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European colonization of africa


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in class presentation for the scramble and colonization of africa.

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European colonization of africa

  1. 1. EEuurrooppeeaann CCoolloonniizzaattiioonn ooff AAffrriiccaa
  2. 2. Africa before colonization was not broken up into countries. The boundaries created by Europeans led to civil wars among Africans -Why would this cause fighting?
  3. 3. Earliest Contact  Europe had been interested in Africa for centuries.  It began in the 16th century when the Portuguese gained control of the Trans-Saharan slave trade and trade of gold to Europe.
  4. 4. Slave Trade  In 1551, the Trans-Atlantic slave trade began with thousands of Africans being shipped to Brazil to work on sugar plantations.  The Portuguese were the first major European slave traders and were followed by the Spanish, Dutch, French and British. TTrriiaanngguullaarr TTrraaddee RRoouuttee
  5. 5. European Expansion  Much of Africa had been unexplored until the 1880s with European influence restricted to the coastline:  These were basic settlements and trading posts  Malaria keeping people from exploring further  There was no reason to explore Africa as there was limited African civilization with the most large settlements being Islamic states (did not allow outsiders) PPrree--CCoolloonniiaall AAffrriiccaa
  6. 6. European Imperialism – The Scramble for Africa  But with European industrialization in the late 19th century, came a rush to explore and dominate the African continent.  Many politicians and industrialist believed that annexing overseas territories was the only way for their nations to ensure economic success.  This rush was called “The Scramble for Africa” with new technologies such as the steamboat, railroads and telegraph allowing exploration of the African interior.
  7. 7. Commercial greed, territorial ambition, and political rivalry fuelled the European take over of Africa. This resulted in Africa's partition (division of land on the continent) at the West African Conference in Berlin November, 1884 through February,1885. The process became known as "The Scramble for Africa". This conference would avoid a European conflict/war that might arise from claims. The “Scramble for Africa” had the effect of defusing and displacing tensions between the European powers in Europe. However, the tradeoffs and alliances could not disguise the fact that Imperial Germany was on a collision course with Britain and France resulting in WWI. -Why is this?
  8. 8. Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 The West African Conference in Berlin to divide the African Continent among the European nations.
  9. 9. France Great Britain Belgium Spain Italy Germany Portugal Independent
  10. 10. Colonial Africa as of 1914  By 1914, 90% of Africa was under European control  England took 30% of African population under its control  France 15%  Germany 9%  Belgium 7%  Italy 1%
  11. 11. Industrial Revolution Source for Raw Materials Markets for Finished Goods European Nationalism Missionary Activity Military & Naval Bases European Motives For Colonization Places to dump Unwanted/Excess Population Social & Economic Opportunities Humanitarian Reasons Social Darwinism EEuurrooppeeaann RRaacciissmm “White Man’s Burden”
  12. 12. Economic Causes of European Imperialism  Industrialization of European nations led to the rush across the African continent:  Looking for raw-materials  Cheap labor  To gain access to new markets  To invest their capital for higher rates of return – les developed areas gave higher dividends European EExxppaannssiioonn -- WWoorrllddwwiiddee
  13. 13. Political Causes of European Imperialism  Nationalism  European leaders hoped that imperialism would win them the loyalty of their own people.  Competition for power & status  European states extended their power through acquired territories for strategic reasons – or to simply stop competitors doing so.
  14. 14. Life Under Colonized Rule  White Settler Regions  Areas where Europeans were very present and in charge  Areas ruled by Belgium, Portugal  Life was most brutal.  Labor, punishment, taxes.  No opportunity to succeed.  No choices, no life.  Non-White Settler Regions  Areas where Europeans put Africans in charge and were not as present.  Areas colonized by Britain and France  Life was bad, but easier  Freedom… if you labored and paid your taxes.  Possible for Africans to get ahead in life.  Able to chose what to grow (market economy).
  15. 15. Dutch Colonization of South Africa  Began in 1652 with the Dutch East India Company founding a station at what was to become Cape Town.  Was a half-way fueling station between the Dutch east Indies and the Dutch west Indies  South Africa unified as a nation in 1910 (mixture of British and Dutch provinces such as Natal, Orange Free State, Transvaal & Cape Province)  In 1948 the National Party was elected to power and began the implementation of apartheid
  16. 16. Mineral Resources  Gold  Copper  Diamond  Iron  Bauxite  Phosphate  Cobalt  Manganese
  17. 17. EXAMPLES OF CASH CROPS Coffee Rubber Cotton Kapok Sugar Tea
  18. 18. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Colonization
  19. 19. Positives Negatives Tribal warfare was ended by the colonial administrators. The European colonial powers established their law and order over large areas of the continent. Introduced different and modern ideas of education, government, and economics “the Scramble” prevented the formation of a unified national spirit necessary to start a new independent country. Left a legacy of oppression and economically crippled the regions of Africa.
  20. 20. Schools were established and some African students attended universities abroad. The missionaries wrote the languages and made dictionaries for the many native languages that had only been passed by oral tradition.
  21. 21. By the end of the 19th century Europeans were straddling the continent with railways and roads. This made it possible to take control – politically and commercially. Colonial rulers built railroads, but the tracks ran north and south to carry raw materials to ports. Few rail lines went into the interior of the continent. Positives Colonial rulers built railroads. Negatives
  22. 22. Positive Medical and sanitary changes were provided by the Europeans
  23. 23. Colonial policies turned Africans into wage earners or cash-crop farmers. Hundreds of thousands of Africans were hired and trained to operate machines for getting minerals to surface. The profits of all trade and manufacturing was not invested in Africa. Money was needed (by the Africans) to pay taxes to the colonial rulers. Many Africans became economically dependent on European trade. Positives Negatives
  24. 24. Independence or “De-colonization”  The consequences of European partition of the continent for Africa were devastating.  In the decades before World War II, opposition to European colonial rule in Africa gathered strength with the rise of African Nationalist movements.  Post World War II, the transition to independence was relatively peaceful in French and English colonies.  Elsewhere, the aftermath of decolonization displayed political instability, economic disaster, and debt dependence.  The byproducts of decolonization including political instability, border disputes, economic ruin, and massive debt continue to plague Africa to this present day. Dates of AAffrriiccaann IInnddeeppeennddeennccee
  25. 25. Push for Independence Africans fought with Europeans in both World War I & II. WWII- “A war to make the world safe for democracy and freedom.” Africans- “What about us?” WWII ends 1945
  26. 26. Political independence did not bring economic independence. African countries continued to export agricultural and mineral products to their former rulers. There was little money to build factories. The profits of all trade and manufacturing were not invested in Africa – and most of the profits or benefits went to Europeans instead of Africans.
  27. 27. Today’s Divided Africa