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- 1. MATHEMATICAL METHODS
- 2. CONTENTS• Matrices and Linear systems of equations• Eigen values and eigen vectors• Real and complex matrices and Quadratic forms• Algebraic equations transcendental equations and Interpolation• Curve Fitting, numerical differentiation & integration• Numerical differentiation of O.D.E• Fourier series and Fourier transforms• Partial differential equation and Z-transforms
- 3. TEXT BOOKS• 1.Mathematical Methods, T.K.V.Iyengar, B.Krishna Gandhi and others, S.Chand and company• Mathematical Methods, C.Sankaraiah, V.G.S.Book links.• A text book of Mathametical Methods, V.Ravindranath, A.Vijayalakshmi, Himalaya Publishers.• A text book of Mathametical Methods, Shahnaz Bathul, Right Publishers.
- 4. REFERENCES• 1. A text book of Engineering Mathematics, B.V.Ramana, Tata Mc Graw Hill.• 2.Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Irvin Kreyszig Wiley India Pvt Ltd.• 3. Numerical Methods for scientific and Engineering computation, M.K.Jain, S.R.K.Iyengar and R.K.Jain, New Age International Publishers• Elementary Numerical Analysis, Aitkison and Han, Wiley India, 3rd Edition, 2006.
- 5. UNIT HEADER Name of the Course:B.Tech Code No:07A1BS02Year/Branch:I Year CSE,IT,ECE,EEE,ME, Unit No: V No.of slides:29
- 6. UNIT INDEX UNIT-VS.No. Module Lecture PPT Slide No. No. 1 Curve Fitting L1-7 8-18 2 Numerical L8-12 19-25 Differentiation 3 Numerical Integration L13-16 26-29
- 7. UNIT – V PART – ACURVE FITTING
- 8. LECTURE-1INTRODUCTION : In interpolation, We have seen that when exact values of the function Y=f(x) is given we fit the function using various interpolation formulae. But sometimes the values of the function may not be given. In such cases, the values of the required function may be taken experimentally. Generally these expt. Values contain some errors. Hence by using these experimental values . We can fit a curve just approximately which is known as approximating curve.
- 9. Now our aim is to find this approximating curve as much best as through minimizing errors of experimental values this is called best fit otherwise it is a bad fit.In brief by using experimental values the process of establishing a mathematical relationship between two variables is called CURVE FITTING.
- 10. LECTURE-2 METHOD OF LEAST SQUARESLet y1, y2, y3 ….yn be the experimental values of f(x1),f(x2),…..f(x n) be the exact values of the function y=f(x). Corresponding to the values of x=xo,x1,x2….x n .Now error=experimental values –exact value. If we denote the corresponding errors of y1, y2,….yn as e1,e2,e3, …..en , then e1=y1-f(x1), e2=y2-f(x2 )
- 11. • e3=y3-f(x3)…….en=yn-f(xn).These errors e1,e2,e3,……en,may be either positive or negative.For our convenient to make all errors into +ve to the square of errors i.e e12,e22,……en2.In order to obtain the best fit of curve we have to make the sum of the squares of the errors as much minimum i.e e12+e22+……+en2 is minimum.
- 12. METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES• Let S=e12+e22+……+en2, S is minimum.When S becomes as much as minimum.Then we obtain a best fitting of a curve to the given data, now to make S minimum we have to determine the coefficients involving in the curve, so that S minimum.It will be possible when differentiating S with respect to the coefficients involving in the curve and equating to zero.
- 13. LECTURE-3 FITTING OF STRAIGHT LINELet y = a + bx be a straight lineBy using the principle of least squares for solving the straight line equations.The normal equations are∑ y = na + b ∑ x∑ xy = a ∑ x + b ∑ x2 solving these two normal equations we get the values of a & b ,substituting these values in the given straight line equation which gives the best fit.
- 14. LECTURE-4 FITTING OF PARABOLALet y = a + bx + cx2 be the parabola or second degree polynomial.By using the principle of least squares for solving the parabolaThe normal equations are∑ y = na + b ∑ x + c ∑ x2∑ xy = a ∑ x + b∑ x2 + c ∑ x3∑ x2y = a ∑ x2 + b ∑ x3 + c ∑ x4solving these normal equations we get the values of a,b & c, substituting these values in the given parabola which gives the best fit.
