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SVA Fundamentals of Design for Social Innovation book 2013


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Created by the Fall 2013 cohort of the Fundamentals class in the MFA in Design for Social Innovation program at School of Visual Arts in New York. Produced under the mentorship of professors Marc Rettig and Hannah du Plessis, this book surveys frameworks, approaches, methods and skills for organizations, teams, and individual practitioners.

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SVA Fundamentals of Design for Social Innovation book 2013

  1. 1. A survey of Fundamentals of Design for Social Innovation by the Fall 2013 cohort, MFA in Design for Social Innovation, School of Visual Arts
  2. 2. Fundamentals of Design for Social Innovation Fall 2013 Edition a survey of
  3. 3. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4 0 International License See creativecommons org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4 0/
  4. 4. Fundamentals of Design for Social Innovation Created by the Fall 2013 cohort of the MFA in Design for Social Innovation, School of Visual Arts Marc Rettig and Hannah du Plessis, Professors New York, New York Ways of seeing, working, and being for the work of creating social health, presented as a set of mini-posters a survey of
  5. 5. Contents Overview of the program and the course . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv The SVA DSI class of 2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi The challenge of designing for social innovation The landscape of DSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Complexity ofsocial situations . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Dynamics of living systems . . . . . . . . . 6 Some approaches to designing for social situations Theory U, overview and example . . . . . . . . 8 Positive deviance, overview and example . . 12 Appreciative inquiry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Prototypes as catalysts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Emergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Some fundamental skills Learning to listen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 The art of the interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Finding patterns in stories . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Iteration: the fundamental design process . 28 Facilitating dialog and co-creation Six conversations for transformation . . . . . 30 Facilitation: the mutual learning model . . . 32 Ground rules for effective groups . . . . . . . 34 Prototyping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The ladder of inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 The skills of a facilitator . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 World Cafe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Collective story harvesting . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Open space technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Action replay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Theater of the oppressed . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Creating in communities, organizations, and systems The assignment: summarize a key topic in two pages The pages in this book are student summaries of key topics, concepts, and ideas covered during the Fall 2013 conduct of the Fundamentals of Design for Social Innovation course. Drawing from course slides, lecture notes, and assigned readings, each student summarized two topics in mini-posters, which were displayed during the program’s Fall Show, then become a spread in this book. How can we advance the practice of creating resilient social health? Our class pursued this question through two interconnected themes: system scale and personal scale. ii
  6. 6. Self & team: personal and interpersonal fundamentals What informs behavior? The enculturation process . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Constructing an inner world . . . . . . . . . . 54 Forming boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Understanding transformation Introduction to transformation . . . . . . . . . 58 How habits change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 How habits form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Brain states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Fear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Making peace with the past . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Cultivating awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Cultivating compassion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Cultivating healthy relationships Self-acceptance and self-care . . . . . . . . . . 74 Relationship to your emotions . . . . . . . . . 76 Relationship to your body . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Relationship to stillness . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Strategies of disconnection . . . . . . . . . . . 82 How to brew a thinking environment . . . . . 84 Healthy work cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Unhealthy work cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Readings and resources
  7. 7. The program MFA in Design for Social Innovation, School of Visual Arts Design for Social Innovation at SVA is the first MFA program in the rapidly growing field of social impact design. It was created as a much-needed path for designers who want to work at a strategic level within business, government and the social sector to solve the major challenges humanity faces, and to teach non-designers to use design to create positive impact. The program is unique in a number of important ways: DSI is cross-disciplinary. We “blow up” and scale traditional design to include invisible systems and mental models, mapping, visualization design, game design, communication and social movement design, metrics, leadership, entrepreneurship and ethics. Students work from the beginning on important challenges with real clients and stakeholders. Our belief is that learning in social design comes from experience, with theory to inspire, support, guide and evaluate it. Stakeholder projects are built into the curriculum, as well as in the form of sponsorships and collaboration on programs and events outside of classes. Our faculty are all working professionals with deep experience in a wide variety of fields from healthcare, innovation, research, game design, venture philanthropy and entrepreneurship, corporate leadership, non-profit leadership, entrepreneurship, academia and philanthropy. We continue to offer new classes and workshops that bring the latest thinking and practice into the program. We are diverse. Our 45 students come from 13 countries, range in age from 22 to 57, and have undergrad degrees from design academies and ivy league schools. Our students’ experience and interests are as diverse as they are. The cumulative effect of this is a cohort that learns from each other as much as from our faculty. Contact MFA Design for Social Innovation School of Visual Arts 136 West 21st Street, 5th floor New York, New York 10011 212.592.2173 Professors Marc Rettig, Hannah du Plessis, iv
  8. 8. The course Fundamentals of Design for Social Innovation This book was produced by students in Fundamentals of Design for Social Innovation, a course taken by all students during their first semester in the DSI program. Design for Social Innovation is a relatively new area of study and practice, and students come to the course from diverse backgrounds. The course covers material in three main areas: • design fundamentals • approaches to creating in communities, organizations and systems • the fundamentals of personal and interpersonal transformation The Fundamentals course is built on the following insights and principles, which provide a foundation for the course lectures, readings, and projects. Design = creating with intention through iteration If you want to create something good, but you can’t immediately see what it should be or what it should be like, you can walk towards that something good with alternating steps of “understand” and “try.” That’s called design. “Social” is profoundly invisible The “social” in “social innovation” means that we are working with profound things we can’t see: the relationships between people and the depth of their inner life. Communities are living systems A group of people – a family, school, community, organization, and so on – is a thing with a life of its own. The dynamics of its conversations and relationships may change in response to what’s going on around it. And its essential structures and patterns tend to stay the same even though individual people come and go. This is called a “living system.” Living systems are too complex for any one person to comprehend. There are no experts.  No control: partner with life’s emergence You can’t just tell a family to change. You can’t control an organizational culture. You can’t bring peace or compassion to a situation by deciding to do it, planning it all out, then following that plan. They are living systems, they have a life of their own. The “command and control” or “decide, plan, and execute” approach is inadequate. But we can help better configurations of the system to emerge from its own insides. Tend conditions for wholeness to emerge Because of all this, “design for social innovation” means we’re learning to help communities create intentionally for themselves. That will happen one step at a time as they have purposeful experiences and open, purposeful conversations. In this way, we can nurture the conditions needed for lasting positive shifts in the living system to emerge. The tools are experience & dialog We can’t directly change people’s identity, beliefs, and relation- ships the way we can work directly with physical or digital materials. But we can affect those things indirectly by taking a design approach to people’s conversations and experiences. New ways of seeing, working, and being Anyone who does this kind of work will need new ways of seeing human and social complexity, new ways of working because this is more like gardening than manufacturing. And they’ll need new ways of being because you can’t be successful at this work by being the “expert,” the “decider,” or the “creative one.” This work requires our whole being.  You can’t do this without cultivating your Self In order to work with other people’s relationships and the depth of their inner life, we need to know how to work with our own inner life and how to cultivate great relationships ourselves.
  9. 9. The SVA DSI class of 2015 Anna Braga Ashley Larsen Covadonga Abril Gina Kim Juno Lee Jenny Emmons Xintong Liu Laura Kadamus Meghan Lazier Elizabeth Abernethy Michelle Kwon Rachel Dixon vi
  10. 10. Marc Rettig, professor Hannah du Plessis, professor Akshata Malhotra Haya Shaath Kate Nicholson Swar Raisinghani Yuka Uogishi Liora Yuklea Maria Perez Tello Meryl NatowPragya Mishra Renzo Perez-Acosta Rhea Rakshit Robin Newman
  11. 11. “Most of the management approaches we have in place have evolved from order, not from complexity. But most human systems are complex. So we need to rethink the way we research and the way we do decision-making. ...A complex adaptive system is not causal, it’s dispositional. There are no foreseeable repeating relationships between cause and effect. You can however make out how the system is disposed to act. It may evolve in this way, it may evolve in that way, but it can’t evolve in that direction. So understanding they are dispositional systems, not causal systems, is key.” Dave Snowden, Cognitive Edge The challenge of designing for social innovation
  12. 12. The Design for Social Innovation program sits on a frontier of design practice: it prepares students to address social systems challenges, work which is fundamentally different from the design of physical or digital products. Our course opened with a look at the complexity of working in social systems. Understanding the nature of this complexity helps us identify the kinds of approaches and methods we will require to succeed at our work. The key insight is that social situations are a special kind of complex adaptive system.... Social systems are in constant dancing change A human system is a dynamic system. Which is to say, each of its people and structures are constantly shifting and moving in a kind of dance, as everyone reacts to one another and to the world outside the system. So we can’t tell what’s going on by looking at a snapshot, or by looking at just the parts. Any static description of the situation will be inadequate. Social complexity is different than other complexity Social systems are mostly made of people. Objects, software, laws, policies, processes and so on play roles, but they are not the heart of the system. And social systems are especially made of people in relationship to one another. So most of what makes a human system “social” is invisible: people’s inner lives, relationships, identities, beliefs, stories, conversations, and so on. So-called “best practices” can’t be relied upon The nature of social complexity is such that there is no way to predict the affect of an intervention (unlike say, a physical or digital system). And we can’t say ahead of time what a “desirable” configuration is going to be like. We can’t specify a “solution” ahead of time, and we can’t plan in detail beyond our next step. But there’s hope While the study of complex human systems is relatively new, there is much we can learn from living systems theory, the practice of organizational learning, and many other pioneers who have something to teach us about the daunting, but not inaccessible, complexity of the work we’ve chosen to do.
