SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 17
Making Sense of Biology
mrexham.com
10 Sections of a good write-up
1. Title
2. Background Information
3. Hypothesis
4. Variables
5. Apparatus
6. Method
7. Risk Assessment
8. Results
9. Analysis and conclusion
10. Evaluation and extensions
• I have expanded on each section on the
following slides.
• I have used an experiment on enzymes to give
you a brief starting point and example for
each section.
1. Title
• This should be a clear descriptive title
outlining the investigation.
An experiment to investigate the effect of temperature on the
rate of breakdown of starch by the enzyme amylase.
2. Background information
• This is where you go over all the biology that you can find on this
topic in order to form an educated hypothesis rather than just a
guess.
• Don’t forget to reference info from sources by putting in a
bibliography at the end of the write up.
In this case the following questions should be addressed.
What is an enzyme? How do enzymes work? Where do you find
amylase naturally? How do enzymes usually behave at different
temperatures and why?
3. Hypothesis
• Now that you have explained all the biology
you should be able to make a clear statement
as to what you expect to happen.
As the temperature increases so does the rate of reaction. However
at a certain temperature the enzyme will become denatured and the
rate will rapidly decrease.
4. Variables
• Identify each of the variables in the experiment,
what type they are, and how they are controlled
or measured. This is done best in a table.
Variable Type How measured/controlled
Temperature Independent Thermometer and water bath
Rate of reaction Dependent Time using stop clock
Concentration of amylase Control Prepared at 1%
Concentration of starch Control Prepared at 5%
Volume of amylase Control 2ml using syringe
Volume of starch Control 10ml using syringe
Etc. Etc. Etc.
5. Apparatus
• This should be a detailed list of what apparatus is required
to carry out the experiment with a justification as to why it
is being used.
• Make sure you use sizes and qty.
• Again this is easy to represent in a table.
Apparatus QTY Justification
Boiling tubes X10 To put the starch in
2ml syringe X1 For transferring the amylase
Thermometer x1 For measuring the temperature
500ml Beaker x1 To make the water bath
Stop clock X1 To measure time taken to break down starch
Iodine solution 100ml X1 To test for starch
Etc. Etc. etc.
6. Method
• This must be a step by step numbered guide as to how to
carry out the experiment.
• You can include a diagram of the set up if it is required.
• Someone should be able to recreate exactly the experiment
you carried out using this method.
1. Using the 2ml syringe transfer 2ml of amylase into a boiling tube.
2. Using the 10ml syringe transfer 10ml of starch into another
separate boiling tube.
3. Fill the 500ml beaker with 200ml of tap water.
4. Prepare a water bath using a Bunsen burner, heat proof mat,
tripod and gauze and heat to 80oC
5. Place the two boiling tubes in the water bath.
6. Etc.
7. Etc.
7. Risk assessment
• This should identify any risks in your method.
• Think about heating, glass wear, chemicals, harmful
organisms etc.
• Once again a table can be an easy way to show this .
Risk Precaution taken
Bunsen Burner Tie hair back, wear goggles, stand up
8. Results
• First you must have a table of results. It should
have:
– A descriptive title.
– Clear column headings.
– Units in headings only.
– All data to the same number of decimal points.
– Independent variable as first column.
– Make sure you have at least 5 repeats to work out
a mean and a standard deviation.
8. Results
A table of results to show the time taken for amylase to breakdown starch at various temperatures
For example . . .
8. Results
• Sometimes you have raw data that needs further processing. In this
case show your final table in the results section and the original raw
data in an appendix at the back of your write up.
• In this example we need to process the time data to get a rate by
doing 100/time.
• Therefore this table would go in the results and the first table in the
raw data in the appendix.
A table to show how temperature effects the rate of breakdown of starch by the enzyme amylase
8. Results
• The next stage is to draw a graph of your
results. It should have:
– A descriptive title
– Labelled axis with units in brackets
– Suitable scale
– Use as much of the paper as you can.
– Drawn in pencil (you can use a computer for the
graph but it’s sometimes hard to get it perfect).
– Join points with a ruler, don’t extrapolate past the
first and last point.
8. Results
• You can also add error bars to show the spread of
your data around each mean.
• Plot one standard deviation up from the mean
point and one down and turn it into a bar like the
example below.
9. Analysis and Conclusion
• First analyse the data, what are the trends? And can you
conclude anything from the data.
• Relate this back to your hypothesis, does it agree or
disagree?
• Also relate back to your background info section in order to
explain the results using science.
The results show that as you increase the temperature the rate of
reaction also increased up until the optimum temperature of 30oC
when it then decreased rapidly. This proves the hypothesis was
correct.
The results occurred due to increase in kinetic energy of both the
substrate and the enzyme making more collisions occur and form
more enzyme substrate complexes . . .
10. Evaluation
• In this section you need to critically evaluate the experiment. What
were the errors in the method that caused a decrease in accuracy?
Why was the standard deviation so large on some temperatures?
Were there any inaccuracies in the apparatus?
• For each issue you must suggest a suitable improvement.
• You should then also discuss how to extend the practical further to
deepen your investigation into the aim.
The water bath was very hard to maintain at the correct temperature
throughout the experiment. This would cause the results to be less accurate
and would account for some of large standard deviations in the data. In
order to improve this I would use a thermostatically controlled electric water
bath. . . .
To extend this experiment I would test more intermediate temperatures
especially between 30 and 40 in order to more closely identify the optimum
temperature . . .

