Mr Exham IGCSE - Classification

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This is a presentation designed to help explain the section of the Edexcel IGCSE Biology course about classification in the variety of living organisms section. For more help with IGCSE Biology please visit mrexham.com

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Mr Exham IGCSE - Classification

  1. 1. IGCSE Biology Brought to you by mrexham.com Copyright©2015HenryExham MAKING SENSE OF Topic 1.2 Classification The Variety of Living Organisms
  2. 2. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Objectives 2 • Can you describe the common features shared by organisms within the following main groups: plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, protoctists and viruses? • What does the term ‘pathogen’ mean? • Understand that pathogens may be fungi, bacteria, protoctists or viruses.
  3. 3. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Classification 3 • All living organisms can be classified into groups based on certain criteria. • One of the simplest forms of classification is to split all living things into 5 Kingdoms. • Animals, plants, fungi, protoctists and bacteria. • We will also look at viruses which are non- living and therefore classified separately.
  4. 4. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Classification 4
  5. 5. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Plants 5 • They are multicellular. • Cells contain chloroplasts. • Carry out photosynthesis and therefore make their own food (autotrophic). • Have cellulose cell walls. • Store sugar as starch.
  6. 6. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Animals 6 • They are multicellular. • Get their nutrition from feeding on other organisms (heterotrophic). • They are capable of movement. • Store sugar as glycogen.
  7. 7. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Fungi 7 • Can be multicellular or unicellular. • Cell wall made of CHITIN. • Made of a network of fibres called a MYCELIUM of HYPHAE. • Feed by SAPROPHYTIC nutrition using EXTRACELLULAR enzymes.
  8. 8. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Protoctists 8 • A strange collection of simple organisms that do not fit into the other groups therefore often known as the ‘dustbin’ kingdom. • Mostly single celled. • E.g. protozoa like amoeba or Algae.
  9. 9. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Bacteria (Prokaryotes) 9 • Small single celled organisms. • Three basic shapes: spheres, rods and spirals. • Cell wall made of polysaccharides and proteins (peptidoglycan). • Some have a capsule or slime layer. • Has no nucleus. • Some species have flagella. • Some contain plasmids (loops of DNA) which we can use in genetic engineering.
  10. 10. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Bacteria (Prokaryotes) 10 A typical bacteria
  11. 11. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Viruses 11 • All are parasites. • Much smaller than bacteria cells. • Not made of cells, and do not carry out any of the normal ‘characteristics’ of living organisms. • Made of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat. • All natural viruses cause disease.
  12. 12. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Pathogens 12
  13. 13. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham 1.2 Classification– The Variety of Living Organisms Pathogens 13 • It could be a virus e.g. influenza. • It could be a fungus e.g. athlete’s foot • It could be a bacteria e.g. cholera • It could be a protoctists e.g. malaria • These pathogens can often be passed from person to person.
  14. 14. This PowerPoint is protected under copyright. It is designed for educational use. Either personal study or to be presented to a class. It may be edited or duplicated for these purposes only. It must not be shared or distributed online in any format. Some images used are under a separate creative commons license, these are clearly marked. Copyright © 2015 Henry Exham Brought to you by MrExham.com TERMS AND CONDITIONS 14
  15. 15. You can find all my resources on mrexham.com or go straight to my Sellfy store

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