  13. 13. THE LANDSCAPE OF DSI FIX PROBLEMS: Design for… SYSTEMIC WELLNESS: Design with… SYSTEMATIC SELF-HEALING / RESILIENCE: Nurture the conditions for life… THE SCOPE OF OUR INQUIRY solutions come from experts and are designed for individuals health and wellness for society is built into systems with individuals systems emerge in society due to the inherent abilities of the individuals LEVEL 1 INDIVIDUALS solutions come from experts and are designed for social systems made of individuals health and wellness for society is built into systems with social systems made of individuals systems emerge in society due to the inherent abilities of social systems made of individuals solutions come from experts and are designed for social systems made of smaller social systems health and wellness for society is built into systems with social systems made of smaller social systems systems emerge in society due to the inherent abilities of social systems made of smaller social systems LEVEL 2 SYSTEMS MADE OF INDIVIDUALS LEVEL 3 SYSTEMS MADE OF SMALLER SYSTEMS 2
  14. 14. As you move up the y-axis (social scale) the size of the social system increases. Level 1 is merely individuals, Level 2 is social systems made of individuals (such as a school), and Level 3 and higher are social systems that can be broken down into smaller social systems (such as a school district or districts within a county). In other words, work becomes more complicated and typically more widespread as you move up this diagram. Along the x-axis (depth of process and outcome), the reach of influence of the project in question increases. From left-to- right, the diagram begins with “designing for”, or situations where an outsider comes in to influence change, such as a doctor. Next is “designing with” which is when the designer is an insider. Finally is “nurture the conditions for life”, beyond designing within a system, and ultimately is a society or system in which change is self-produced. THE FRONTIER OF DSI IS TO LEARN HOW TO MOVEUPANDACROSS THIS LANDSCAPE.
  15. 15. Complexity of Social Situation Social situations all exhibit all three of these complexities: Social, dynamic, and generative e cannot address our tough challenges only throughdrivingtowards self-realization or only through driving towards unity. We need to do both. Often we assume that all it takes to create something new — whether in business or politics or technology or art ­— is purposefulness or power. This is because we often assume that the context in which we create is an empty world: an open frontier, a white space, a blank canvas. In general this assumptions is incorrect. Our society is increasingly full of diverse, strong, competing voices and ideas and cultures. This fullness is the fundamental reason why, in order to address our toughest social challenges, we need to employ not only power but also love. A challenge is tough when it is complex in three ways. A challenge is dynamically complex when cause and effect are interdependent and far apart in space and time; such challenges cannot successfully be addressed piece by piece, but only by seeing the system as a whole. W A challenge is socially complex when the actors involved have different perspectives and interests; such challenges cannot successfully be addressed by experts or authorities, but only with the engagement of the actors themselves. And a challenge is generatively complex when its future is fundamentally unfamiliar and undetermined; such challenge cannot successfully be addressed by applying “best practice” solutions from the past, but only by growing new, “next practice” solutions. Power and Love, Adam Kahane 4
  16. 16. participatory emergent holistic Therefore our approachestocomplexproblemsmustbe Designed by Michelle Kwon Designing for social innovation, designers must understand the complexities of social systems and approach to problems. For more, see Adam Kahane’s book, Power and Love
  17. 17. 1 Existing systems reach apex and begin to decay. At the same time, a new system begins to emerge. 2 dominant system become solo pioneers of the new system. PIVOT POINT SYSTEM BIRTH A living system is any non-linear grouping of parts (people included) that are interdependent, and self-organizing. Living systems are also socially, dynamically and generatively complex. Almost anything you can think of, from schools to families to large conglomerate corporations, is an example of a living system. So what does that mean for designers of social innovation? By definition, innovation happens when something new or unfamiliar is introduced. This word is often tied with scientific feats or develop- ing products, but the same principle can be seen while observing the diagram explains how an existing system’s growth and development gives way to the birth of a new living system and how that new system emerges through a process of trying to find its own way. The best part about this diagram? It illustrates the way of all living systems, and by understanding how these systems behave - we can begin to collaborate with this powerful force of life. Summary and Visualization by Elizabeth Abernethy 6
  18. 18. 4 3 5 Over time, they develop a common purpose to gather around, illuminating posibilities of a new dominant system. The solo pioneers begin to connect to one another, forming networks that will turn into communities of pracice. Eventually, this community of practice becomes the new system of influence while the old system dies. COMMON GOAL NETWORKING 6 SUCCESSIONCROSS OVER The new system helps build a bridge for people to cross from the old system to the new one. Linda Booth Sweeney “12 Living System Principles” Chris Corrigan “Dynamics of Complex Living Systems”
  19. 19. Some approaches to designing for social innovation “The challenge is to think broadly enough to have a theory and methodology that have the power to make a difference, and yet be simple and clear enough to be accessible to anyone who wants to make that difference. We need ideas from a variety of places and disciplines to deal with the complexity of community. Then, acting as if these ideas are true, we must translate them into embarrassingly simple and concrete acts.” Peter Block, Community: the structure of belonging
  20. 20. We need new approaches Given the complexity of social systems and situations, methods developed for typical product and business situations often are not adequate on their own. They work when the situation can be addressed through research or expertise, but not when we are trying to foster a positive shift in something that is dynamically, socially complex. In this course, we covered a number of approaches that have the characteristics needed for having lasting impact in a complex social situation. These approaches are: Participatory: These approaches help us work from inside the situation, involving the people who are live it every day. This system’s future is going to be made of them, and so it must come from them. Holistic: These approaches help us work with the situation as a whole, not just its parts. Emergent: These approaches help us manage the emergence of a healthier configuration of the system over time, as opposed to “best practice,” “specify and build,” “decide, plan, and implement,” or “decree and comply” approaches. We can’t tell what to do simply from past experience, smart planning, or good forecasting. Our approach must be emergent. In next year’s course, we will drop Appreciative Inquiry from the list of approaches, as we do not find it to be a peer to the other overall approaches we cover. In its place we will add the work of Dave Snowden and his company, Cognitive Edge – the Cynefin framework, distributed ethnography, and managed portfolios of safe-to-fail experiments. From expert to facilitator, from surface fix to underlying dynamics Most current design methods cast the designer in the role of an expert, who identifies a “problem” that part of society is facing. The focus is then on fixing that problem, addressing that need. But this is inadequate for fostering resilient shifts in social systems, because… • the “problem” can only be identified by seeing the situation from the many points of view that exist inside the system, not by a single expert or team • there is unlikely to be a single problem; more likely there are a number of negative dynamics or tendencies in the system, and it will not be clear how best to affect them • any “fix” is more likely to affect the symptoms rather than the underlying dynamic that gives rise to the symptoms; design has a poor track record for addressing the roots of a situation • improvements in the situation are less likely to involve things we can see and make, and more likely to involve relationships, conversations, identities, people’s inner lives. It is more likely to involve patterns and tendencies over time than behavior in the moment. A difficult shift Most of us come to this work with a belief (either explicit or tacit) that it is possible to understand a complex system, and become expert in applying methods for intervening in that system. It is a key tenet of the course that both of those things are impossible. That’s the point of talking about the sources of complexity. If it’s dynamically and socially complex, it’s a complex adaptive system, and there’s no such thing as “cause,” “no such thing as “solution,” no such thing as “understand.” There’s only “tendency,” “emerging configuration,” and “sense of pattern.” And that’s why we introduce approaches from people who have worked hard, sometimes at great cost, to develop approaches for working with emergence in social systems.