- 15. LECTURE-5 FITTING OF AN EXPONENTIAL CURVEThe exponential curve of the form y = a ebx taking log on both sides we get logey = logea + logee bx logey = logea + bx logee logey = logea + bx
- 16. • Y = A+ bx• Where Y = logey, A= logea• This is in the form of straight line equation and this can be solved by using the straight line normal equations we get the values of A & b, for a =eA, substituting the values of a & b in the given curve which gives the best fit.
- 17. EXPONENTIAL CURVEThe equation of the exponential form is of the form y = abx taking log on both sides we get log ey = log ea +log ebx Y = A + Bx where Y= logey, A= logea , B= logebthis is in the form of the straight line equation which can be solved by using the normal equations we get the values of A & B for a = eA b = eB substituting these values in the equation which gives the best fit.
- 18. LECTURE-7 FITTING OF POWER CURVELet the equation of the power curve be y = a xb taking log on both sides we get log ey = logea + log exb Y = A + Bxthis is in the form of the straight line equation which can be solved by using the normal equations we get the values of A & B, for a = eA b= eB, substituting these values in the given equation which gives the best fit.
- 19. LECTURE-8 NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATIONThe process by which we can find the derivative of a function i.e dy/dx for some particular value of independent variable x is called Numerical Differentiation.The problem of numerical differentiation are to be solved by approximating the function using interpolation formula and then differentiating this formula as many times as desired.
- 20. LECTURE-9 NEWTON’S FORMULA• If the values of the argument are equally spaced and if the derivative is required for some values of given x lying in the begin of the table, we can represent the function by Newton- Gregory forward interpolation formula.• If the value of dy/dx is required at a point near the end of the table, we have to use Newtons backward formula.
- 21. LECTURE-10 CENTRAL DIFFERENCE – If the derivative dy/dx is to be found at some point lying near the middle of the tabulated value we have to use central difference interpolation formula• While applying these formulae, it must be observed that the table of values defines the function at these points only and does not completely define the function and hence the function may not be differentiable at all.
- 22. •• Derivatives by using Forward Difference Formula :• The first order derivative of the function is given by• (dy/dx)x=xo = 1/h (∆yo – 1/2∆2yo + 1/3 ∆3yo- ¼ ∆4yo + ………)• (d2x/dy2)x=xo= 1/h2 (∆2yo – ∆3yo + 11/12 ∆4yo- 5/6 ∆5yo + ………)
- 23. LECTURE-11Derivatives by using Backward Difference Formula :The first order derivative of the function is given by(dy/dx)x=xn = 1/h( yn+1/2 2yn+1/3 3yn+1/4 4yn+ ∇ ……………..) ∇ ∇ ∇ ∇(d2y/dx2)x=xn = 1/h( 2yn+ 3yn+11/12 4yn+5/6 yn+ 5 ……………..) ∇ ∇ ∇ ∇
- 24. LECTURE-12Striling’s formula is given by using central difference is (dy/dx)x=xo = 1/h ( ∆y0 +∆y-1/2 – 1/6 ∆3y- 1+∆3y-2 /2 + 1/30 ∆5y-2+ ∆5y-3/2 +……..)
- 25. LECTURE-13 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION• Numerical Integration is a process of finding the value of a definite integral.When a function y = f(x) is not known explicity. But we give only a set of values of the function y = f(x) corresponding to the same values of x. This process when applied to a function of a single variable is known as a quadrature.
- 26. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION• For evaluating the Numerical Integration we have three important rules i.e• Trapezoidal Rule• Simpsons 13 Rule• Simpsons 38 th Rule
- 27. LECTURE-14 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION• Trapezoidal Rule : The Trapezoidal Rule of the function y = f(x) is given by• f (x ) dx= h2 ( y0 + yn ) + 2 ( y1 + y2 + y3+….+ yn-1 )• f (x ) dx = h2 (sum of the first and last terms ) + ( sum of the remaining terms )
- 28. LECTURE-15 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION• Simpson’s 13 rd Rule : The Simpson’s 13 rd Rule of the function f ( x ) is given by• f ( x ) dx = h/3 ( y0 + yn ) + 4 ( y1 + y3 + y5 + …..yn-1 ) + 2 ( y2 + y4 + y6 + …..)
- 29. LECTURE-16 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION• Simpson’s 3/8 th Rule : The Simpson’s 3/8 th rule for the function f ( x ) isgiven by• f ( x ) dx = 3h/8 ( y0 + yn ) + 2 ( y3 + y6 + y9 + ……) + 3 ( y1 + y2 +y4 +……)• f (x ) dx = 3h/8 ( sum of the first and the last term) + 2 ( multiples of three ) + 3 ( sum of the remaining terms )

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