, and this irrigation accounts for try, but later vindicated when his analysis proved two-thirds of the global water usage. So much water is correct. It is predicted that a similar "Hubbert's now being used for irrigation and other human Peak" in world oil production will arrive shortly due purposes that little or none of the fresh water from to declining yields from existing oilfieldsand the several major rivers—including the Yellow in China, fact that in spite of significant technological the Colorado in the American Southwest, the Indus in improvements in oil exploration, discoveries of new Pakistan, the Nile in Egypt, the Chao Phraya in oil fields peaked back in the 1960s. In fact, we are Thailand, and the Ganges in India—reaches the sea now discovering new sources for oil at about one for significant portions of the year (Postel 1999, 71). quarter the rate that we consume it. Overpumping of groundwater for irrigation is also causing rising groundwater salinity and steadily drop- ping water table levels in many of the major grain- Swing Midpoint producing areas of the world. Wherever this trend continues, groundwater eventually becomes unusable or too costly to use for irrigation. Worldwide, one in five acres of irrigated land suffers from a buildup of salt in the soil. Two-thirds of California's rampant groundwater depletion occurs in the Central Valley, which supplies about half the country's fruits and vegetables. Spreading water shortages threaten to ' 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 reduce global food production by 10% at a time when ^ - Base —- High -— Low — Swing population could double within 50 years. For a Figure 2-2. The Global Hubbert Peak, forecast of detailed analysis, and possible solutions to the coming future global oil output. Source: The Twenty First Century, irrigation crisis, check out Postel's new book, Pillar of The World's Endowment of Conventional Oil and Its Depletion, by Dr. Colin Campbell, 1996 Sand: Can the Irrigation Miracle Last? This graph (often referred to as the "Hubbert The giant agricultural businesses that supply Curve") is based on an ultimate recovery of conven- most of our food rely heavily on oil to fuel the trac- tional oil of 1750 Gb (Giga = billion barrels), and tors, transport the food, and produce the fertilizers depicts alternative scenarios of production. The and pesticides currently used to maintain high swing case assumes a price leap when the share of levels of productivity. Some experts have said that world production from a few Middle East countries we are literally eating oil, since it is oil that has reaches 30%. This is expected to curb demand, lead- fueled the world's dramatic increase in food ing to a plateau of output until the swing countries productivity over the last century. As oil production reach the midpoint of their depletion, when resource declines, available water for irrigation decreases, constraints force output to drop considerably. and arable cropland is lost to rising salinity, how will we feed a planet with a population of more than 9 billion people? WATER AND FOOD The overriding lesson from history is that most WHAT ABOUT THE WEATHER? irrigation-based civilizations fail. As we enter the third millennium A.D., the question is: Will Many scientists warn that the planet is warming at a ours be any different? faster rate than at any other time in the last 10,000 —Sandra Postel, Pillar of Sand years. Some people might say that warmer tempera- tures could be a good thing, that warmer winters in According to Worldwatch Institute Senior Fellow Maine or Montana might be nice. Our planetary Sandra Postel, 40% of the world's food comes from systems are enormously complex, however, and a few
  20. 20. PRESENT TRENDS, POSSIBLE FUTURES 11 degrees of change will have far-reaching effects that er-related losses cost the insurance industry more will probably severely affect global weather and agri- than $7 billion a year. Estimates of worldwide weath- cultural output. er related losses reached a record of $93 billion in 1998. With weather-related losses estimated at $67 The drought- and heat-damaged U.S. grain billion, 1999 goes down as the second most costly harvest in 1988, which fell below domestic year on record. After including factors for inflation, consumption for the first time in history, gives us weather-related losses in the 1990s totaled more than a glimpse of how hotter summers may affect five times as much as similar losses in the 1980s. agriculture over the longer term. Within the insurance industry, there is a very real fear —Lester R. Brown, Christopher Flavin, that the long-term climactic changes that now appear and Sandra Postel, Saving the Planet to be developing could bankrupt the industry (Brown et al. 2000b, 76). There is considerable data to support the finding Why is this happening to our planet? Can we that weather patterns truly are getting more erratic. It expect a return to weather as usual, or will things get is not your imagination, but an observable, verifiable worse? I will attempt to explain why the weather is phenomenon. Since 1983, Planet Earth has experi- getting more and more erratic, what we might expect in enced its ten hottest years in recorded history. Seven our future, and what we might do to help the situation. of the ten hottest years on record were in the 1990s. In the summer of 2000, an almost unbelievable event Systems Modeling and occurred removing most remaining doubts that we are truly in the midst of global warming—for the first Systems Response time in recorded history, a large hole opened