More Related Content

What's hot

Chapter 8_Scientific Measurement
Chapter 8_Scientific MeasurementChapter 8_Scientific Measurement
Chapter 8_Scientific MeasurementNandjebo Phellep
 
AS Level Biology - 9) Gas Exchange
AS Level Biology - 9) Gas ExchangeAS Level Biology - 9) Gas Exchange
AS Level Biology - 9) Gas ExchangeArm Punyathorn
 
IGCSE Lab Report Headings and Checklist Guidance
IGCSE Lab Report Headings and Checklist GuidanceIGCSE Lab Report Headings and Checklist Guidance
IGCSE Lab Report Headings and Checklist GuidanceSteven Gaynor
 
Igcse biology edexcel 5.1 5.9
Igcse biology edexcel 5.1 5.9Igcse biology edexcel 5.1 5.9
Igcse biology edexcel 5.1 5.9Marc Rodriguez
 
A Level Biology - Energy for Biological Processes
A Level Biology - Energy for Biological ProcessesA Level Biology - Energy for Biological Processes
A Level Biology - Energy for Biological Processesmrexham
 
iGCSE Biology Section 1 Lesson 1.ppt
iGCSE Biology Section 1 Lesson 1.pptiGCSE Biology Section 1 Lesson 1.ppt
iGCSE Biology Section 1 Lesson 1.pptDamiraTura
 
Amount of substance
Amount of substanceAmount of substance
Amount of substanceHayley Power
 
IGCSE planning an investigation student booklet
IGCSE planning an investigation student bookletIGCSE planning an investigation student booklet
IGCSE planning an investigation student bookletSteven Gaynor
 
current and voltage in series and parallel- worksheet
current and voltage in series and parallel- worksheetcurrent and voltage in series and parallel- worksheet
current and voltage in series and parallel- worksheetRajesh Mumtaz
 
Rules for how to draw a graph ppt
Rules for how to draw a graph pptRules for how to draw a graph ppt
Rules for how to draw a graph pptomneya_ghis ghis
 
Y10 End of Year Exam revision guide 2023.pdf
Y10 End of Year Exam revision guide 2023.pdfY10 End of Year Exam revision guide 2023.pdf
Y10 End of Year Exam revision guide 2023.pdfMissBeale1
 
Chapter 3 notes chemistry
Chapter 3 notes chemistryChapter 3 notes chemistry
Chapter 3 notes chemistryKendon Smith
 
Edexcel IGCSE - Human Biology - Chapter 08 - Homeostasis and Excretion
Edexcel IGCSE - Human Biology - Chapter 08 - Homeostasis and ExcretionEdexcel IGCSE - Human Biology - Chapter 08 - Homeostasis and Excretion
Edexcel IGCSE - Human Biology - Chapter 08 - Homeostasis and ExcretionChandima Walpita Gamage
 

What's hot (20)

Specialised Cells
Specialised CellsSpecialised Cells
Specialised Cells
 
A level biology photosynthesis
A level biology photosynthesisA level biology photosynthesis
A level biology photosynthesis
 
Chapter 8_Scientific Measurement
Chapter 8_Scientific MeasurementChapter 8_Scientific Measurement
Chapter 8_Scientific Measurement
 
AS Level Biology - 9) Gas Exchange
AS Level Biology - 9) Gas ExchangeAS Level Biology - 9) Gas Exchange
AS Level Biology - 9) Gas Exchange
 