  21. 21. The five stages of this process in brief are: Co-initiating, Co-sensing, Co-presencing, Co-creating and Co-evolving. 1. Co-initiating: Listen to others and to what life calls you to do. The first step in the Theory U talks about initiating a intention. This is the culmination of three smaller steps: Attending: By constantly observing, in a non judgmental fashion, to what our heart desires to do and to what other people want us to do we develop the ability to view our own intentions with greater clarity. Connecting: After gaining clarity about your own field of interest, you initiate dialogue with the most interesting people involved in that field by staying open to suggestions and having the perseverance to move forward when faced with rejections or data that does not fit well with your intentions. Co-initating: Finally, you bring together the right people at the right time in the right place. Meeting such a group of people where no single person has greater control leads to the group creating a common spark of intention. 2. Co-sensing: Go to the places of most potential and listen with your mind and heart wide open. The second step is to take the first steps towards putting it into action. This can be explained through these steps: Clarify: The core teams asks and answers the important questions of What, Why, How, Who and when along with setting additional goals for the project. Discover: By shadowing, participating and initiating dialogue with people one discovers answers to some of the core questions regarding a project. Observe: One has to suspend one’s voice of judgement to be open to exploration and wonder. The idea is to observe without forming opinions or ideas. Listening & Conversing: The most effective interviews with people happen when and interviewer approaches the interview with an open heart and will. Collective Sensing: By creating an environment where everyone involved interacts and contributes freely, one can tap into a vast resource of individual knowledge and perspectives to lead to collective sense making and thinking. 3. Co-presencing: Retreat and reflect, allow the inner knowing to emerge. Here one is focusing on connecting the knowledge gathered to the future you want to see emerge. Letting go: Learning to let go of these fears and having the courage to step into unknown territory forms the base for good leadership. Letting come: As humans, a part of us is defined by our experiences to this point and another is the dormant one of what we could become through our future experiences. By connecting these two parts that reside within us we create a space that can help us evolve to our greatest potential. Intentional Silence: By practicing being silent one makes space for reflection and contemplation that helps us tie loose ends and gain clarity about future course of action. Follow your journey: Accessing our greatest potential involves doing what you love and loving what you do. While we live in a society that encourages reward driven behavior by encouraging people to do what they love you create an environment in which people do the right things just because they are right. Circles of Presence: When people who share a bond and feel a need for deeper inquiry into their personal and professional journeys come together to and raise issues and discuss challenges they face they can form a space in which the participants support one another. 4. Co-creating: Prototype a microcosm of the new in order to explore the future by doing. By prototyping and constant iteration of it we learn things faster and with feedback from stakeholders we make our ideas stronger. Power of Intention: By setting a vision and intention that shows people what they do makes a difference and is something they connect to they will willingly give all they have a project. Core Groups: When a group functions well they bring in newer people, create opportunities and resources that builds momentum to propel toward the eventual goal. Prototype: By creating smaller, lower fidelity versions of our future vision we maximizing our chances of learning more early on and anticipate better what will work and what will fail with the vision. Integrate head, heart and hand: A successful project invariably involves the integration of the head, hear and hands and improves our chances of striking on innovating ideas. Iterate: Its important we don’t fall in love with our initial ideas so much that we are not open to opportunities to improve it further by remaining open to suggestions. 5. Co-evolving: Grow innovation ecosystems by seeing and acting from the emerging whole. Along with the innovative ideas we need to provide the necessary infrastructure for these ideas to get adopted. Acting from the Emerging Whole: One has to understand the current system, imagine the future that one aspires to have and act in ways to make that future possible. Create Innovation Infrastructure: Innovation, just like a seed, needs a physical place, connectivity, nourishment and developmental space to become sustainable. THEORY U The U-Process, also known as Theory U, was co- developed by Otto Scharmer and Joseph Jaworski and colleagues at the Society for Organizational Learning, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Generon Consulting and Reos Partners. Theory U is a social technology for addressing highly complex challenges or issues. It is an innovation process, a theory and a set of practices, for creating unprecedented relationships, networks and innovations within and across the worlds of business, government, and civil society. Theory U is appropriate for issues or problems that are highly complex and systemic, where existing approaches to change or solving the issue are clearly not working. 8
  22. 22. We need to evolve systems where transformational changes in one part inspire similar changes in another. Theory U is being applied by many Creative people in business, social entrepreneurs, inventors, and artists are intuitively, in the process of idea or innovation creation, using this process. The U-Process takes what has previously been an individual, tacit, intuitive, and largely unrepeatable practice, and embodies it in a methodology that can be used collectively and consciously to open up and create visible fields of opportunity. When used to bring together multi- stakeholder or multi-sectoral groups, Theory U creates shared action-learning spaces, within which diverse teams become capable of team learning and collective intelligence. As Marc Rettig says: “It’s a formula for bringing together people from across a social system, opening their hearts and minds by giving them a chance to see the whole system together, then tap into their intuitive side – the deepest part of themselves– both individually and collectively in a way that grounds creative efforts in a profound shift in the way they see their own future. It’s a version of the design process that is explicitly participatory and emergent.” Its something that can be very useful to us in the context of Social Innovation. You can read more in the book: Theory U : Learning from the Future as It Emerges by C. Otto Scharmer The U-Process can be illustrated simply as shown in the diagram. The five stages are shown in an U-shaped curve from which the theory gets it’s name. 1. Co-initiating Listen to others and to what life calls you to do 2. Co-sensing Go to the places of most potential and listen with your mind and heart wide open 3. Co-presencing Retreat and reflect, allow the inner knowing to emerge 4. Co-creating Prototype a microcosm of the new in order to explore the future by doing 5. Co-evolving Grow innovation ecosystems by seeing and acting from the emerging whole The 5 Movements of the U-Process Compiled by Pragya Mishra | December 14, 2013
  23. 23. THEORY U THE SUSTAINABLE FOOD LAB: A CASE STUDY In 2004, a range of leaders and pioneers from multi-national food companies, global and local NGOs, farmers associations and cooperatives were invited to experience a new way of learning and working together. Through action and dialogue, they were invited to explore and create ways of “bringing sustainable food chains into the mainstream”. The meetings involved travelling out of the boardroom and into the field, engaging with the human and environmental dimensions of agriculture on the ground. These experiential meetings came under the title of the Sustainable Food Lab (SFL), reflecting the intention of creating a laboratory for a new experimental form of collaboration and innovation. The deep structure of the Sustainable Food Lab was the application of the U-Process showcased here. Sensing Learning Journeys august -september 2004 Trips organized around learning agendas developed in the first workshop designed to help the participants learn about the system by observing it firsthand. Realizing Design Studio april 2005 The kick-off for the innovation initiatives. Executive champions were also invited. Presencing & Realizing Innovation Retreat november 2004 The team synthesized observations from learning journeys, constructed a set of food system innovations, crystallized visions of the future and identified strategic leverage points for shifting the systems towards this aim Mid-Course Review november 2005 The team synthesized observations from learning journeys, constructed a set of food system innovations, crystallized visions of the future and identified strategic leverage points for shifting the systems towards this aim Brazil Arizona Austria Costa Rica Sensing Foundation Workshop june 2004 The team began to construct a shared map of the current reality of the sysytem, based on varied perspectives and experiences. They identified areas for further research and learning. The Netherlands 10
  24. 24. for more examples and references, see... Websites 1. 2. 3. summaries.php Book 4. Theory U : Learning from the Future as It Emerges by C. Otto Scharmer Realising Venture Launch june 2006 The lab team, the Executive Champions, and other interested parties reviewed the results from the completed innovation initiatives, and decided which ones to scale and howNew York Inititatives The Farming Initiative Provided insights into public perceptions of food supply, along with “alternative frames” that informed how to effectively communicate information about sustainably produced food The Business Coalition of US Based Companies Initiative Steadily expanded in membership with a first round of “quick win” projects. A new coalition of Brazil based companies was also planned. The Fisheries Initiative Delivered economic benefits to fish harvesters and better management of fisheries whilst prospecting for financial resources worldwide The Food for Health and Learning Initiatives Planned to create new combinations of public officials and opinion leaders to provide better year round food in school and public health systems The Responsible Commodities Initiative Analyzed dozens of on going commodity certification efforts and developing a meta- standard to simplify information flow about standards and certifications Compiled by Pragya Mishra | December 14, 2013 Foundation Workshop Learning Journeys Presencing & Realizing Innovation Retreat 1. Co-initiating 2. Co-sensing 3. Co-presencing 4. Co-creating Realizing Design Studio 5. Co-evolving Initiatives The Food Lab as a Case of a U journey
  25. 25. POSITIVE DEVIANCE THE DEFINITION Positive Deviance is based on the observation that in every community there are certain individuals or groups whose uncommon behaviors and strategies enable them to find better solutions to problems than their peers, while having access to the same resources and facing similar or worse challenges. the approach “The traditional model for social and organizational change doesn’t work. It never has. You can’t bring permanent solutions in from outside.” - Jerry Sternin, Co-Founder, Positive Deviance Initiative The Positive Deviance approach offers an alternative to traditional change models - it looks for solutions within communities to bring about behavioral change. The two main features of this approach are co-creating solutions with communities through a process of discovery, and engaging community members to introduce these solutions to the rest of the group, to encourage behavioral change. By identifying positive deviant behavior among specific individuals or groups within a community, the approach allows communities to discover solutions that are already working for some of their members, who are facing the same challenges and resource constraints, but are using them in a more productive way. This also means that the solutions (behaviors) are both affordable and sustainable, and do not conflict with local culture. Positive Deviance also strongly emphasizes the distinction between teaching communities what to do, versus encouraging them to practice specific behaviors by discovering their benefits through the community themselves. The approach starts and ends with the community, as community members are involved integrally in every step of the Positive Deviance process. Various stakeholders and representatives of a community are first invited to participate in a project, following which they collectively define the problem they are trying to resolve, the factors that contribute towards it, and the outcome they are trying to achieve. Once this is determined, they collectively participate in each step of the process, right from discovery to design to monitoring and evaluation (as illustrated in the following page). Finally, the community members themselves are responsible for spreading the word about their conclusions, encouraging a more organic, bottom up alternative to encouraging behavioral change, and moving towards more successful outcomes. Summary and Design by Rhea Rakshit The Positive Deviance Initiative: Rosenberg, T.“When Deviants Do Good.“ New York Times, February 27 2013 Dorsey, D.“Positive Deviant.”Fast Company Magazine, December 2000 Marsh, D., Schroeder, D. G., Dearden, K. A., Sternin, J., Sternin, M.“The Power of Positive Deviance.”British Medical Journal, May 12 2009 Positive Deviants are individuals or groups within a community that engage in uncommon behaviors that lead to successful outcomes, even though they are faced with the same challenges and resource constraints as the rest of the community. 12
