Cell Structures, Functions And Transport

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Cell Structures, Functions And Transport

  1. 1. Cell Structures, Functions and Transport
  2. 2. Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm
  3. 3. Eukaryotic Cell <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickname : “The Control Center” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function : holds the DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleolus : dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that helps make ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Located Inside the Nucleus <ul><li>Chromatin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material in cells that contains DNA and carries genetic information and direct functions of a cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin strands inside the nucleus. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. When the cell get ready to divide it makes <ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Function : Carries genetic information that control inherited characteristics such as eye color and blood type. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is always in the form of chromosomes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Ribosomes Cell Membrane Cytoplasm
  7. 7. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function <ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickname : “Protein factories” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function : Produce proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins are passed to the interior of the endoplasmic reticulum. From there they will be transported to the Golgi bodies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function <ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickname : “Passageway” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function : Passageway that carries proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes
  10. 10. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><ul><li>2 Types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rough appearance because it has ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function : helps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO ribosomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function : makes fats or lipids </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Complex Cell Membrane Cytoplasm
  12. 12. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function <ul><li>Golgi Complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickname : mailroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function : receives, packages, and distributes proteins and other materials to different locations inside/outside of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance : stack of pancakes </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function <ul><li>Lysosomes : circular, but bigger than ribosomes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickname : “Clean-up Crews” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function : to break down large food particles into smaller ones. Also, breaks down old cell parts and release substances to reuse. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function <ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickname : “The Powerhouse” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function : Produce most of the energy the cell needs to carry out its functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cells have large numbers of mitochondria. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks down food to make ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATP : is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Bodies Mitochondria Cell Membrane Cytoplasm
  16. 17. Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Bodies Mitochondria Cell Membrane Cytoplasm
  17. 18. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function <ul><li>7. Cell Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickname : “Gatekeeper” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function : forms outside boundary of animal cell and allows materials to move in and out of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selectively permeable – allows some substances to move through and some cannot. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Bodies Mitochondria Cell Membrane Cytoplasm
  19. 20. <ul><li>Now let’s talk about structures only found in PLANT Cells!! </li></ul>
  20. 21. Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Plant Cell Cell Membrane Vacuole
  21. 22. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function <ul><li>8. Vacuoles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickname : Storage Tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function : stores water, food, waste products, and other materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central vacuole in plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not all animals have vacuoles. If they do they are small and more than one. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Plant Cell Cell Membrane Vacuole Chloroplasts
  23. 24. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function <ul><li>9. Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function : captures energy from the sun to produce food for the plant cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green in color because of chlorophyll, which is a green pigment </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Chloroplasts
  25. 26. Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Plant Cell Cell Membrane Vacuole Chloroplasts Cell Wall
  26. 27. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function <ul><li>10. Cell Wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function : rigid layer of non-living material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides support and protection to the cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found outside the cell membrane in plant cells </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Plant Cell Cell Membrane Vacuole Chloroplasts Cell Wall Nucleolus Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER Golgi Bodies Mitochondria Ribosomes Cytoplasm
  28. 29. Comparing Plant and Animal Cells Plant Animal

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