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# Hardware basics: inside the box

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### Hardware basics: inside the box

1. 1. Hardware Basics: Inside the Box Miguel Rebollo Introduction to Computer Science 2009-2010
2. 2. Aims • Know how information is stored and handled into a computer • Describe the basic structure of a computer • Functions and interactions of computer’s internal components • Difference memory types and storage devices 4626. Introd to Computer Science
3. 3. Outline 1. What computers do 2. A bit about bits 3. The computer core: CPU and memory 4. Buses, ports and peripherals 4626. Introd to Computer Science
4. 4. What computers do • Receive input data • Process this information: perform arithmetic or logic (decision-making) operations • Produce output: communicate information to the outside world • Store information: move data to the memory 4626. Introd to Computer Science
5. 5. Basic components Storage Input devices: Output devices: keyboard screen, printer, and mouse speakers CPU Memory 4626. Introd to Computer Science
6. 6. Von Newman archit. CPU system i/o bus input/output bus(*) memory (*) front side bus 4626. Introd to Computer Science
7. 7. A bit about bits • computer’s information is digital • Bits can represent letters, numbers, instructions, codes, colours and so on • 8 bits = 1 byte (256 different values) 4626. Introd to Computer Science
8. 8. Bits as numbers There are only 10 types of people in the world: those who understand binary and those who don’t 4626. Introd to Computer Science
9. 9. Binary number system decimal binary • All numbers as 0 000 combinations of two digits: 0 and 1 (base 2) 1 001 2 010 • conversion 3 011 binary-decimal 4 100 5 101 • with n digits we have 2n 6 110 possibilities 7 111 Play with the numbers 4626. Introd to Computer Science
10. 10. Bits as characters • Each character has its representation in bits • ASCII (see table) • the most widely spread • ﬁxed codiﬁcation (1 character = 1 byte) • Unicode (UTF) • until 65,000 char., language independent • variable codiﬁcation (1 or 2 bytes) 4626. Introd to Computer Science
11. 11. ASCII code • ASCII code uses 8 bits • 8 bits produce 2 =256 possibilities 8 • It’s not enough, several codes added • mutually incompatible • changes in special letters (ñ, á, ç, ...) 4626. Introd to Computer Science
12. 12. Bits, bytes and buzzwords • Bit-related terminology 1 Byte = 1 kilobyte (kB) = 1024 Bytes 1 megabyte (mB) = 1024 kB 1 gigabyte (gB) = 1024 mB 1 terabyte (tB) = 1024 gB 1 petabyte (pB) = 1024 tB 1 exabyte (eB) = 1024 pB • Other units: Zettabyte,Yottabyte... • See Data Powers of Ten 4626. Introd to Computer Science
13. 13. The computer’s core: CPU • It’s the main component of the computer • Executes program’s instructions • Instructions are stored in memory • Input data and results are stored in memory too 4626. Introd to Computer Science
14. 14. Evolution of Intel proc. Intel processor history 4626. Introd to Computer Science
15. 15. CPU equivalence Intel AMD Obsolete Pentium 4 Athlon 64 Low-end Celeron Sempron Core 2 Duo, i3, i5 Athlon 64 x2 Desktop Core 2 Quad, i5, i7 Phenom Laptop Centrino, i3, i5 Turion Netbook Atom ----- Servers/ Xeon Opteron Workstation Itanium ----- 4626. Introd to Computer Science
16. 16. CPU performance • The computer’s overall performance is determined by (among others) • the internal clock (gHz): cycles per second • the internal architecture • Two technologies: CISC and RISC • Multiple core and Hyperthreading tech. 4626. Introd to Computer Science
17. 17. CPU compatibility • Each CPU has its own instruction set depending on the manufacturer (Intel, Alpha...) • CPUs in the same family are designed to maintain backwards compatibility (new models interprets all instructions from earlier CPU) 4626. Introd to Computer Science
18. 18. RAM memory Stores temporally program instructions and data • it’s volatile • divided in smaller elements (bytes) identiﬁed by its address and managed individually 4626. Introd to Computer Science
19. 19. ROM (read only memory) information stored in chips contains startup instructions 4626. Introd to Computer Science
20. 20. Other memories • CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor): Special low-energy kind of RAM • Flash memory: used in phones, PDA or cameras 4626. Introd to Computer Science
21. 21. Buses, ports and peripherals • Information travels between components on the motherboard through groups of wires called system buses (or just buses) • They have 32 or 64 parallel wires • Expansion slots, bays and ports: connect additional devices 4626. Introd to Computer Science