  26. 26. POSITIVE DEVIANCE the steps The first step of the Positive Deviance Approach is to have the community collectively define the following: the problem statement, the various factors, challenges and constraints that are currently perceived to be causing the problem, and the desired outcome of the project. define determine The second step is to determine the presence of Positive Deviant individuals or groups within the community, by first deciding on a selection criteria, i.e. criteria that they meet the desired outcome even when faced with the some or many of the same resource constraints or challenges met by the rest of the community. discover Step three is to discover the uncommon behavior patterns or strategies adopted by the positive deviant individuals or groups, which differ from normative community behavior, and lead to successful outcomes. This is done both by the processes of observation and inquiry, conducted by members of the Community Volunteers. 1 design Once the uncommon positive deviant behaviors have been discovered and identified, they are shared with the rest of the project stakeholders and participants. The community members then collectively design activities that the rest of the community can easily practice and engage in, in order to experience for themselves the benefits of adopting these behavior strategies. monitor Finally, the Community Volunteers monitor and evaluate the project and the resulting initiatives, in order to document and share any improvements in the community, and any movement towards the desired goal. This helps the community understand the effectiveness of the initiative, by observing the positive changes or outcomes as they occur. HOWISPOSITIV E DEVIANCE USEFUL? REVERSING THE TRADITIONAL MODEL The traditional approach to designing social programs in the field of international development has been primarily prescriptive - a team of consultants working on a project (usually donor-driven) parachute in to communities, research and observe their behavior for a given period of time, devise a set of conclusions, and invariably tell communities what they should or should not be doing to achieve a specific outcome. The concept of Positive Deviance takes exactly the opposite approach - it places the community in the center of the problem solving process, with the belief that solutions to challenges being faced by the community can be found within the community members themselves. By focusing on co-creation, designing interventions with communities, rather than for communities, this approach is a classic example of applying human centered design thinking principles to solving real issues. 2 3 4 5
  27. 27. POSITIVE DEVIANCE: CASE STUDY case study: positive deviant voices One of the most successful projects conducted by the Positive Deviance Initiative is in the education sector in New York City. In 2012, Deputy Mayor for Health and Nutrition, Linda Gibbs, reached out to the Positive Deviance Initiative to see how their approach could be applied to the issue of educational outcomes among adolescent male students of color in the city. This lead to the launch of a pilot project called Positive Deviant Voices (PDV), conducted in the neighborhood of Morissania in the South Bronx in New York City. Given low school success, as reflected by low highschool graduation rates, experienced by African American and Latino males students in New York City due to a number of different factors, the community collectively decided that the desired outcome of the project would be to have the majority of male students of color be successful in school in the coming years. the process for more information Morissania (South Bronx, NYC) Morissania is a primarily low-income residential neighborhood located in the South Bronx in New York City. It is a part of Community Board 3. The majority of residents in the area are of African American, Puerto Rican or Dominican descent. In 2010, the Schott 50 State Report ranked New York City as the second worst with respect to high school graduation rates among African American male students. NYU’s 2009 Steinhardt Report stated that only 44% of African American and Latino male students from the 2005 cohort graduated after 6 years of highschool in New York City.The Positive Deviance Initiative facilitated this project in conjunction with the Children’s Aid Society and the Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter College, with funding from the Mayor’s Fund. After defining the project’s problem statement, desired outcome, and conceptual framework (see next page), they then invited a range of stakeholders from the community to participate in the project. Stakeholders included students, administrators, teachers, parents and other community members like school guards, janitors, coaches, pastors, tutors, counselors, mentors, shop owners and the police. The majority of students, as well as one teacher and administrator, were from PS 190 Middle School. A group of 8 male African American and Latino positive deviant students from the 6th, 7th and 8th grades at PS 190 were identified on the basis of their school performance (Honor Roll). They were interviewed by the core group of community volunteers regarding their deviant behavior strategies. Summary and Design by Rhea Rakshit current status For more information of Positive Deviant Voices, as well as other projects facilitated by the Positive Deviance Institute, please visit their website: projects/index.html. After conducting interviews with the selected positive deviant students during the pilot phase (May 2012 to June 2013), the community group volunteers, primarily comprising the students themselves, presented their findings to the larger community. In July 2013, a group of rising 8th and 9th grade students from PS 190 designed and executed an intership program to orient the rest of the students to the Positive Deviance process, share their learnings, and re-think existing behaviors among students. The project is currently in the replication phase, for further roll-outs in other schools and communities. 14
  28. 28. Problem: the majority of African American and Latino male students in the Bronx do not succeed in school. Influencing factors: teen dating, family life, time management, after school activities, violence and respect received both in and outside of school. Outcome: most of these students will be successful in the future. define determine African American and Latino students who have an 80% average in all subjects, and who have experienced one or more of the following: gang violence or tough police tactics, single parents households, households where English is not a primary language. discover A team of fellow students conducted individual interviews with“positive deviants”to discover uncommon behaviors, such as: sitting in the front of the class, showing consideration to all students, eating family meals together, reveiwing homework, etc. design The students design an internship program with alumni members to share the Positive Deviance process and discovered behaviors among the students at PS 190. monitor The community volunteers record and share the experiences of the students once they start practicing and adopting the behavior strategies identified among the positive deviant students, and move towards better school outcomes. Photos: Members of the Positive Deviant Voices Community Resource team sharing their learnings. All photos have been taken from the Positive Deviant Voices gallery in the Positive Deviance Initiative website. POSITIVE DEVIANCE: CASE STUDY the steps 1 2 3 4 5
  29. 29. Before you can analyze a situation, you need to define what it is you are alooking at. Make sure that your topic doesn’t constrain you too much. Appreciative Inquiry asks participants to explore as many possibilities and pathways as possible, so having narrowly defined problems sometimes simultaneously narrows your ability to think broadly. Here, you need to look at and learn from as many sources as possible. Take a look into what worked well in the past, as well as what is currently working well for you. Get as many people involved as possible in this part of the process, and design your questions to collect stories (as these will help you figure out what might be working!) When you feel like you’ve gathered enough raw information, it’s time to analyze it and identify what contributes the most to your current and past successes. Solving Problems by Focusing on What Is Already Working Appreciative Inquiry, or AI for short, is a way of working with change in any human group by asking questions about the group at its best and designing a future that draws on the strengths uncovered. This methodology encourages groups to inquire about, learn from, and build on what is working for them currently (or in the past), rather than becoming fixated on what is wrong and how to fix it. This focus on strengths and achievements, rather than on deficits and problems, is what makes The ideal goal for this process is to get everyone in the room that needs to be there, creating the most complete and diverse group made, as possible. 16
  30. 30. In this part of the Appreciative Inquiry process, you and your team dream of “what might be.” Think about how you can take the positive traits you identified in the previous phase and reinforce them. The way forward may or may not be obvious at this point. If it’s not, try some brainstorming with a diverse group of stakeholders about what you could do. Imagine your future and give it form. This can happen through a skit, poetry, dance, or any other kind of expression you want to try out! Now that you have a big idea, it’s time to figure out how it could actually happen. This phase looks deeper into all of the practicalities needed to support your vision. Drill down into all of the processes and strategies that you will need in order for your dream to be realized. Define your values, ideals, methods of change/growth that can achieve your dreams. Requiring the most planning and preparation of any of the phases, it’s time to turn your vision into a reality. The key here is the focal point. While deliverables or tasks to complete here, the overall result is an example of the changes that occur simultaneously throughout the organization. Everyone is all serving and working together towards supporting and sustaining your big dream. Make specific real-time plans for realizing the design elements you developed. Stephanie Judy + Susan Hammond “An Introduction to Appreciative Inquiry” Appreciative Inquiry Commons As designers for Social Innovation, we deal frequently in the realm of wicked problems. This means that, unfortunately, most of the problems we are trying to solve are already very negative in nature. Sometimes, approaching problems from the opposite side (even just in how you phrase your topic) opens your mind to new ideas. “Deficit-based approaches leave people with the impression that their community is full of problems and needs, many of which require the help out outside experts to overcome. This focus on needs entrenches a sense of dependence, and reduces people’s motivation to initiate their own activities, projects and enterprises.” AI also promotes ownership of the process and the result, honors diversity, leads to immediate changes, generates solutions grounded in reality, and is sustainable.