up in the The earth is a complex system. There are thousands polar ice cap leaving several miles of open water at the of different factors ("variables" in systems terms) North Pole (Brown 2000,1). that contribute to the response of this system. Some In many respects, 1998 blew the other years off factors are major contributors, while others are the charts. Not only was 1998 the hottest year in the minor. Right now, we are witnesses to a great experi- world's recorded weather history, it also set the ment that mankind is inflicting on our planet. record for average temperature increase. These Modern humankind is radically altering many of the unprecedented temperatures may have fueled the significant variables that contribute to the stability record-breaking floods and destructive storms. In and response of this magnificent system called 1998, worldwide weather-related damage totaled $92 Planet Earth. No one knows for sure the final billion, up a staggering 53% from the previous outcome of this great experiment, but both the record of $60 billion in 1996 (Brown et al. 1999a, computer model predictions and the preliminary 15). Even though 1999 showed a slight decrease in earth changes that we are currently seeing point to global average temperature, attributed to the cooler very disturbing future developments. "La Nina" ocean currents, 1999 was still the seventh To get some idea of what scientists are talking warmest year on record (Brown et al. 2000b, 20). about when they refer to systems theory, systems Warmer temperatures are certainly not the only modeling, and systems response, let's take_a look at a changes in the weather. The recent rise in extreme relatively simple system that most of us are familiar weather disasters, such as floods, tornadoes, with—the automobile. A modern automobile droughts, and hurricanes, has insurance industry employs shock absorbers and suspension springs to executives terribly concerned. According to the large give us a smooth ride. Shock absorbers dampen German-based insurance firm Munich Re., insurance shocks that the automobile receives to its wheels as it industries paid out an average of less than $2 billion drives over bumps in the road. Without shock a year for weather-related property damage from absorbers, a car bounces so much that it is almost 1980 to 1989, but from 1990 to 1997, similar weath- impossible to control. The automobile system without
  21. 21. 12 WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS adequate shock absorbers is "underdamped." The automobile hits a bump and starts bouncing; before it can stop bouncing from the first bump, it hits a second bump, and so on. In the physical world, there are a few major components to our planetary system that act some- thing like a car's shock absorbers and suspension springs. Changing significant earth variables will have dramatic effects similar to the variations that you might see from worn-out or undersized shocks and springs on a car. The recent rash of severe storms, extreme heat, extended droughts, and record-setting floods are the earth's response— Figure 2-3. Response of a well-damped system (good shock absorbers). warning signs that we have damaged its "shock absorbers" and are threatening the stability of worldwide ecosystems. A lot of people think that global warming, the destruction of the ozone layer, and the deforesta- tion of major chunks of the planet will not harm us here in the United States, because we are so technologically advanced and appear to have a sufficient supply of food and natural resources. From the global point of view, this attitude is simi- lar to a first-class passenger on the Titanic saying that the little crease from the iceberg doesn't concern him because he's on the upper deck, not below in third class. If this "ship" (Planet Earth) Figure 2-4. Response of an underdamped system goes down, any amount of money won't be enough (worn-out shock absorbers). to buy us a seat on a life raft! A series of floods and Most real-life systems are a little more complicat- droughts can alternately rot and parch crops in the ed than a simple car suspension system and are char- United States, just as easily as they do in other acterized by "feedback." Feedback causes some parts of the world. portion of the output of the system (average temper- Let's look at the response of some very simple ature, rainfall, etc.) to input back into the system, systems to get a graphic idea of what I am talking with a resulting effect on the output. Feedbacks form about. Figure 2-3 is the response of a simple, well- loops. The output affects the input, which affects the damped car suspension to a sharp bump in the road. output, which affects the input, and so on. Too much Notice that the curve is relatively smooth, with few feedback and the system goes crazy with an unstable ripples and bumps. For the earth system, this would response, like the one shown in Figure 2-5. The ear- correspond to stable, predictable weather. When we splitting shriek that an audio system lets loose when a change some variables a bit, to simulate a worn or microphone gets too close to a speaker is a result of undersized shock absorber, we get a response similar too much feedback. When you consider the earth's to that depicted in Figure 2-4. This figure corresponds weather as a system with feedback, it's not too hard to significantlyfluctuatingweather, like what we have to see how humankind's meddling with the earth can seen in recent years. result in unstable responses ("crazy" weather) and in severe cases, the destruction of entire ecosystems.
