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C2c Does The Earth Move


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C2c Does The Earth Move

  1. 1. C2c Does The Earth Move? • The Earth is as a sphere with a thin rocky ___________, surrounding the _____________ and the ____________. The Core • This is made up from the inner core and the outer core • The Earth’s core contains _____________. • ____________________________ reactions take place in the core which create a lot of ______________ energy. As a result, the mantle stays molten. The Mantle • The mantle is the zone between the crust and the core. • It is relatively _____________ and ____________ just below the crust but hot and non-rigid and so able to _______________ at greater depths. • Liquid rock is called _____________________. The Lithosphere • The lithosphere is made from the _______ and the outer part of the ______ • It is made up from two types of tectonic plates: 1. _______________ plates (under oceans) most dense 2. _______________ plates (land) least dense • The lithosphere is relatively cold and rigid. • Tectonic plates are found on _______________ of the mantle because they are ________________ dense than the mantle. How do we know that tectonic plates move? The __________ and _____________ on the east coast of South America are the ____________ as those on the west coast of Africa which suggests that they were once joined.
  2. 2. How do tectonic plates move? • Nuclear reactions in the core generate a lot of ______________ energy. • The rock particles in the magma get hot, vibrate____________ and push each other apart. This makes the rock __________ dense so it rises. • As the rock rises towards the crust it ___________ energy, cools down and particles move _______________ together. This makes the rock __________ dense so it sinks back towards the core. • We call these ________________________ currents. Earthquakes and Volcanoes The movement of tectonic plates results in __________ activity and ___________ The diagram above shows the boundaries of The diagram above shows all the regions of the tectonic plates and the directions that volcanic activity and earthquakes – note they are moving in. that the patterns are almost identical i.e. most volcanoes and earthquakes happen on plate boundaries
  3. 3. Volcanoes • Some of the rock on the Earth’s surface has been formed by volcanic activity. • Molten rock (magma) can find its way to the surface through _____________ in the crust. • Molten rock under the Earth’s surface is called _______________. • Molten rock that erupts from a volcano is called _______________. • When molten rock cools down it forms ________________________. • Some volcanoes give runny lava and some give thick lava violently and catastrophically. • Some people choose to live near volcanoes because volcanic soil is very _________________ (good for growing crops). Higher Level Theory • Magma from the mantle must have a lower density than that of the crust in order to rise through it. • Collision between oceanic and continental plate leads to _________________ and partial remelting (oceanic goes underneath continental).
  4. 4. Igneous Rocks • The size of the crystals in igneous rocks depend on how ______________ the rock cools. Magma that cools under the surface cools Molten rock that cools ____________ __________ and forms large crystals has very small crystals. e.g. lava, basalt e.g. granite • Magma has different compositions and depending on what it is made from depends on what sort of lava and explosion results: Small (fine) Crystals Large (coarse) Crystals Iron-rich ‘runny’ lava and fairly safe in an eruption Silica-rich explosive reactions produce pumice, volcanic ash and “bombs” of magma • Geologists study volcanoes to be able to predict future eruptions and to reveal information about the structure of the Earth they are now better at predicting volcanic eruptions but not with 100% accuracy. Think about and be prepared to answer questions on: The problems encountered when studying the structure of the Earth and why opinions may vary greatly between different geologists.
  5. 5. Rock Types Igneous Rock (e.g.basalt and granite) Formed from molten rock cool – see previous notes Sedimentary Rock (e.g.) limestone • When rocks weather the small pieces are washed by rivers to the sea. • Layers of sediment build up and a high ________________ causes the sediment to cement together. • We call this sedimentary rock. It is ______________, _____________ and contains ___________________. Metamorphic Rock e.g. marble, slate • If sedimentary or igneous rock is subjected to high ______________________ (near volcanoes) or high __________________ (near tectonic plate boundaries), the rock can be __________________/change shape. • Limestone becomes _____________________ when it is heated • Mudstone (sedimentary) becomes ______________ (metamorophic) under high pressures.