  31. 31. Catalytic Probes create attractor negative attractorpositive attractor try something else (create a new attractor) It’s a Birthday! let’s try an activity see if something good can emerge put on a movie the kids are calm the kids are not calm start a football game amplify(keepmovieon) Prototypes as CatalystsLaura Kadamus Prototypes made of people can serve as catalysts for something new to grow. They allow designers to iterate on the go, testing solutions and immediately modifying them according to success. These proto- types are called catalytic probes, because they allow designers to immediately see if their ideas are creating change. Dave Snowden, an expert on complex- ity theory and founder of Cognitive Edge explains catalytic probes simply - through a children’s party. You want to host a successful party, but a group of 17 nine year olds are a com- plex social system, difficult to control. To get a good party to emerge, you need them to calm down a bit to get lunch together. So you put a movie on. The kids come in and sit down, becoming absorbed in the film. So you keep it on. If the movie didn’t work, you would try something else. This is the basis of prototypes as catalytic probes. If your ini- tial idea - the movie - didn’t work, you would have iterated it, perhaps by organizing a game or some other activity. Since it worked and the movie calmed the kids down, you leave it on. At DSI, it is necessary to understand the power of catalytic probes. We are trying to create social innovations. In doing so, we must understand systems and the people who live within them. When working with these systems, we begin by co-creating low fidelity prototypes to see what ideas work. These prototypes can be situational, based on relationships, the environment, or anything else within the boundaries of the system. They can turn into catalytic probes and lead us to a deeper understanding of the system we want to improve. We can better utilize this approach with a clear un- derstanding of complexity theory. Systems are messy. We don’t always know how they will act or how our pro- totypes will play out. Complexity theory is based around this concept that systems are messy. But they are also adaptive, made of dynamic interactions, and, most importantly, have flexible boundaries. When necessary, designers can adjust these boundaries to work within the system. Flexible boundar- ies give designers the space to play, iterate, and prototype, fostering the power to create within complexity. 18
  32. 32. “Prototyping is creating landing strips for the future”Otto Sharmer So... How do we create within complexity? There is no science to prototyping with people in complex systems. It takes trial and error, iteration and flexibility. It requires awareness to pick up on the stakeholders’ reactions to the pro- totype as quickly as possible, and modify accordingly. There is no way to know what will happen until you facilitate a new idea. So go do. The results may surprise you. To learn more go to: 2 ways to approach the problem: This city is a complex system...nothing seems to get done, but the downtown area desperately needs to be revitalized (city official) P&R “TAX” “CITY HALL” “CODE” “POLICY” “$$$” 1. The traditional way: 2 weeks of work (innovators) “LET’S TRY IT OUT” “YEA! WE HAVE NOTHING TO LOSE” 2 weeks of work 2. Start prototyping! (example from The Better Block)
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  34. 34. Some essential skills “[The] future is not just about firefighting and tinkering with the surface of structural change. It’s not just about replacing one mind set that no longer serves us with another. It’s a future that requires us to tap into a deeper level of our humanity, of who we really are and who we want to be as a society. ...This inner shift, from fighting the old to sensing and presencing an emerging future possibility, is at the core of all deep leadership work today. It’s a shift that requires us to expand our thinking from the head to the heart. It is a shift from an ego-system awareness that cares about the well-being of oneself to an eco-system awareness that cares about the well-being of all, including oneself.” Otto Scharmer
  35. 35. All of the approaches we covered in class require us to develop a common set of skills. Some of those skills can be learned in few hours, but many involve a career’s worth of developing mastery. We divided skill development into the following rough categories. Understanding: seeing and sense-making • Seeing and listening without the filters and bias of judgement and interpretation. Helping others do the same. • Seeing the dynamics of a human system from many points of view. • Making sense of large collections of stories and story fragments. • Connecting a team personally to a situation: the difference between being able to explain something as an outsider, and having an insider’s gut-felt understanding for it. • What to do in the case of dynamically complex human systems, which can’t be genuinely “understood”: engage the whole system in collective understanding Design fundamentals Many students in the class had no formal education in design prior to joining the DSI program. Knowing they are getting more of this in other courses, we limited our attention in this class to the most fundamental: “The heart of design is intention, and the engine of design is iteration.” Facilitation and social prototyping Design for social innovation often involves helping groups of people see, converse, and create together. We need tools that people can use to move forward through differing viewpoints, conflict, unequal power dynamics, and old stories that get in the way of the new. Students learned a number of common methods for facilitating dialog and co-creation, and had an introduction to some of the key fundamentals of becoming a good facilitator. An important question for this course, one which we are still learning how to experiment with, is this: we know what prototypes are and how to use them when our materials are physical or digital; but how can we get the same benefit of iterative insight when we need to prototype new ways of relating to one another, new ways of holding conversation, new stances toward one another, power dynamics, senses of personal identity and place in the larger system? We are finding clues about answers both in the emerging area of service design, and in the time-tested techniques of theater.
  36. 36. Learning to ListenBy  Meghan  Lazier   Relationships and the richness of the human experience are largely expressed through conversation and story. Just like any other skill listening is a habit. Practice can improve your relationships, your work and your writing. That’s why it’s an essential skill for social innovators.! The Technique The concept of listening is simple. It’s being consciously open to hearing another person, expressing your curiosity by asking probing our clarifying questions. Listening is about giving presence and recognition.! 
 It may help to take notes as you listen. The goal is not to write down what you hear word for word, but to jot down reminders or things of interest so you can bring your presence back to listening. Once you are organized and present, it’s time to switch into observation mode.! The “Problem” With Good Listeners “This is the problem with dealing with someone who is actually a good listener. They don’t jump in on your sentences, saving you from actually finishing them, or talk over you, allowing what you do manage to get out to be lost or altered in transit. Instead, they wait, so you have to keep going.”
 – Sarah Dessen, Just Listen ! Why Listening Matters   22
  37. 37. Moving Your Center of Attention
 By shifting your center of attention, you can learn to listen without making judgments and interpretations. But without practice, it’s easy to fall into the lazy habits of listening.! Judgment: Inner judgment sounds like: “I know that already.” “I’ve seen that before.” “I disagree. That’s not how it is.” Stop judging what you’re hearing before it has a chance to fully develop.! Check Yourself
 You know you’re not really listening when:! ! • You’re finishing others’ sentences! • Trigger words send your thoughts wandering! • Vocabulary or a way of speaking has your attention! • You’re thinking about what you’re going to say next! • You feel that your attention span is limited! • You’re thinking about how you feel about what was just said! Distance: Distance is the arrogance or callousness that prevents us from really listening and understanding. We engage with distance when we see ourselves as separate from those “not in our tribe.”! Fear: Fear doesn’t want you to get too far into other people’s contexts, to surrender to their world and accept it as valid, especially if it’s different from your own views.! Solutions: When you find yourself solving others’ problems, you are listening for a solution, not a need. Listen for needs.!
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  41. 41. Facilitating dialog and co-creation “Conversations are very powerful tools of action and change…. Conversation as an approach to work is also merciful, as it does not ask us to take on more weight or responsibility; it simply asks us to stay involved, to keep the conversation going. ...Trying to get people engaged in a particular task is often impossible through coercion or legislation. Human beings do not often change gladly to do others’ bidding— whether it’s to change their behavior or to increase their productivity or to pursue the many goals of the organization. What we can do, however, is to create a conversation that is invitational to our own and other people’s best powers, that releases imagination, creativity and energy.” David Whyte, Five Conversations on the Frontiers of Leadership
  42. 42. Conversations are THE fundamental There are many ways we could have chosen to spend our limited class time, with many new ideas and skills to learn and practice. From the long list of skills that will be useful to students in their future, we chose to invest heavily in introducing approaches and points of view for facilitating groups of people. as they come to see through one another’s eyes, see the whole system of which they are each a part, find words for possibility and purpose, and explore what something new might look like as they create it together. “First, conversations reveal what we see in the world and the meaning we attach to what we see. Second, as Autry says, we name things and create reality. Third, we invite others to see what we see, the way we see it. And fourth, through conversations we either sustain or change the meaning of what we see. All these things play a commanding role in creating and defining an organization’s culture.” “The first, most critical step to creating a healthier, more productive culture is to change the conversations. Changing a conversation in the moment can change the culture in the room…. Changing the culture in the room in any given moment is the best any of us can do. If new conversations change the culture in the room enough times and in enough rooms, the organizations culture will change.” “Change will not survive or thrive if we continue having the same conversations.” Jamie & Maren Showkeir, Authentic Conversations
  43. 43. Invitation The Invitation is the call to join in the creation of an alternative future. Answering it is a matter of choice, so that the participants are there because they want to be and not because they have to be. Possibility What are the possibilities for the future of the community? where can it go, what can it do? The Possibility conversation is about creating a common goal and vision. Openness and honesty are vital elements to this conversation. In his book, ‘Community: The Structure of Belonging’, Peter Block lists six conversations that need to be woven through the fabric of community in order for positive change to occur. These conversations invite the community to look towards future gifts and possibilities rather than what went wrong in the past. The power of these conversations lies in asking engaging and transforming questions. The Design for Social Innovation Connection: The six conversations can serve as a model and guide when facilitating groups and communities through change processes and development. Learn more at: that-matter-2/ Six Conversations for Transformationsummary and design by Liora Yuklea
  44. 44. Ownership This conversation is about creating Ownership of the process within the community. Those who take responsibility for what they are contributing to the group, for better and for worse, are more likely to succeed in making a positive change effort within. Commitment This conversation is about invoking authentic commitment from those in the community that are making a promise, with no expectation of return, to the group. The authentic commitment should be made public, to create accountability. The commitment is not mandatory — but those who can should own it. Dissent The Dissent conversation is about creating a space to say ‘no’, to express doubts and reservations. A shared vision emerges from understanding what people don’t want as much as from what people do. When encountering dissent, don’t try to solve it, defend against it or explain it. Just absorb. Gifts This conversation is about shifting the gaze from deficiencies to the gifts and potentials of everyone in the group, bringing the strengths of those in the margins into the center. We are better defined by our gifts than by what we are missing, so this conversation creates the space to bring that to the group by choice. A gift is not a gift until offered willingly.
