By: Maria R. Garcia<br />Presentation: 9	<br />Medical Terminology<br />Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system: abbr...
ARF: Acute Renal Failure	<br />An abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, kidneys have stopped working<br />...
What causes acute renal failure ?<br />A drop in blood flow to the kidneys, heavy blood loss, dehydration or an infection ...
Who is at risk and what are the symptoms  of ARF?<br />If you are an older adult<br /> Long term health problems with your...
How is ARF treated?<br />A kidney specialist will look into what is causing your kidneys to fail<br />A doctor may restore...
CC: Clean Catch Urine Specimen<br />A clean catch urine specimen is a sample  of urine that is collected in a special way<...
How does one collect a CC?<br />First you health care provider will  give you a cup to urinate in<br />Second, before you ...
What are the results of a CC?<br />Depending on the type of test your doctor ordered one could have normal or abnormal<br ...
ESRD: End-stage kidney disease<br />End-stage kidney disease occurs when the kidneys no longer can function day to day. ES...
Causes and symptoms of ESRD<br />The most common cause of ESRD are diabetes and high blood pressure<br />Symptoms of ESRD:...
Exams and tests for ESRD<br />If one has high blood pressure  a brain and nervous system test will be ordered to examine t...
Treatment for ESRD<br />For now the only treatment for ESRD is dialysis or a kidney transplant <br />Other treatments coul...
Cysto: Cystoscopy<br />Test that is used to look at the inside of the bladder and the urethra  using a thin instrument wit...
Why would one need a Cysto?<br />Blood in urine<br />Painful urination<br />Urinary frequency <br />Inability to pass urin...
How is the cystoscopy done?<br />Is done by a Urologist<br />Cystoscopy generally is a very safe test<br />You will be giv...
Cystoscopy results:<br />Normal – the urethra, bladder and uretersappear normal, no polyps or other abnormal tissues, swel...
UTI: Urinary Tract Infection<br />Is an infection in your urinary system such as the kidneys , ureters, bladder and urethr...
UTI: Symptoms<br />Persistent urge to urinate<br />Burning sensation when urinating<br />Passing small amounts of urine<br...
UTI: Causes<br />If in the bladder it is usually caused by E. Coli and sexual intercourse<br />If in the urethra it is cau...
UTI: Tests and Diagnosis<br />Taking a urine sample in a cup by first wiping the area clean. The urine is then tested to l...
UTI: Treatment and Drugs<br />Antibiotics are usually given to treat UTI <br />Antibiotics commonly used to treat UTI are:...
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Presentation 9 anatomy and physiology of the urinary system abbreviations

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Presentation 9 anatomy and physiology of the urinary system abbreviations

