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C4f Batch Or Continuous


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C4f Batch Or Continuous

  1. 1. C4f Batch or Continuous? Industrial Chemists and Chemical Engineers work hard to keep costs down. There are two different ways of producing chemicals: Continuous Process This is a process that runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year and only makes one chemical e.g. Batch Process This is a process that makes one batch of a chemical at a time. e.g. Advantages and disadvantages of both processes: Advantages Disadvantages Batch e.g. pharmaceutical drugs Continuous e.g. cracking
  2. 2. Cut and stick for the table on the advantages and disadvantages of continuous and batch processes They are NOT in the correct order and need to be organised into 1. advantages and disadvantages 2. continuous and batch processes The same equipment can be used to make Only manufacturing one product so little several different chemicals. chance of contamination It is harder to control quality and there is Start-up costs relatively low because more chance of cross-contamination if equipment is “off the shelf” i.e. not equipment is used to make more than one designed specifically thing If there is a problem then it can be traced cleaning and setting up between batches to a specific batch which can then be easily means there are periods of time that it is recalled not being used and therefore not making money Labour-intensive because it needs to be set Production never stops so no time wasted up each time, controlled manually and emptying and setting up cleaned at the end Start-up costs are very high – everything VERY consistent quality of product has to be designed specifically and automated. Runs automatically (low labour costs) If the equipment is not running at 100% capacity it is not cost-effective
  3. 3. What factors affect the cost of making and developing a medicine or pharmaceutical drug? 1. research and testing 2. labour costs 3. energy costs 4. raw materials 5. time taken for development 6. marketing Describe the factors contributing to the high costs involved in making and developing a new medicine or pharmaceutical drug 1. often more labour intensive 2. less automation possible 3. research and testing may take many years 4. raw materials likely to be rare and/or involve expensive extraction from plants 5. legislative demands Aspirin can be made from the leaves and bark of willow trees. HIGHER Explain how economic considerations determine the development of new drugs in relation to: 1. research and development time and associated labour costs; 2. time required to meet legal requirements including timescale for testing and human trials 3. anticipated demand for new product 4. length of pay back time for initial investment
  4. 4. Extracting Chemicals From Plants Raw materials for speciality chemicals such as pharmaceuticals can be either made synthetically or extracted from plants. The following process shows how they may be extracted from plants: ______________________________________________ crush plant ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________ mix with solvent ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ filter ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ purify ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ evaporate solvent ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ DRUG ____________________________________________ Use chromatography to test for purity ____________________________________________