IGCSE Lab Report Headings and Checklist Guidance
IGCSE Lab Report Headings and Checklist GuidanceIGCSE Lab Report Headings and Checklist Guidance
IGCSE Lab Report Headings and Checklist Guidance
 
Pressure in gases
Pressure in gasesPressure in gases
Pressure in gases
 
Igcse biology edexcel 5.1 5.9
Igcse biology edexcel 5.1 5.9Igcse biology edexcel 5.1 5.9
Igcse biology edexcel 5.1 5.9
 
The endocrine system and hormones
The endocrine system and hormonesThe endocrine system and hormones
The endocrine system and hormones
 
A Level Biology - Energy for Biological Processes
A Level Biology - Energy for Biological ProcessesA Level Biology - Energy for Biological Processes
A Level Biology - Energy for Biological Processes
 
iGCSE Biology Section 1 Lesson 1.ppt
iGCSE Biology Section 1 Lesson 1.pptiGCSE Biology Section 1 Lesson 1.ppt
iGCSE Biology Section 1 Lesson 1.ppt
 
Amount of substance
Amount of substanceAmount of substance
Amount of substance
 
IGCSE planning an investigation student booklet
IGCSE planning an investigation student bookletIGCSE planning an investigation student booklet
IGCSE planning an investigation student booklet
 
current and voltage in series and parallel- worksheet
current and voltage in series and parallel- worksheetcurrent and voltage in series and parallel- worksheet
current and voltage in series and parallel- worksheet
 
Rules for how to draw a graph ppt
Rules for how to draw a graph pptRules for how to draw a graph ppt
Rules for how to draw a graph ppt
 
Diffusion lesson
Diffusion lessonDiffusion lesson
Diffusion lesson
 
Food test
Food testFood test
Food test
 
Y10 End of Year Exam revision guide 2023.pdf
Y10 End of Year Exam revision guide 2023.pdfY10 End of Year Exam revision guide 2023.pdf
Y10 End of Year Exam revision guide 2023.pdf
 
Transportation in plant
Transportation in plantTransportation in plant
Transportation in plant
 
Chapter 3 notes chemistry
Chapter 3 notes chemistryChapter 3 notes chemistry
Chapter 3 notes chemistry
 
Edexcel IGCSE - Human Biology - Chapter 08 - Homeostasis and Excretion
Edexcel IGCSE - Human Biology - Chapter 08 - Homeostasis and ExcretionEdexcel IGCSE - Human Biology - Chapter 08 - Homeostasis and Excretion
Edexcel IGCSE - Human Biology - Chapter 08 - Homeostasis and Excretion
 

Similar to Mr Exham's Guide to writing up a Biology Practical Investigation

FORMAL LABORATORY REPORTPrelab Before coming to the lab.docx
   FORMAL LABORATORY REPORTPrelab Before coming to the lab.docx   FORMAL LABORATORY REPORTPrelab Before coming to the lab.docx
FORMAL LABORATORY REPORTPrelab Before coming to the lab.docxShiraPrater50
 
Writing lab reports
Writing lab reportsWriting lab reports
Writing lab reportsphspsquires
 
Running Head Title1Title3TitleNameSCI 207 De.docx
Running Head Title1Title3TitleNameSCI 207 De.docxRunning Head Title1Title3TitleNameSCI 207 De.docx
Running Head Title1Title3TitleNameSCI 207 De.docxagnesdcarey33086
 
Doing a good write up modified
Doing a good write up modifiedDoing a good write up modified
Doing a good write up modifiedtashalove
 
2014 november focus for science fair
2014 november focus for science fair2014 november focus for science fair
2014 november focus for science fairLisa Odden
 
Introduction to Science
Introduction to ScienceIntroduction to Science
Introduction to Sciencengibellini
 
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Instructions for Scenario 1. Begin.docx
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Instructions for Scenario 1. Begin.docxEvidence-Based Practice (EBP) Instructions for Scenario 1. Begin.docx
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Instructions for Scenario 1. Begin.docxSANSKAR20
 
Laboratory notebook policy By Prof. Mohamed Labib Salem
Laboratory notebook policy By Prof. Mohamed Labib SalemLaboratory notebook policy By Prof. Mohamed Labib Salem
Laboratory notebook policy By Prof. Mohamed Labib SalemProf. Mohamed Labib Salem
 