  22. 22. PRESENT TRENDS, POSSIBLE FUTURES 13 tive blanket, screening out harmful levels of the sun's ultraviolet rays. • The ocean's plankton production, which is a vital part of both the food chain and the oxygen balance in the atmosphere. • The size of the earth's polar ice caps. Each of these significant system factors is inter- connected. Major changes in one factor may adverse- ly affect one or more of the others, compounding the overall effects on the system. TREES Figure 2-5. Response of an underdamped system with By far the most visible human alteration of the too much feedback (worn-out shock absorbers plus feedback = unstable response). planet has been the destruction of the forests. Almost half the forests that once covered Traditionally, scientists believed that major expanses of the earth are already gone. climate changes, like the start and finish of ice ages, —Lester Brown et al., Vital Signs 1998, took place gradually over periods ranging from from the Worldwatch Institute several centuries to thousands of years. Recently, however, scientists studying ice field corings discov- Trees are the great shock absorbers of our planet. ered that climactic changes at the onset of ice ages, They are critical to the carbon/oxygen cycle that on the order of 10°C (18°F), have occurred during maintains breathable air and livable temperatures. a period of time as short as ten years! Apparently, Trees also act as giant water pumps, pumping due to some kind of feedback, the earth's climate millions of tons of water back into the atmosphere has shifted radically and abruptly over short peri- so it can fall back to the earth as rainfall at some ods of time. Scott Lehman, a Woods Hole downwind location (see Figure 2-6). They stabilize Océanographie Institute researcher, announced the the soils to prevent erosion and build topsoil. They Institute's findings in 1993. He stated: "Our results remove minerals from the groundwater and help suggest that the present climate system is very deli- keep salt levels in the aquifer fit for human cately poised. The system could snap suddenly consumption and agriculture. between very different conditions with an abrupt- When trees are destroyed, a process called des- ness that is scary" (Gelbspan 1998, 30). ertification begins. Desertification has occurred all Humankind's meddling could produce radical, over the world, time and time again, but never in irreversible climate changes over a period of just a our recorded history on the scale and the rate at few years! which it is happening today. Out of the thousands of different variables Trees are the main source of topsoil on the planet. influencing earth systems, scientists have identified Most shrubs and grasses do not have roots deep several major ones. (As our understanding increas- enough to work below the top few feet of soil, but the es, some seemingly insignificant factors will proba- deep roots of trees break up rocks and combine miner- bly also turn out to be very important.) Here are als from the rocks with carbon from the air to feed the five factors currently recognized as significant growth of leaves and branches. As this material falls to climactic system variables: the ground and decomposes, it rebuilds and enriches • Trees of all kinds—not just the rain forests. the upper layers of soil, which are vital to agriculture. • The concentration of greenhouse gases such as It takes from 200 to 1,000 years for nature to carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere. generate one inch of topsoil. Modern agricultural • The earth's ozone layer, which acts as a protec- practices often flush away inches of topsoil in a
  23. 23. 14 WHEN TECHNOLOGY FAILS growth rain forest stores three to five times as much carbon as an acre of mature dry forest and recycles many times as much water back into the atmosphere. One single rain forest tree will recycle 3 million gallons of water back into the atmosphere during its lifespan. The evapora- tive surface area of the leaves or needles on one large tree is equal to the surface area of a 40-acre lake (Hartmann 1998, 42). One single acre of rain forest will typi- cally contain over 200 large trees with an evaporative surface area greater than an 8,000-acre lake! The total amount of rain forest left on the planet is about the size of the continental United States. Every year humankind destroys an area of rain forest about equal to the size of Florida. At the current rate of destruction, 38 million acres per year, the world's last rain forests will be totally eliminated within our children's lifetime. The loss of rain forests is one very big variable with an unknown effect on the system response of our planet. Do we dare risk their Figure 2-6. Trees and the water cycle. destruction without knowing single year. That's like borrowing $20,000 on high- what the effect will be? interest credit cards each year, without repaying any Archaeologists generally place the dawn of of the principal. How long could anyone keep that modern civilization in an area known as the "Fertile up without going bankrupt? Crescent," the site of the present nations of Iraq, Trees and shrubby forests still cover about 40% Syria, and Lebanon. At one time Lebanon, the site of of the world's landmass, but that amount is rapidly the biblical "Cedars of Lebanon," was 90% forested. shrinking, and the quality of much of that cover has The cedars were cut down centuries ago to provide declined. The tropical rain forests are particularly wood to build Phoenician ships, as well as for hous- important due to their great density of growth. A ing and fuel. Lebanon's forest cover is now a mere young tree or shrub, with a few square feet of evapo- 7%. Deforestation has reduced downwind rainfall by rative leaf surface area and a few shallow roots, has over 80%, transforming most of the "Fertile nowhere near the environmentally stabilizing effect Crescent" into desert and wasteland. The process of of a mature tree with deep roots. One acre of old- desertification continues throughout the world,

×