  45. 45. TEST ASSUMPTIONS & INFERENCES SHARE ALL RELEVANT INFORMATION USE SPECIFIC EXAMPLES & AGREE ON IMPORTANT WORDS EXPLAIN REASONING & INTENT FOCUS ON INTERESTS, NOT POSITIONS COMBINE ADVOCACY & INQUIRY JOINTLY DESIGN THE APPROACH DISCUSS UNDISCUSSABLES USE A DECISION-MAKING RULE THAT GENERATES THE COMMITMENT NEEDED I HAVE INFO; OTHERS HAVE OTHER INFO VALID INFORMATION FREE & INFORMED CHOICE INTERNAL COMMITMENT COMPASSION EACH OF US MAY SEE THINGS THE OTHER DO NOT FACILITATION: MUTUAL LEARNING MODEL DIFFERENCES ARE OPPORTUNITIES FOR LEARNING PEOPLE ARE TRYING TO ACT WITH INTEGRITY GIVEN THEIR SITUATIONS INCREASED UNDERSTANDING, REDUCED UNPRODUCTIVE CONFLICT & DEFENSIVENESS INCREASED TRUST REDUCED SELFULFILLING, SELF-SEALING PROCESSES INCREASED LEARNING INCREASED EFFECTIVENESS INCREASED QUALITY OF WORKLIFE CORE VALUES ASSUMPTIONS STRATEGIES CONSEQUENCES The mutual learning model is recommended for maximizing the productiveness and success of a group. In this form of facilitation, compassion for both yourself and others is a key value. One needs to assume that while they have information to contrib- ute, others in the group do too. This additional information may help fill in missing information, or contribute in a completely new way. The assumption that the other group members have good intentions is also important. With these core values and assumptions in place, the strategies that are implemented will lead to better conse- quences. Such strategies are to share all relevant information, test assumptions and inferences, and to jointly design the approach to the solution, just to name a few. 32
  47. 47. Share All Relevant Information It is very important for group members to be honest and transparent with each other. Group members are encouraged to share data, decisions, and content. Each member is also encouraged to share uncomfortable information such as group members’ feelings about another and their work or disagreements to another’s preferred position. faGround Rules for Effective Groups When we make an assumption, we sometimes take is as a truth without verifying it. When we make an inference, we: 1. Are unaware of it 2. Consider it to be fact 3. Act on it as if it is true The Ladder of Inference shows us that sometimes we put meaning into the data we select causing us to adopt certain beliefs and later create reflective loops where our beliefs affect the data we select next. Test Assumptions & Inferences 2 Use Specific Examples and Agree on What Important Words Mean Sharing detailed relevant information that includes who said what and when and where it happened. This gives others the liberty to determine whether the information in the examples is valid. 3 1 ci li ta tion Summary and design by Gina Kim Photograph from © 2013 Arden Theatre Company Blog 34
  48. 48. Explain Your Reasoning & Intent Explaining to others what your purpose is and the logical process you’ve used to draw conclusions. By explaining your reasoning and making your strategy transparent, you will open opportunities to actively listen to different views and approaches and learn where you have missed something. 4 Focus on Interests, Not Positions First identify the group members’ needs, desires and concerns for any given situation. After agreeing to a set of interests, create solutions or possibilities that will meet the interests. 5 Combine Advocacy and Inquiry 1. Explain your point-of-view 2. Ask others about their point-of-view 3. Ask others to ask about your point-of-view This creates focused conversations and conditions for learning 6 Collectively Design Next Steps and Ways to Test Disagreements 1. Discuss with others your point-of-view on how you want to discuss including your interests, relevant information, reasoning and intent. 2. Inquire others’ point-of-views 3.Syncgroupmembers’interests,relevantinformation, reasoning and intent. 7 Discuss Undiscussable Issues It is important for groups to discuss issues that may reduce the group’s effectiveness so that members can prevent defensiveness or other conflict. Sometimes group members choose to avoid undiscussable issues because it can be perceived to be uncompassionate. 8 Decision-Making Generates The Level of Commitment Different groups go through different decision- making processes, thus generate different levels of commitment and acceptance of a decision. Ideally, groups accept internal commitment, where each group member believes in the decision and will do whatever it takes to put it into effect. However, not all group decision-making generates internal commitment. 9 Why DSI ? One of the most fundamental lessons social innovators need to learn is how to collaborate and exchange ideas with group members. Being a part of a team is one of the biggest gifts when striving to make the world a better place. You get to be surrounded by like-minded people from diverse backgrounds and skills sets. However, there are times when people’s personalities or point-of-views clash. Becauseofthis,itisveryimportanttolearn how to share every data, content, feeling, and interests. By simply being open and ready to listen to every member’s idea and intent, you are laying a foundation to a healthy group environment. To learn more, check out Roger Schwarz’s The Skilled Facilitator
  49. 49. Prototyping Laura Kadamus Prototypes are preliminary models used to test an idea, process or product. They serve as trials, allowing designers to test out new designs and adapt them until they arrive at the desired end result. The prototyping process often leads to the discovery of new ideas. Prototypes can be made of anything, from paper to people. When first develop- ing an idea, it is best to make low fidelity proto- types, which are low-cost, easy to construct, and can be rapidly discarded or remade. As the IDEO saying goes, “fail often to learn quickly.” This is the beginning of the prototyping stage, where design- ers should come up with as many ideas as pos- sible in order to arrive at the best one. As one idea emerges with more clarity, the prototypes become more refined, produced with greater attention to detail and higher fidelity. When designing solutions for systemic problems, people are often the best prototypes. There are many methods to prototyping. No matter the method, prototypes work best when they are flexible, generative and evaluative. At DSI, we use prototypes to test concepts and learn through doing. They help us develop new ideas and build systems through iteration. Prototyp- ing is especially important when designing social systems, where the stakeholders are real and the goals is to have big impact. To better realize the needs of the stakeholders, we must prototype systems in small parts, so we can quickly see the outcome and adjust the process accordingly. This helps ensure that the results matter and have a positive impact on the lives of the stakeholders. We don’t want to innovate for innovations sake. We want to innovate to create positive systemic change in the world, and prototyping will help us get there. Prototypes are... GENERATIVE They encourage play and lead designers to surprise discoveries. EVALUATIVE With low fidelity testing, designers can quickly see what is working, and iterate accordingly. Designers test, see, and modify ideas as they work. a PROCESS Laseau’s Funnel (Bill Buxton): MESSY Prototyping is not linear, it looks more like this: most importantly, prototypes reveal that DIFFERENT IS POSSIBLE Find the essence and intention together Have ideas together Decide what proto- types to make Make, iterate, play, co-create to see what emerges together Find the essence and intention together Have ideas together Decide what proto- types to make Make, iterate, play, co-create to see what emerges together The system comes to Life! Designing Systems: Designing Things: ELABORATE REFINE less detail, more imagination, fast paced, more ideas more detail, higher fidelity, clearer ideas THE DESIGN PROCESS initial ideas final design 36
  50. 50. THERE ARE MANY METHODS: Constructive Interaction Service Prototype Wizard of Oz Experience Prototype Use Cases Mock up Heuristic Evaluation Cognitive Walkthrough Usability Testing To learn more: Sketching User Experience, by Bill Buxton The user speaks out loud while performing a set of tasks Observing interaction of the user within the context of the service The magic comes from a “man behind a curtain” Simulate the user experience Develop interaction flows Use a model, illustration or collage to describe an idea Inspect usability based on predefined criteria Evaluators experience a user journey for themselves Get a number of users to try a mockup in an everyday context
  51. 51. THEL A D D E R OFINFERENCE haveyou ever made a conclusion that was proven wrong? didanybody ever tell you to get your facts checked?many times our daily conclusions come from the values and upbringings we've accumulated in our lives. in Roger Schwarz's The Skilled Facilitator he introduces the ladder of inference, adapted from petersenge's, The Fifth Discipline and business theorist, chris Argyris's organizational principles. The ladder of inferenceis a model that helps us and others analyze hard data andtest assertions so that we can validate conclusions. we can analyze our reasonings by working down the ladder and tracing facts and inferences. This model helpsus identity where we are on the ladder so that we could re-evaluate our inferences at the right stage. SUMMARY AND design by gina kim WhyDSI? To learn more about the Ladder of inference read: Skilled Facilitator Fieldbook by Roger Schwarz The Fifth Discipline by Peter Senge At DSI we learn that it is important to know how we make our assumptions and to test if theyarevalid. By using the ladderof inference, we could widen our field of data and draw better conclusions. Instead of narrowing our field of judgment, we could use our beliefs, Values and experiences in a positive and innovative way. 38
  52. 52. ACTIONS BELIEFS CONCLUSIONS ASSUMPTIONS INTERPRETED REALITY SELECT REALITY REALITY AND FACTS I take I adopt about the world based on mybeliefs I draw I make based on the meanings I added I add from what I observed shaped by mycultural and personal values I observe What Data am i including? What Data am i excluding? Example:Fly on the wall or the way a videotape would capture it Our beliefsaffect thedataweselect nexttime I Reflective Loop POOLOFAVAILABLE INFORMATION
  53. 53. Facilitating the Environment “What social/psychological atmosphere is needed to get this job done?” It is difficult for group processes to be effective without the right environment and setting. People need to have a sense of comfort and trust in order to find the willingness in themselves to take risks and get creative. The facilitator should cultivate an enabling atmosphere of support, mutual respect and safety in the group. She/he need to be committed to modeling behaviors, guiding the internal dynamics of the group and intervening in positive and supportive ways and techniques. Facilitators make sure that the group members are provided with a sense of support both from the inside and the outside, in the framework and ecosystem the group is a part of. Environment is both physical and spiritual — make sure the workspace feels warm and inviting, start meetings with group agreements and provide breaks. Smile and listen. Really listen. A facilitator is a craftsman of process. According to Jon C. Jenkins and Maureen R. Jenkins in ‘The 9 Disciplines of a Facilitator: Leading Groups by Transforming Yourself’, a facilitator should possess three type of skills: facilitating the environment, facilitating diagnosis, and facilitating resolution. The Design for Social Innovation Connection: Add this skill set to your innovation toolbox and you will be prepared to craft your way through positive and efficient group processes and facilitation. Learn more at: The Skills of a Facilitatorsummary and design by Liora Yuklea 40