Lab report michael chang
Lab report michael changLab report michael chang
Lab report michael changmichael20102010
 
Running Head Title1Title4TitleNameSCI 207 De.docx
Running Head Title1Title4TitleNameSCI 207 De.docxRunning Head Title1Title4TitleNameSCI 207 De.docx
Running Head Title1Title4TitleNameSCI 207 De.docxagnesdcarey33086
 
Practicing sceintific method
Practicing sceintific methodPracticing sceintific method
Practicing sceintific methodBlancoScience
 
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory .docx
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory                        .docx(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory                        .docx
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory .docxgertrudebellgrove
 
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory .docx
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory                        .docx(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory                        .docx
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory .docxgertrudebellgrove
 
Science-Fair-Power-Point.ppt
Science-Fair-Power-Point.pptScience-Fair-Power-Point.ppt
Science-Fair-Power-Point.pptManyasingh46
 
Conducting Science Fair Projects Your Ultimate Guide
Conducting Science Fair Projects Your Ultimate GuideConducting Science Fair Projects Your Ultimate Guide
Conducting Science Fair Projects Your Ultimate GuideVIGEALVARADO1
 
HEALTH CARE 24 SCIENE PRECT TEMPLATE ANYONE CAN USE.ppt
HEALTH CARE 24 SCIENE PRECT TEMPLATE ANYONE CAN USE.pptHEALTH CARE 24 SCIENE PRECT TEMPLATE ANYONE CAN USE.ppt
HEALTH CARE 24 SCIENE PRECT TEMPLATE ANYONE CAN USE.ppttrasbace
 
Bio Catalyze Lab
Bio Catalyze LabBio Catalyze Lab
Bio Catalyze Labtangkwa22
 
HTM301 – Food Science & Production Final Project Guidelines .docx
HTM301 – Food Science & Production  Final Project Guidelines .docxHTM301 – Food Science & Production  Final Project Guidelines .docx
HTM301 – Food Science & Production Final Project Guidelines .docxpooleavelina
 

Similar to Mr Exham's Guide to writing up a Biology Practical Investigation (20)

FORMAL LABORATORY REPORTPrelab Before coming to the lab.docx
   FORMAL LABORATORY REPORTPrelab Before coming to the lab.docx   FORMAL LABORATORY REPORTPrelab Before coming to the lab.docx
FORMAL LABORATORY REPORTPrelab Before coming to the lab.docx
 
Writing lab reports
Writing lab reportsWriting lab reports
Writing lab reports
 
Running Head Title1Title3TitleNameSCI 207 De.docx
Running Head Title1Title3TitleNameSCI 207 De.docxRunning Head Title1Title3TitleNameSCI 207 De.docx
Running Head Title1Title3TitleNameSCI 207 De.docx
 
Doing a good write up modified
Doing a good write up modifiedDoing a good write up modified
Doing a good write up modified
 
1472750387.pptx
1472750387.pptx1472750387.pptx
1472750387.pptx
 
Measuring lab
Measuring labMeasuring lab
Measuring lab
 
2014 november focus for science fair
2014 november focus for science fair2014 november focus for science fair
2014 november focus for science fair
 
Introduction to Science
Introduction to ScienceIntroduction to Science
Introduction to Science
 
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Instructions for Scenario 1. Begin.docx
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Instructions for Scenario 1. Begin.docxEvidence-Based Practice (EBP) Instructions for Scenario 1. Begin.docx
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Instructions for Scenario 1. Begin.docx
 
Laboratory notebook policy By Prof. Mohamed Labib Salem
Laboratory notebook policy By Prof. Mohamed Labib SalemLaboratory notebook policy By Prof. Mohamed Labib Salem
Laboratory notebook policy By Prof. Mohamed Labib Salem
 
Lab report michael chang
Lab report michael changLab report michael chang
Lab report michael chang
 
Running Head Title1Title4TitleNameSCI 207 De.docx
Running Head Title1Title4TitleNameSCI 207 De.docxRunning Head Title1Title4TitleNameSCI 207 De.docx
Running Head Title1Title4TitleNameSCI 207 De.docx
 
Practicing sceintific method
Practicing sceintific methodPracticing sceintific method
Practicing sceintific method
 
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory .docx
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory                        .docx(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory                        .docx
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory .docx
 
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory .docx
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory                        .docx(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory                        .docx
(CHE 276) Organic Chemistry Laboratory .docx
 
