Research Introduction 250409

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Research Introduction 250409

  1. 1. Introduction to the Research Tarrazú, 2009
  2. 2. 1 st Part: The Beginning
  3. 3. “ Engages people worldwide in scientific field research and education to promote the understanding and action necessary for a sustainable environment” Earthwatch Institute:
  4. 4. Priority Areas: <ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Resource Management </li></ul>
  5. 5. High Level Goals: <ul><li>Increasing Scientific Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Developing environmental leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling organizations and business to become more sustainable </li></ul><ul><li>Informing environmental policies, agendas and management plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing natural and socio-cultural capital </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Organization </li></ul>
  6. 6. Tarrazú Research Initiative
  7. 7. <ul><li>Location: Tarrazú </li></ul>
  8. 8. Unsustainable Coffee Production: <ul><li>Soil degradation: Acidification and Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive farming (high inputs such as fertilizers, herbicides, and nematicides): High production costs </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased biodiversity </li></ul>
  9. 9. Shade tree Ground cover Coffee Health/vigor Productivity Quality Farmer investment Biodiversity and abundance Erosion and water run off Soil Landscape composition, features, altitude (GIS) Micro-climate Fertilizer and liming
  10. 10. Soil pH
  11. 12. Research Project: <ul><li>Field Research </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer Outreach Program </li></ul><ul><li>Support to CoopeTarrazú Technical Assistance </li></ul>
  12. 13. 2 nd Part: The Future of the Research Initiative
  13. 14. Ecosystem Services*: * Millenium Ecosystem Assesment, 2007 “ Ecosystems underpin human well –being through supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural services.”
  14. 15. Ecosystem Services in the region: <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Carbon Sequestration </li></ul>
  15. 16. Managing Ecosystems (1) Farm (sub) Watershed Landscape
  16. 17. Multipurpose Farming: <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Agroecology </li></ul><ul><li>Ecoagriculture framework </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Agriculture (as suggested like RAS) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Managing Ecosystems (2): <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Components and their relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution and size </li></ul>
  18. 19. 3 rd Part: Carbon Sequestration
  19. 20. The Carbon Cycle*: * http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/carbon_cycle4.php
  20. 21. Carbon stocks: plants, soil, atmosphere* * In Janzen, H., 2004
  21. 22. Human induced changes: Increased CO 2 emissions (Janzen, 2004) Fossil Fuels: Land cover change:
  22. 23. Human induced changes (2): Warming Earth (IPCC,2007)
  23. 24. What to do? (in agricultural landscapes): On Farm Strategies_ Off Farm Strategies
  24. 25. On Farm Strategies: <ul><li>Increase Above/belowground Biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Soil Carbon Stock </li></ul><ul><li>Use shade tree products to produce biofuels </li></ul>
  25. 26. Above/belowground Carbon Stock <ul><li>Shade tree species </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee plant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Cover </li></ul>
  26. 27. Above/belowground Carbon Stock (2)
  27. 28. Soil Carbon stock <ul><li>Addition of Organic Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Addition of Biochar (!!!) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct effects: Increase productivity, soil fertility, stability, microorganisms populations </li></ul>
  28. 29. Off Farm Strategies: <ul><li>Increase forest cover </li></ul>
  29. 30. Increase Forest Cover:
  30. 31. Increase Forest Cover: <ul><li>Compensation mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Where, who, How much? </li></ul>You will help on this strategy!

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