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11u bio div 03

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11u bio div 03

  1. 1. Taxonomy
  2. 2. Name the celebrity:
  3. 3. Name the animal:
  4. 4. Name the animal:
  5. 5. What is taxonomy?The science of naming organisms and assigning them into groups called taxa (singular: taxon).
  6. 6. What is the biosphere?• The part of the earth inhabited by living organisms.
  7. 7. How does the biosphere relate to taxonomy?Taxonomy attempts to classify all organisms within the biosphere.
  8. 8. How did the invention of the microscope affect taxonomy?• More organisms were discovered, therefore, more organisms to classify.
  9. 9. AristotleI categorized accordingto habitat:-water dwellers-land dwellers-air dwellers
  10. 10. St. Augustine• Useful, harmful, superfluous (not necessary).• Very human centered view. – Didn’t consider certain animals necessary in the environment.
  11. 11. John Ray• John Ray was born on November 29, 1627, in the village of Black Notley, Essex, England.• His father was a blacksmith and his mother was a healer and herbalist• John Ray liked nature and especially plants.• Coined the term Species – organisms similar in shape and structure and could reproduce with each other.
  12. 12. Scala Naturae(Great Chain of Being) Other classification systems used a hierarchy to rank organisms in order of importance.
  13. 13. Carl Linnaeus 1707-1778• Grouped organisms accordingto their structural similarities.- Invented the Binomial nomenclature to classify organisms. Used genus and species based on the Latin names of the organisms.- Latin was the language of scholars at the time.- Canis familiaris is the scientific name for a dog(domestic dog).
  14. 14. Classification System• Kingdom• Phylum• Class• Order• Family• Genus• SpeciesKing Philip Called Out For Good Soup
  15. 15. Classification System Brown Bear House cat Dog Killer whale WolfKingdom Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia AnimaliaPhylum Chordata Chordata Chordata Chordata ChordataClass Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia Mammalia MammaliaOrder Carnivora Carnivora Carnivora Cetacea CarnivoraFamily Ursidae Felidae Canidae Delphinidae CanidaeGenus Ursus Felis Canis Orcinus CanisSpecies arctos catus familiaris orca lupus
  16. 16. Classification SystemWhere you live, from broad to specific: - The Universe - The Milky Way Galaxy - The Solar System - Planet Earth - North American Continent - Canada - Ontario - Toronto - Your Address
  17. 17. Classification SystemBrown BearAnimaliaChordataMammaliaCarnivoraUrsidaeUrsusarctos
  18. 18. Classification SystemHouse catAnimaliaChordataMammaliaCarnivoraFelidaeFeliscatus
  19. 19. Classification SystemDogAnimaliaChordataMammaliaCarnivoraCanidaeCanisfamiliaris
  20. 20. Classification SystemKiller whaleAnimaliaChordataMammaliaCetaceaDelphinidaeOrcinusorca
  21. 21. Classification SystemWolfanimaliaChordataMammaliacarnivoracanidaeCanisLupus
  22. 22. Classification System
  23. 23. Classification System
  24. 24. Binomial Nomenclature• A two word system of uniquely naming organisms according to their genus and species.• Generic name (genus) is capitalized• Both words italicized – i.e. Homo sapien
  25. 25. Binomial Nomenclature
  26. 26. Advantages of Using theBinomial Nomenclature System• Universal scientific communication.• Unique for every living thing.• Show relationship between closely related organisms.
  27. 27. Dichotomous Key Di = Two
  28. 28. Dichotomy:• Splitting of a whole into exactly two mutually exclusive parts.• (example: “good” versus “bad”)
  29. 29. What is a Dichotomous Key Used For?• Used to help place organisms into an appropriate classification group.
  30. 30. Wacky PeopleDichotomy
  31. 31. Step 1 Step 5If fish shape is long and skinny then go to step 2. If fish has spots, go to step 6.If fish shape is not long and skinny go to step 3. If fish does not have spots, go to step 7.Step 2 Step 6If fish has pointed fins, it is a trumpet fish. If fish has chin whiskers, it is a spotted goat fish.If fish has smooth fins, it is a spotted moray eel. If fish does not have chin whiskers, it is a band-tail puffer.Step 3 Step 7If fish has both eyes on top of head, go to step 4. If fish has stripes, go to step 8.If fish has eye on each side of the head, go to step 5. If fish does not have stripes, it is a glassy sweeper.Step 4 Step 8If fish has long whip like tail, it is a spotted eagle ray. If fish has a V-shaped tail, it is a squirrel fish.If fish short blunt tail, it is a peacock flounder. If fish has a blunt tail, it is a glass eye snapper.
  32. 32. Step 1 Step 5If fish shape is long and skinny then go If fish has spots, go to step 6.to step 2. If fish does not have spots, go to step 7.If fish shape is not long and skinny go tostep 3.Step 2 Step 6If fish has pointed fins, it is a trumpet If fish has chin whiskers, it is a spottedfish. goat fish.If fish has smooth fins, it is a spotted If fish does not have chin whiskers, it ismoray eel. a band-tail puffer.Step 3 Step 7If fish has both eyes on top of head, go If fish has stripes, go to step 8.to step 4. If fish does not have stripes, it is aIf fish has eye on each side of the head, glassy sweeper.go to step 5.Step 4 Step 8If fish has long whip like tail, it is a If fish has a V-shaped tail, it is a squirrelspotted eagle ray. fish.If fish short blunt tail, it is a peacock If fish has a blunt tail, it is a glass eyeflounder. snapper.
  33. 33. What are the 2 Conditions for aProperly Written Dichotomous Key? 1) Two choices for each characteristic. 2) Unique ending for each individual item (think of the fish example).
  34. 34. Two Ways a Dichotomous Key Can be Represented:1) With a diagram (tree/flow chart).2) With words.
  35. 35. How does a Dichotomous KeyRelate to the 7 Taxa and Binomial Nomenclature?• Characteristics that define the choices (dichotomy) are often based on the characteristics that subdivide each taxa (e.g. vertebrate vs. invertebrate).• A true key ends with a scientific name of the organism using the binomial nomenclature system.

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