  54. 54. Facilitating Diagnosis “What is going on here?” The facilitator is able to read and understand the challenges and opportunities the group is facing, and how those can be addressed. She/he need to know what questions to ask and how to ask them — different experiences produce different answers. The starting point for diagnosis is some model or a set of models that serve the facilitator as underlying assumptions on the group’s structure and dynamics. Gareth Morgan offers some metaphors as options — a group can be like a machine, an organism, a brain, a culture, a political system, a psychological reality, a system of flux and transformation or an instrument of domination. It is up to the facilitator to use different models to examine and understand what the group is, what challenges are in its path — and then, what can be done about it. Facilitating Resolution “What can be done to improve the situation?” The most common form of facilitation is reaching resolution — enabling group decision making, implementation and discussion. It is the result of combining the promise of the situation with the solution reached by the group and the commitment by all participants to materialize the two. The facilitator needs to know how to manage the content, process and people. What information needs to be there? how is it dealt with? who is in the group and how does everyone interact? These insights best emerge from working with the group, co—creating and co—facilitating. Understanding the group, its dynamics and objectives enables flexibility, which is the sign of effective interaction. The facilitator is able to deal with the situation going in a new direction, managing through iterations and different approaches effectively, without losing control or the group going off course. She/he can see the big picture and communicate it inwardly and outwardly.
  55. 55. WORLD CAFE The World Cafe is a natural and effective way to host meaningful conversations that awaken collective wisdom & engage collaborative action. - The World Cafe Online Community 42
  56. 56. The questions(s) you choose or that participants discover during a Café conversation are critical to its success. Your Café may explore a single question or several questions may be developed to support a logical progression of discovery throughout several rounds of dialogue. Well-crafted questions attract energy and focus our attention to what really counts. Experienced Café hosts recommend posing open-ended questions—the kind that don’t have yes or no answers. Good questions need not imply immediate action steps or problem solving. They should invite inquiry and discovery vs. advocacy and advantage. You’ll know you have a good question when it continues to surface new ideas and possibilities. Bounce possible questions off of key people who will be participating. clarify the purpose create a hospitable space explore questions that matter encourage everyone’s contribution connect diverse perspectives listen for insights and share discoveries PRINCIPLES OF THE METHOD
  57. 57. COLLECTIVE STORY HARVESTING Haya Shaath One of the best ways for us to learn is through stories. Stories build bridges between storytellers and listeners. By pooling in the wisdom of listeners, group harvesting unearths a magical sense of deeper understanding, insights and aha moments within stories through collective learning. The method is outlined below in 4 steps. It is most effectively used when there is more than one storyteller, but one story- teller is sufficient. Participants choose a theme (arc) they want to actively listen for in a chosen story, then converge to discuss their findings within a small group then the group at large. This simple facilitation tool is powerful in enabling all participants to co-create rich fields of learning, while strengthening` connections between everyone involved in the process. Story harvesting is a valuable method in the field of social innovation because it helps us better understand the systems we are trying to improve, from multi- faceted perspectives. storiesasguidepostsforinnovation systemcicstories oneormorestorytellers storiesasguidepostsforinnovation systemcicstories oneormorestorytellers 1 FRAMING 2 STORYTELLING storiesasguidepostsforinnovation systemcicstories oneormorestorytellers Key: Listeners Storytellers Themes (arcs) Participants choose an arc and story they want to listen to, and surround the storyteller accordingly. - Explanation of arcs, let listeners choose their arc - Synopsis of stories - Clustering listeners around stories NARRATIVE PROCESS PIVOTAL MOMENTS + BREAKTHROUGHS WITNESS SPECIFIC THEME SYNCHRONICITY + MAGIC PRINCIPLES OVERCOMING BARRIERS 44
  58. 58. 3 SMALL GROUP HARVEST Each participant from every arc shares their find- ings with their small story group. clarifyingquestions sharingfindings clarifyingquestions sharingfindings clarifyingquestions sharingfindings 4 COLLECTIVE HARVEST Regroup according to arcs. Discuss the meta-harvest question: a common thread that links all groups (group de- brief). Also, what are you (storyteller & listeners) taking away from this session? MORE PLEASE
  59. 59. Open Space Technology is a self-organizing practice of inner discipline and collective activity which releases the inherent creativity and leadership in people. By inviting people to take responsibility for what they care about, Open Space establishes a marketplace of inquiry, reflection and learning, bringing out the best in both individuals and the whole. About OPEN SPACE TECHNOLOGY The Law of Two Feet states that“If at any time during the meeting you find yourself in any situation where you are neither learning nor contributing, use your two feet, go someplace else. ” Meeting begins. Diverse People are seated in a circle. People are given a theme to think about. All participants reconvene and discuss highlights and key learnings. Some people raise topics they are passionate about and announce it to everyone Participants split up into smaller groups according to their interests. They are encouraged to move around if they feel they are not contributing in a session. They discuss the topic over a few hours and at the end, compile the discussion into a report which is sent to their group. Whoever comes is the right people Whatever happens is the only thing that could have When it starts is the right time When it's over, it's over The Four Principles The end of boring & unproductive meetings This approach works best when there are high levels of: Complexity, in term of the tasks to be done or outcomes achieved; Diversity, in terms of the people involved and/or needed to make any solution work; Conflict, real or potential, meaning people really care about the central issue or purpose; Urgency, meaning that the time to act was "yesterday". THE PROCESS STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 By Akshata Malhotra 46
  60. 60. Opening Agenda Crea tion Marketplace SignUp Sessions SessionR eports Reflection THE STRUCTURE Greeting by facilitaor Theme is restated Participants are invited to identify issues related to the theme. Participants willing to raise a topic come to the center of the circle and announce a short description of it. Each person who is wanting to hold a discussion about their topic- writes down their topic and next to it, a time and space where the session will be held. The remaining participants sign up for the sessions - for the topics they are interested in. The individual groups go to work. The attendees are free to decide which session they want to attend, and may switch to another one at any time. All discussion reports are compiled in a document on site and sent to participants, unedited, shortly after. All reconvene an hour before closing to share highlights, "ahas" and key learnings in a Dialogue format. A focusing statement or question for your gathering. Invitation stating theme, date, place, and time for gathering. Space with chairs aligned in a circle Center table with pens & sheets Marketplace Wall Signages for sessions Snacks & Coffee FACILITATOR’S CHECKLIST Why open space? The most important issues will be raised People who really care about the issue will be discussing it. Therefore, the results will be action oriented. In a short time, all of the most important ideas, recommendations, discussions,and next steps will be documented in a report. Participants will feel engaged and energized by this process For further information on O.S.T: Websites: Books Open Space Technology, A User’s Guide by Harrison Owen
  61. 61. ActionRePLAY ‘ACTION REPLAY’ involves re-enacting an activity as if a video film of the activity is being replayed. Just as on television, the action is ‘played back’ either to examine an incident more closely or to replay an event worth celebrating. Action replay (the ‘no-tech’ version) is such a versatile tool that story-telling is just the starting point. It may be all you wish to do with an action replay. But having managed a successful replay, there are many ways and purposes in which this tool can be used. It can be a source of fun and entertainment, and/or a means of analyzing critical events, and/or exploring future possibilities. This stretches the dictionary meaning of the word ‘replay’, so the word ‘rehearsal’ is a useful replacement if this technique is used for looking into the future. So ‘replay’ and ‘rehearsal’ are essentially the same ‘technique’ but are applied at different stages of the learning cycle. Action Replay has many advantages over video work: • it is more fun • it is cheaper • it keeps involvement and energy high • it is more convenient and saves time • you can do it almost anywhere • you need no equipment (although some ‘props’ might be useful) • it is an exercise in memory, creativity, and teamwork • it can provide everyone with a chance of leadership (as director) • it can be used as a search technique to find incidents or issues to review more thoroughly “ Action Replay is best suited to the debriefing of exercises in which there is plenty of action involving the whole group. If the “action” was repetitive, it may be too difficult for particiapants to synchronize their replay. Compared to video work, Action Replay is much quicker to set up, edit, and replay (no technical problems). It can be used almost anywhere, keep involvement and energy high and teamwork. 48
  62. 62. Once the reviewer has demonstrated the possibilities, group members can take it in turns to direct the action. The director has some or all of these ‘controls’ to play with: Rewind, Replay, Selected Highlights, Fast Forward, Pause/Freeze, Cut to a Different Scene, Cut and Re-take a scene, Provide Commentary/Voice Over, Slow Motion, with/without Sound, Sound Effects, Advertisement Break, etc. Action Replay helps to bring back emotions and provides a second opportunity for understanding emotions and learning from other people. It is also much easier to control or step outside emotions if ‘walking through’ the experience at ground level rather than climbing back up to the same high place - where emotions can be so strong that they take over again. Juno Lee Find out more information www. “ SOURCE: Roger Greenaway who is owner, Reviewing Skills Training and Professional Training & Coaching Specialist. The text on this page was copied verbatim from his web site.
