Field Methodology Explained Lucia 170608

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  • People leave understanding that big problems exist now, a quick list of the big threats, and that these threats are common to other regions Fig. 1: Comparison of the green coffee production (kg/ha) of different Latin American countries. EW Sample includes 43 farms sampled in 2008, Costa Rica includes 7 regions, Central America includes 22 regions in Guatemala, 15 regions in Honduras, 4 regions in Panamá, the total area of El Salvador and Nicaragua, and South America includes 10 regions in Brazil and the total area of Colombia
  • Field Methodology Explained Lucia 170608

    1. 1. 2009 Field Methods Explained
    2. 2. 2009 Background information <ul><li>Los Santos region is characterized by its intensive coffee production strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High use of synthetic fertilizers, herbicides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low diversity shade tree cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High yield varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beside this, the region has a highly unsuitable landscape for sustainable farming </li></ul>
    3. 3. 2009
    4. 4. Tarrazu coffee characteristics Fig. 1: Comparison of the green coffee production (kg/ha) of different Latin American countries. Fig. 2: Trends of coffee yields in Costa Rica. Yield was estimated using the average of the 5 coffee growing regions in Costa Rica
    5. 5. 2009
    6. 6. 2009
    7. 7. 2009
    8. 8. 2009 <ul><li>In 15 Sampling sites erosion was found to be (Mata & Ramírez, 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None: 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>little: 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate: 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe: 6 </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Effects of management in coffee production R 2 = 0.43; p = 0.03
    10. 10. Effects of management in coffee production: fertilizers
    11. 11. Effects of management in coffee production: fertilizers (2) R 2 = 0.64; p = 0.001
    12. 12. Effects of management in coffee production: fertilizers (3)
    13. 13. Effects of management in coffee production: fertilizers (5)
    14. 14. Effects of management in coffee production: fertilizers (4)
    15. 15. Shade tree Ground cover Coffee Health/vigor Productivity Quality Farmer investment Biodiversity and abundance Erosion and water run off Soil Landscape composition, features, altitude (GIS) Micro-climate Fertilizer and liming
    16. 16. Managing Ecosystems (1) Farm (sub) Watershed Landscape
    17. 17. 2009 What are we looking at: <ul><li>Relationship between landscape characteristics, ecosystems, and coffee production </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between site characteristics and coffee production </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of farming practices on coffee production </li></ul>
    18. 18. HF/HH LF/HH LF/LH HF/LH Organic Intensification 2009
    19. 19. Spatial Analysis through GIS
    20. 20. Farmer log keeping Log book keeping
    21. 21. <ul><li>“ Sampling plots” </li></ul><ul><li>Plot studied 2007-2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul>Field Work!
    22. 22. 2009 The transect <ul><li>Data of coffee production by plants </li></ul><ul><li>Soil nutrient and soil organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>samples </li></ul><ul><li>Arthropod diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Ground cover structure </li></ul>
    23. 23. 2009 10m 10m
    24. 24. 2009 Orthotropic axle Prunned axles The coffee plant <ul><li>In 10 plants per transect: </li></ul><ul><li>Measure diameter at 10 cm from </li></ul><ul><li>the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Count the number of orthotropic </li></ul><ul><li>axle </li></ul><ul><li>Count number of orthotropic axles prunned </li></ul><ul><li>Count the number of berries on 5 branches </li></ul>
    25. 25. 2009 coffee beans nodes branches leaves
    26. 26. 2009
    27. 27. 2009
    28. 28. 2009 Orthotropic axle Soils <ul><li>Drill using the soil auger 15 spots 20cm away from the base of a coffee plant </li></ul><ul><li>Combine this samples in a bag to create a compound sample </li></ul>
    29. 29. 2009 Ground cover <ul><li>2m from the center of transect, following the four cardinal directions (NESW), locate the metal frame of 1x1m </li></ul><ul><li>Write down the percentage of area under the following ground covers: live, mulch, and not cover </li></ul><ul><li>(bare soil) </li></ul>
    30. 30. 2009 Thank you!

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