Science-Fair-Power-Point.ppt
Science-Fair-Power-Point.pptScience-Fair-Power-Point.ppt
Science-Fair-Power-Point.ppt
 
Conducting Science Fair Projects Your Ultimate Guide
Conducting Science Fair Projects Your Ultimate GuideConducting Science Fair Projects Your Ultimate Guide
Conducting Science Fair Projects Your Ultimate Guide
 
HEALTH CARE 24 SCIENE PRECT TEMPLATE ANYONE CAN USE.ppt
HEALTH CARE 24 SCIENE PRECT TEMPLATE ANYONE CAN USE.pptHEALTH CARE 24 SCIENE PRECT TEMPLATE ANYONE CAN USE.ppt
HEALTH CARE 24 SCIENE PRECT TEMPLATE ANYONE CAN USE.ppt
 
Bio Catalyze Lab
Bio Catalyze LabBio Catalyze Lab
Bio Catalyze Lab
 
HTM301 – Food Science & Production Final Project Guidelines .docx
HTM301 – Food Science & Production  Final Project Guidelines .docxHTM301 – Food Science & Production  Final Project Guidelines .docx
HTM301 – Food Science & Production Final Project Guidelines .docx
 

More from mrexham

Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 2 Sample
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 2 SampleCambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 2 Sample
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 2 Samplemrexham
 
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 1 Sample
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 1 SampleCambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 1 Sample
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 1 Samplemrexham
 
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 2.3 Evolution of Life
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 2.3 Evolution of LifeCambridge Pre-U Biology - 2.3 Evolution of Life
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 2.3 Evolution of Lifemrexham
 
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.3 DNA Replication
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.3 DNA ReplicationCambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.3 DNA Replication
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.3 DNA Replicationmrexham
 
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.2 Prokaryotic Cells
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.2 Prokaryotic CellsCambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.2 Prokaryotic Cells
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.2 Prokaryotic Cellsmrexham
 
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.1 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.1 Eukaryotic Cell StructureCambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.1 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.1 Eukaryotic Cell Structuremrexham
 
Guide to Cambridge Pre-U Biology
Guide to Cambridge Pre-U BiologyGuide to Cambridge Pre-U Biology
Guide to Cambridge Pre-U Biologymrexham
 
IB Biology Revision Quiz - Core 1 Cell Biology
IB Biology Revision Quiz - Core 1 Cell BiologyIB Biology Revision Quiz - Core 1 Cell Biology
IB Biology Revision Quiz - Core 1 Cell Biologymrexham
 
IB Biology Guide to the IA Coursework
IB Biology Guide to the IA CourseworkIB Biology Guide to the IA Coursework
IB Biology Guide to the IA Courseworkmrexham
 
A Level Biology - Classification and Biodiversity
A Level Biology - Classification and BiodiversityA Level Biology - Classification and Biodiversity
A Level Biology - Classification and Biodiversitymrexham
 
A level Biology - Cells, Viruses and Reproduction of Living Things
A level Biology - Cells, Viruses and Reproduction of Living ThingsA level Biology - Cells, Viruses and Reproduction of Living Things
A level Biology - Cells, Viruses and Reproduction of Living Thingsmrexham
 
A level Biology - Biological Molecules
A level Biology - Biological MoleculesA level Biology - Biological Molecules
A level Biology - Biological Moleculesmrexham
 
IGCSE Biology - Chemical Coordination in Plants
IGCSE Biology - Chemical Coordination in PlantsIGCSE Biology - Chemical Coordination in Plants
IGCSE Biology - Chemical Coordination in Plantsmrexham
 
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual ReproductionIGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproductionmrexham
 
AS AQA Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 17
AS AQA Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 17AS AQA Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 17
AS AQA Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 17mrexham
 
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 16
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 16AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 16
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 16mrexham
 
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 15
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 15AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 15
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 15mrexham
 
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 14
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 14AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 14
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 14mrexham
 
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 13
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 13AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 13
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 13mrexham
 
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 12
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 12AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 12
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 12mrexham
 

More from mrexham (20)

Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 2 Sample
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 2 SampleCambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 2 Sample
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 2 Sample
 
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 1 Sample
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 1 SampleCambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 1 Sample
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.6 Genes and Protein Synthesis PART 1 Sample
 
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 2.3 Evolution of Life
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 2.3 Evolution of LifeCambridge Pre-U Biology - 2.3 Evolution of Life
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 2.3 Evolution of Life
 