  63. 63. Theatreoftheoppressed Recognizing that humans have a unique ability to take action in the world while simultaneously observing themselves in action, Boal believed that the human was a self-contained theatre, actor and spectator in one. Because we can observe ourselves in action, we can amend, adjust and alter our actions to have different impact and to change our world. Theatre of the Oppressed engages people in discovery, critical reflection and dialogue and the process of liberation! Through Theatre of the Oppressed we can better understand ourselves, our communities and our world. There are several series of techniques, tools and expressions of Theatre of the Oppressed. Game playing is the core of Theatre of the Oppressed. An extensive arsenal of well crafted and expertly facilitated games allows participants to stretch the limits of their imaginations, demechanize habitual behaviors and deconstruct and analyze societal structures of power and oppression. Plus, game playing is fun and builds community! Image Theatre Participants explore issues of oppression by using nonverbal expression and sculpting their own and other participants’ bodies into static physical images that can depict anything concrete or abstract, such as a feeling, issue, or moment. Forum Theatre Performance that functions to transform from spectator (one who watches) to a spect-actor (one who watches and takes action). A short scene by Forum actors presents an issue of oppression and represents the world as it is–the anti-model. Audience members are then encouraged to stop the play and take the stage to address the oppression, attempting to change the outcome through action. The show engages Forum actors and audience members in fun, entertaining and enlightening community dialogue. “ The Theatre of the Oppressed explains and details about a variety of theatrical forms that the Brazilian theatre expert Augusto Boal in the early 1970s, initially in Brazil and later in Europe. Theatre of the oppressed permits spectators to engage with the theatrical action and use theatre as a rehearsal for reality. 50
  64. 64. Legislative Theatre Extension of Boal’s Forum Theatre techniques and functions to determine the need for, create, and enact laws. Beyond community building and issue awareness, Legislative Theatre uses theatrical techniques to create concrete and specific socio-political impact. Rainbow of Desire Uses Image and Forum techniques to investigate internalized oppression. This highly therapeutic series of techniques asks participants to explore how external oppression causes us to oppress ourselves and helps to identify greater social issues and identify opportunities and even action for change. Juno Lee Find out more information “ SOURCE: The Forum Project, based in New York City, uses theater to help communities create tactics for change. This page was copied verbatim from their web site, as it describes the method and its power so well I won’t try to improve on it.
  65. 65. What informs behavior? “Behavior is a function of experience.We act according to the way we see things. If our experience is destroyed, our behavior will be destructive.” R.D. Laing
  66. 66. The ability to understand and bring out the best of the material is fundamental to any great design. Design for social innovation is no exception. When we design an improvement in the social fabric we are affecting a change in the ways people behave in relationship to one another and their environment. So we must understand our “material:” human relationships, beliefs, and identities. We often mistake behavior for the person. If someone acts greedy in our perception, we are quick to judge them as being self-centered (or what ever name you want to put here) and want them to change. But where does behavior come from? Where do we learn how to behave and how to stand in relationship to each other? Behavior is a reflection of our internal world. This section of the course looks at how we construct our inner worlds — the values and beliefs that inform our habits and behavior — for better or worse. Students were required to look inside themselves. Before you embark on an inward journey, it is important to know that you are loved, valued and worthy. Students spent time reminding themselves through readings and exercises of their worth, value and belonging. We mapped out how the enculturation process informs our beliefs about ourselves, our relationship towards our bodies, our emotions and our sense of belonging. We learned how our internal voices, beliefs and patterns of relating were formed by our history of relationship to others.
  67. 67. Two forces that shape us Becoming our own selves Belong Moving from love power Be ourselves Moving towards The drive towards being an individual — one alone, autonomous. Tillich defines power as “the drive of everything living to realize itself, with increasing intensity and extensity.” So power in this sense is the drive to achieve one’s purpose, to get one’s job done, to grow. The drive towards being together with others in relationship. Tillich defines love as “the drive towards the unity of the separated.” So love in this sense is the drive to reconnect and make whole that which has become or appears fragmented. An immature and insecure self – Unable to take care of the self – Depending on other people or circumstances to complete a sense of self. Someone in need of other’s approval to feel secure. Designed by Michelle Kwon Becoming emotionally mature helps us to act with integrity, especially when designing for social innovation; we are free to act on what is right and not because we need someone’s approval. Becoming aware of how much our culture shapes us provided us with a choice to continue believing it or not. Look more into… - Roberta M Gilber: Extraordinary Relationships - Adam Kahane: Power and Love A mature and secure self – Capable of taking responsibility for his/her feelings, behavior and destiny. Someone able to extend love and appreciation to others, without needing theirs in return. 52
  68. 68. Enculturation process Enculturation Noun • The gradual acquisition of the characteristics and norms of a culture or group by a person, another culture, etc. • The process by which people learn the requirements of their surrounding culture and acquire values and behaviours appropriate or necessary in that culture. Who am I? Parents “You wanna get married before 30. Don’t you have a boyfriend?” Media “You just look prettier when you are skinny. You may disagree, but we all know it’s the truth.” Peers “You should hang out with us more often. Why are you spending the weekends alone at home? That’s not fun.” Institutions “Money is important. You become an important person when you make a lot of money.”
  69. 69. Constructing an Inner World - Swar Raisinghani The Beginning Russian psychologist LevVygotsky believed that development of inner voices starts at an early age for human beings. Ma Ma-ma He believed that the development of inner voices starts at an early age for humans when we learn language by imitating their parents. Vygotsky goes on to explain this development in detail through his theory of the ‘zone of proximal development. According to Lakota, social interactions creates stories of ‘how things work’ and ‘what must be done’.These stories are revised again and again to establish a story of ‘who we are’ in a cultural and social context. As we grow older we learn to have a ‘conversation’ within ourselves without verbalising it and that is how we develop inner voices. We develop our story on the way as we understand more of these stories.We become aware of emotions and how to communicate. In this way we form a sense of ‘self’ and a set of ‘beliefs’ Development of InternalVoices 54
  70. 70. All learning takes place within this zone which involves one person is the learner and another person who has the skill that the other person wants to learn. Under the guidance of this person, the learner not only learns this skill but also goes on to develop it further. Once the learner can perform the task on his own, he does not the need the experienced other.This concept is also called ‘scaffolding’. There are two forces: togetherness and individuality that drives human nature and leads to the development of the basic self. High level of differentiation Low level of differentiation Balance between the two forces Imbalance between the two forces How we deal with these forces establishes ‘differentiation of self’ The idea of ‘differentiaton’ of the basic self is key to understanding relationships and emotions and who we are. Individuality Togetherness defining one’s self as separate from others urging one self towards others for attachment, affiliation or approval Learn more: Mindsight: Daniel J Siegel Extraordinary Relationships: Roberta M Gilbert Healing the Mind through the Power of Story: Lewis Mehl-Medrona How does this apply to Design for Social Innovation? A deep understanding of how internal voices are formed and eventually become the narrative of our belief system is essential to social innovation. An understanding of how this belief system has developed makes us sensitive to understanding the person’s needs. It is very important to understand the belief system of a person in order to invite the person to believe in new stories about them and the world and offer a new perspective.
  71. 71. Forming Boundaries - Swar Raisinghani Boundaries determine what is within our area of responsibility and accountability and what is not. Boundaries are limits but not walls. They are permeable. What are Boundaries? WHAT IS MINE WHAT IS NOT MINE Basic self is the true, unshakable self. Pseudo self is the functional part of the self. If the basic self is developed to be smaller than the pseudo self, our boundaries become more permeable. If the basic self is larger than the functional self, our boundaries are intact and less permeable. Beliefs formed by our inner guidance system become a part of our basic self. Boundaries for Self Basic self is bigger than the Pseudo self Basic self is smaller than the Pseudo self Daring to set boundaries is about having the courage to love ourselves even when we risk disappointing other. “ ”- Brene Brown which leads to Permeable Boundaries which leads to less Permeable Boundaries 56