  1. 1. By: Maria R. Garcia<br />Presentation: 9 <br />Medical Terminology<br />Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system: abbreviations-ARF: Acute renal failure-CC: clean catch urine specimen-ESRD: end-stage renal disease-cysto: cystoscopy-UTI: Urinary tract infection<br />
  2. 2. ARF: Acute Renal Failure <br />An abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, kidneys have stopped working<br />Also known as acute kidney injury (AKI)<br />Can lead to build up of waste, fluids and electrolytes in the body<br />Condition starts with rise in serum creatinine concentration or by azotemia<br />
  3. 3. What causes acute renal failure ?<br />A drop in blood flow to the kidneys, heavy blood loss, dehydration or an infection called sepsis. <br />Medicines can also cause damage such as: antibiotics, pain medicine, blood pressure medication and dyes from x-ray tests<br />Blockage from urine flowing out of the kidneys , kidney stones, tumor, injury or an enlarged prostate<br />
  4. 4. Who is at risk and what are the symptoms of ARF?<br />If you are an older adult<br /> Long term health problems with your kidney, have liver disease, diabetic, have high blood pressure, heart failure and obese<br />SYMPTOMS<br />Little or no urine when you urinate<br />Swelling, especially in your legs and feet.<br />Loss of appetite<br />Nausea and vomiting<br />Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy<br />Pain in the back just below the rib cage<br />
  5. 5. How is ARF treated?<br />A kidney specialist will look into what is causing your kidneys to fail<br />A doctor may restore blood flow and stop any medicines you may be taking<br />Your doctor may recommend dialysis if waste is building up in your body<br />Your doctor may put you on antibiotics to help with the infection<br />Some may have permanent kidney damage that can lead to a chronic disease <br />
  6. 6. CC: Clean Catch Urine Specimen<br />A clean catch urine specimen is a sample of urine that is collected in a special way<br />Clean catch means your first clean yourself with the disinfectant towelette and then you urinate directly in a cup<br />For example one would receive a CC if you had an infection in your urinary tract <br />A doctor would test your urine using a CC that would help keep out the bacteria that is on your skin but not in your urinary tract<br />
  7. 7. How does one collect a CC?<br />First you health care provider will give you a cup to urinate in<br />Second, before you urinate in the cup make sure to wash your hands<br />Third, remove the lid with clean hands without touching the inside of the cup<br />Fourth, gently wipe your vagina or penis with a packaged disinfectant wipe <br />Fifth, start urinating in toilet and place cup under the stream of urine. You will only need 2 tablespoons of the urine. Once complete place back lid and wash your hands<br />
  8. 8. What are the results of a CC?<br />Depending on the type of test your doctor ordered one could have normal or abnormal<br />If the urine test was sent for urinalysis then abnormal results would mean a presence of white blood cells, red blood cells or large amounts of protein<br />If the urine test was sent for urine culture then abnormal results may indicate bacteria, urinary tract infection or a bladder infection<br />
  9. 9. ESRD: End-stage kidney disease<br />End-stage kidney disease occurs when the kidneys no longer can function day to day. ESRD occurs when a persons chronic kidney disease has worsened and which the kidney can no longer function and is less that 10% normal<br />A person with chronic kidney disease gradually worsens for 10-20 years and progresses to end-stage kidney disease<br />People who reach to ESRD will need dialysis or a kidney transplant<br />
  10. 10. Causes and symptoms of ESRD<br />The most common cause of ESRD are diabetes and high blood pressure<br />Symptoms of ESRD:<br /> -Fatigue - Breath odor<br /> -Itching and dry skin - Excessive thirst<br /> -Headaches - Swelling of feet and hands<br /> -Increase weight loss without trying - Bone pain<br /> -Loss of appetite - Brain and nervous system symptoms <br /> -Nausea - Easy bruising and nose bleeds<br />
  11. 11. Exams and tests for ESRD<br />If one has high blood pressure a brain and nervous system test will be ordered to examine the signs of nerve damage<br />A doctor would listen for abnormal heart rate or lung sounds with a stethoscope<br />A patient with ESRD will make less urine or most likely stop so many tests will need to be run <br />
  12. 12. Treatment for ESRD<br />For now the only treatment for ESRD is dialysis or a kidney transplant <br />Other treatments could include: extra calcium and vitamin D , special medicines called phosphate binders, to help prevent phosphorous levels from becoming too high, treatment for anemia, iron pills, special shots of a medicine called erythropoietin, and blood transfusions.<br /> Without dialysis or a kidney transplant or other treatments one would die from the buildup of fluids and waste in the body<br />
  13. 13. Cysto: Cystoscopy<br />Test that is used to look at the inside of the bladder and the urethra using a thin instrument with lighting called a cystoscope<br />A doctor would use a cystoscope when an x-ray does not show up well. Thus a cystoscope is inserted in the urethra and then into the bladder for better viewing<br />If a doctor finds suspicious growths with a cystoscope they will be removed to avoid future surgery<br />
  14. 14. Why would one need a Cysto?<br />Blood in urine<br />Painful urination<br />Urinary frequency <br />Inability to pass urine<br />Repeated urinary tract infections<br />Blockage in urethra<br />Stones or growths <br />Bleeding in bladder<br />Remove tumors<br />
  15. 15. How is the cystoscopy done?<br />Is done by a Urologist<br />Cystoscopy generally is a very safe test<br />You will be given a sedative to relax <br />You will lie on your back on a special table with your knees bent and legs apart<br />A well-lubricated cystoscope is inserted into your urethra and slowly advanced into your bladder<br />The cystoscope is usually in your bladder for only 2 to 10 minutes.<br />Common side effect are temporary swelling of the urethra, which may make it difficult to urinate. A catheter inserted in your bladder can help drain the urine until the swelling goes awayand bleeding sometimes occurs<br />
  16. 16. Cystoscopy results:<br />Normal – the urethra, bladder and uretersappear normal, no polyps or other abnormal tissues, swelling, bleeding, narrow areas (strictures), or structural abnormalities.<br />Abnormal -There is swelling or narrowing of the urethra, there are tumors, polyps, ulcers and inflammation and pelvic organ prolapse<br />
  17. 17. UTI: Urinary Tract Infection<br />Is an infection in your urinary system such as the kidneys , ureters, bladder and urethra<br />Women are at greater risk of contracting a UTI<br />UTI can spread to your kidney and can become painful if untreated<br />Antibiotics are usually given to medicate UTI <br />
  18. 18. UTI: Symptoms<br />Persistent urge to urinate<br />Burning sensation when urinating<br />Passing small amounts of urine<br />Urine that appears cloudy<br />Urine that appears bright pink or cola colored which is a sign of blood in the urine<br />Strong-smelling urine<br />Pelvic painor Rectal pain<br />
  19. 19. UTI: Causes<br />If in the bladder it is usually caused by E. Coli and sexual intercourse<br />If in the urethra it is caused by gastrointestinal bacteria spreading from the anus to the urethra, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as herpes, gonorrhea and chlamydia<br />
  20. 20. UTI: Tests and Diagnosis<br />Taking a urine sample in a cup by first wiping the area clean. The urine is then tested to look for pus, red blood cells or bacteria<br />Urine culture can be taken to grow bacteria in a lab. This test allows your doctor to see what bacteria is causing your infection and which medications will be helpful<br />A CT scan may be ordered or a scope to see the inside of your bladder<br />
  21. 21. UTI: Treatment and Drugs<br />Antibiotics are usually given to treat UTI <br />Antibiotics commonly used to treat UTI are: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim,Amoxicillin (Larotid, Moxatag), Nitrofurantoin(Furadantin, Macrodantin), Ampicillin,Ciprofloxacin(Cipro) and Levofloxacin(Levaquin<br />If the medication is taken properly, symptoms should clear up in a few days <br />

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