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Global Agriculture Sustainability May08


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Global Agriculture Sustainability May08

  1. 1. El Marqués de Tarrazú May 20th, 2008 “ Sustaining Agriculture: Sustaining life” Nestl é Team
  2. 2. Ecosystems water biodiversity climate - carbon food – fuel - fiber regulation - mitigation cultural-aesthetic
  3. 3. Ecosystem Services
  4. 4. Ecosystem Services
  5. 5. State of Global Ecosystem Services Of the 24 provisioning, regulating and cultural services examined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 15 were identified as being degraded or used unsustainably (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005a). Only four services were identified as having been enhanced over the past 50 years, and three of those (crops, livestock and aquaculture) were related to food production.
  6. 6. Global distribution of agriculture <ul><li>Total land available 13 billion hectares </li></ul><ul><li>5 billion hectares allocated to crops and pasture (~40 %) </li></ul><ul><li>4 billion hectares allocated to forests and woodlands </li></ul><ul><li>Other: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban, wetlands, deserts, mountains, glaciers </li></ul></ul>(Foley et al. 2005) Percentage of land cover allocated to: crops pastures
  7. 7. Global distribution of agriculture and land cover change <ul><li>50 % of original forested cover now lost to agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Each year, 13 million ha converted to agriculture mainly from forests </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, agriculture coupled with wood extraction and infrastructure expansion are the primary drivers of loss of tropical forests. </li></ul>(Foley et al. 2005) Percentage of land cover allocated to: crops pastures
  8. 8. Agriculture and land cover change: effects <ul><li>33 % of increase of CO2 since 1950 through conversion of forests </li></ul><ul><li>30 % of Earth’s net primary productivity is now appropriated for human use </li></ul><ul><li>Global loss of biodiversity through loss of forested lands and agricultural pollution </li></ul>
  9. 9. Agriculture and land cover change
  10. 10. Agriculture and land cover change: the future <ul><li>Population projected to increase from under 6 billion people to over 9 billion by 2080. </li></ul><ul><li>People are becoming more affluent and increasing net consumption of food and of inefficient food products </li></ul><ul><li>Current problem of undernourishment that needs to be addressed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>820 million people are under nourished today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing by 34 million in sub-Saharan Africa and 23 million in South and West Asia between 1992 and 2002. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need more food and a better distribution of food resources </li></ul>
  11. 11. Agriculture and land cover change: the future <ul><li>Other competing extractive demands for the landscape beyond food: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biofuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 % of US Corn now dedicated to biofuels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large producing agricultural countries such as Brazil dedicating many resources to conversion to biofuels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National and regional targets set for biofuels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood fiber, fuel </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Current status of land degradation Degradation has had significant impacts on the productivity of about 16 percent of the globe's agricultural land Percentage of agricultural land seriously degraded: ~ 40 % globally ~ 75 % in Central America ~ 20 % in Africa (mostly pasture) ~ 11 % in Asia (International Food Policy Research Institute)
  13. 13. Agriculture: where increase will come from <ul><li>Increased use and intensification of existing agricultural lands (80 % of needs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GM crops, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>drip irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased fertilizer use in Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Re) Conversion of natural habitat (primarily forests) into agricultural lands (20 %) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South America (primarily the Amazon basin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-Saharan Africa (West and Central Africa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation Reserves </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>1.1 billion people live within Conservation International’s 25 biodiversity &quot;hot spots&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of malnutrition and hunger are high in at least 16 of the biodiversity &quot;hot spots&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Human population is growing faster in 19 of the 25 biodiversity &quot;hot spots” than in the rest of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of population growth is twice as high in tropical wilderness areas than the worldwide average. </li></ul>Biodiversity and Agriculture: overlap in needs
  15. 15. Giant Armadillo distribution around Emas NP
  16. 16. Direct observations Camera traps Radio telemetry N = 591 Jaguar distribution around Emas NP
  17. 17. <ul><li>70 % of water withdrawl goes to agricultural irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>More than 1.2 billion people live in areas of physical water scarcity (Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, 2007), and by 2025 over 3 billion people are likely to experience water stress (UNDP, 2006) </li></ul>Water and Agriculture: overlap in needs
  18. 18. ¿WHAT FARMERS CAN CHANGE? From single farm systems to ecosystems
  19. 19. Agriculture: from single service to multi service Foley et al 2005
  20. 20. Contrasting land use systems Source: Francis 1989
  21. 21. Agriculture: how do we get there?
  22. 22. In summary – FAO 2007 report <ul><li>Agriculture employs more people and uses more land and water than any other human activity. It has the potential to degrade the Earth’s land, water, atmosphere and biological resources – or to enhance them – depending on the decisions made by the more than 2 billion people whose livelihoods depend directly on crops, livestock, fisheries or forests. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Expanding Sustainable Agriculture
  24. 24. Task Force recommendations for investments (from Task Force on Environmental Sustainability (Millenium Development projct 2005) <ul><li>Increase use of sustainable agricultural techniques to preserve natural assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional agricultural knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect crop Genetic diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitate degraded agricultural lands </li></ul><ul><li>Protect surrounding natural habitats </li></ul>
  25. 26. Contrasting land use systems Source: Simpson & Orgozaly, 1986