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.3 DNA Replication
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.3 DNA ReplicationCambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.3 DNA Replication
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.3 DNA Replication
 
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.2 Prokaryotic Cells
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.2 Prokaryotic CellsCambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.2 Prokaryotic Cells
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.2 Prokaryotic Cells
 
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.1 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.1 Eukaryotic Cell StructureCambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.1 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Cambridge Pre-U Biology - 1.1 Eukaryotic Cell Structure
 
Guide to Cambridge Pre-U Biology
Guide to Cambridge Pre-U BiologyGuide to Cambridge Pre-U Biology
Guide to Cambridge Pre-U Biology
 
IB Biology Revision Quiz - Core 1 Cell Biology
IB Biology Revision Quiz - Core 1 Cell BiologyIB Biology Revision Quiz - Core 1 Cell Biology
IB Biology Revision Quiz - Core 1 Cell Biology
 
IB Biology Guide to the IA Coursework
IB Biology Guide to the IA CourseworkIB Biology Guide to the IA Coursework
IB Biology Guide to the IA Coursework
 
A Level Biology - Classification and Biodiversity
A Level Biology - Classification and BiodiversityA Level Biology - Classification and Biodiversity
A Level Biology - Classification and Biodiversity
 
A level Biology - Cells, Viruses and Reproduction of Living Things
A level Biology - Cells, Viruses and Reproduction of Living ThingsA level Biology - Cells, Viruses and Reproduction of Living Things
A level Biology - Cells, Viruses and Reproduction of Living Things
 
A level Biology - Biological Molecules
A level Biology - Biological MoleculesA level Biology - Biological Molecules
A level Biology - Biological Molecules
 
IGCSE Biology - Chemical Coordination in Plants
IGCSE Biology - Chemical Coordination in PlantsIGCSE Biology - Chemical Coordination in Plants
IGCSE Biology - Chemical Coordination in Plants
 
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual ReproductionIGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
IGCSE Biology - Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
 
AS AQA Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 17
AS AQA Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 17AS AQA Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 17
AS AQA Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 17
 
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 16
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 16AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 16
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 16
 
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 15
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 15AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 15
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 15
 
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 14
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 14AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 14
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 14
 
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 13
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 13AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 13
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 13
 
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 12
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 12AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 12
AQA AS Biology - Unit 2 - Chapter 12
 

Recently uploaded

TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnershipsexpandedwebsite
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFThe Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFVivekanand Anglo Vedic Academy
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMELOISARIVERA8
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文中 央社
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppCeline George
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjMohammed Sikander
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...Gary Wood
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024Borja Sotomayor
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code ExamplesPeter Brusilovsky
 
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...EADTU
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhĐề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhleson0603
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxLimon Prince
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxAdelaideRefugio
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchCaitlinCummins3
 

Recently uploaded (20)

TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdfIncluding Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
 
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFThe Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
When Quality Assurance Meets Innovation in Higher Education - Report launch w...
 
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
UChicago CMSC 23320 - The Best Commit Messages of 2024
 
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code ExamplesSPLICE Working Group:Reusable Code Examples
SPLICE Working Group: Reusable Code Examples
 
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
 
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
 
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhĐề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
 
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptxAnalyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
Analyzing and resolving a communication crisis in Dhaka textiles LTD.pptx
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 

Mr Exham's Guide to writing up a Biology Practical Investigation

  • 1. Making Sense of Biology mrexham.com
  • 2. 10 Sections of a good write-up 1. Title 2. Background Information 3. Hypothesis 4. Variables 5. Apparatus 6. Method 7. Risk Assessment 8. Results 9. Analysis and conclusion 10. Evaluation and extensions
  • 3. • I have expanded on each section on the following slides. • I have used an experiment on enzymes to give you a brief starting point and example for each section.
  • 4. 1. Title • This should be a clear descriptive title outlining the investigation. An experiment to investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of breakdown of starch by the enzyme amylase.
  • 5. 2. Background information • This is where you go over all the biology that you can find on this topic in order to form an educated hypothesis rather than just a guess. • Don’t forget to reference info from sources by putting in a bibliography at the end of the write up. In this case the following questions should be addressed. What is an enzyme? How do enzymes work? Where do you find amylase naturally? How do enzymes usually behave at different temperatures and why?
  • 6. 3. Hypothesis • Now that you have explained all the biology you should be able to make a clear statement as to what you expect to happen. As the temperature increases so does the rate of reaction. However at a certain temperature the enzyme will become denatured and the rate will rapidly decrease.
  • 7. 4. Variables • Identify each of the variables in the experiment, what type they are, and how they are controlled or measured. This is done best in a table. Variable Type How measured/controlled Temperature Independent Thermometer and water bath Rate of reaction Dependent Time using stop clock Concentration of amylase Control Prepared at 1% Concentration of starch Control Prepared at 5% Volume of amylase Control 2ml using syringe Volume of starch Control 10ml using syringe Etc. Etc. Etc.
  • 8. 5. Apparatus • This should be a detailed list of what apparatus is required to carry out the experiment with a justification as to why it is being used. • Make sure you use sizes and qty. • Again this is easy to represent in a table. Apparatus QTY Justification Boiling tubes X10 To put the starch in 2ml syringe X1 For transferring the amylase Thermometer x1 For measuring the temperature 500ml Beaker x1 To make the water bath Stop clock X1 To measure time taken to break down starch Iodine solution 100ml X1 To test for starch Etc. Etc. etc.
  • 9. 6. Method • This must be a step by step numbered guide as to how to carry out the experiment. • You can include a diagram of the set up if it is required. • Someone should be able to recreate exactly the experiment you carried out using this method. 1. Using the 2ml syringe transfer 2ml of amylase into a boiling tube. 2. Using the 10ml syringe transfer 10ml of starch into another separate boiling tube. 3. Fill the 500ml beaker with 200ml of tap water. 4. Prepare a water bath using a Bunsen burner, heat proof mat, tripod and gauze and heat to 80oC 5. Place the two boiling tubes in the water bath. 6. Etc. 7. Etc.
  • 10. 7. Risk assessment • This should identify any risks in your method. • Think about heating, glass wear, chemicals, harmful organisms etc. • Once again a table can be an easy way to show this . Risk Precaution taken Bunsen Burner Tie hair back, wear goggles, stand up
  • 11. 8. Results • First you must have a table of results. It should have: – A descriptive title. – Clear column headings. – Units in headings only. – All data to the same number of decimal points. – Independent variable as first column. – Make sure you have at least 5 repeats to work out a mean and a standard deviation.
  • 12. 8. Results A table of results to show the time taken for amylase to breakdown starch at various temperatures For example . . .
  • 13. 8. Results • Sometimes you have raw data that needs further processing. In this case show your final table in the results section and the original raw data in an appendix at the back of your write up. • In this example we need to process the time data to get a rate by doing 100/time. • Therefore this table would go in the results and the first table in the raw data in the appendix. A table to show how temperature effects the rate of breakdown of starch by the enzyme amylase
  • 14. 8. Results • The next stage is to draw a graph of your results. It should have: – A descriptive title – Labelled axis with units in brackets – Suitable scale – Use as much of the paper as you can. – Drawn in pencil (you can use a computer for the graph but it’s sometimes hard to get it perfect). – Join points with a ruler, don’t extrapolate past the first and last point.
  • 15. 8. Results • You can also add error bars to show the spread of your data around each mean. • Plot one standard deviation up from the mean point and one down and turn it into a bar like the example below.
  • 16. 9. Analysis and Conclusion • First analyse the data, what are the trends? And can you conclude anything from the data. • Relate this back to your hypothesis, does it agree or disagree? • Also relate back to your background info section in order to explain the results using science. The results show that as you increase the temperature the rate of reaction also increased up until the optimum temperature of 30oC when it then decreased rapidly. This proves the hypothesis was correct. The results occurred due to increase in kinetic energy of both the substrate and the enzyme making more collisions occur and form more enzyme substrate complexes . . .
  • 17. 10. Evaluation • In this section you need to critically evaluate the experiment. What were the errors in the method that caused a decrease in accuracy? Why was the standard deviation so large on some temperatures? Were there any inaccuracies in the apparatus? • For each issue you must suggest a suitable improvement. • You should then also discuss how to extend the practical further to deepen your investigation into the aim. The water bath was very hard to maintain at the correct temperature throughout the experiment. This would cause the results to be less accurate and would account for some of large standard deviations in the data. In order to improve this I would use a thermostatically controlled electric water bath. . . . To extend this experiment I would test more intermediate temperatures especially between 30 and 40 in order to more closely identify the optimum temperature . . .