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- 1. The Nature of Matter, Minerals, and the Periodic Table
- 2. Nature of Matter <ul><li>Matter = Anything that has mass and volume. </li></ul><ul><li>(Mass is the quantity of matter in an object; volume is the amount of space matter takes up.) </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between mass and weight ??? </li></ul>
- 3. Physical Properties of Matter <ul><li>Some physical properties describe a particular object: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron Nail : Pointy-ended cylinder ( shape ); made of a dull, gray-colored solid ( color & state of matter ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some physical properties can be measured : Nail is 2 inches ( length ), 1 gram ( mass ). </li></ul></ul></ul>Physical Property Any characteristic of matter that you can observe and measure without changing the substances that make up the matter. ALL matter can be described by its properties.
- 4. Physical Properties (cont.) <ul><li>Examples of physical properties: C O L O R , S I Z E , density, odor, volume, temperature, melting point & boiling point. </li></ul><ul><li>Every substance has physical properties that distinguish it from other substances. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : The substance IRON is attracted by a magnet. </li></ul></ul>
- 5. Separating Mixtures <ul><li>A mixture is a combination that can be separated physically. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference in a physical property can be used to separate substances in a mixture. </li></ul><ul><li>How could you separate a mixture of cocoa pebbles cereal and lucky charms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanically – boring, but possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How would you separate a mixture of iron filings and sand? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a magnet – it will attract the iron filings and leave the sand behind. </li></ul></ul>
- 6. Physical Changes <ul><li>If you break a piece of chalk, it loses its original size and shape (you’ve changed its physical properties). BUT… you have not changed the substances that make up the chalk. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes of state are examples of physical changes – when water freezes, boils, evaporates, etc. (The state changes, but not the identity of the compound.) </li></ul>Physical Change <ul><li>A change in size, shape, color or state of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical changes do not change the substances </li></ul><ul><li>in a material. </li></ul>
- 7. Chemical Changes <ul><li>There are many signs that can tell you when a chemical change has taken place: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foaming of an antacid tablet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smell in the air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production of energy/heat (exploding firecracker) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Burning and rusting are chemical changes because different substances are produced. </li></ul>Chemical Change <ul><li>A change of one substance in a material to a different substance is a chemical change. </li></ul>
- 8. Solids… <ul><li>Every solid has a definite shape and a definite volume! </li></ul><ul><li>The molecules in a solid are held very close together. </li></ul><ul><li>In elements- each element or mineral has a specific crystal shape. </li></ul><ul><li>This crystalline shape determines properties for the element or mineral </li></ul>SOLID
- 9. Liquids… <ul><li>A liquid does not have a definite shape, but does have a definite volume! </li></ul><ul><li>The molecules in a liquid are not held as closely together, so they can “slide” past each other. </li></ul>LIQUID
- 10. Gases… <ul><li>Gases don’t have a definite shape or volume – they expand or contract to fill the space available to them. </li></ul><ul><li>The molecules in a gas are spread very far apart and can move in any direction. </li></ul>GAS
- 11. Elements <ul><li>All matter is made up of ATOMS (an atom is the smallest particle of an element). </li></ul><ul><li>ELEMENT - When all the atoms in a sample of matter are the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : Carbon in a pencil point (C), Oxygen in air (O) and copper in a penny (Cu). </li></ul>Cu O C <ul><li>In total, there are 109 Elements . </li></ul>
- 12. Compounds <ul><li>Compounds : Made from atoms of two or more elements that are combined chemically . </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds can only be separated through chemical means! </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. NaCl- is table salt, but separately: </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : Water – made from the elements hydrogen and oxygen. Sugar – made from the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>A molecule is the smallest particle of a compound . </li></ul>
- 13. Matter and Atoms <ul><li>Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms have a positively charged center = nucleus . </li></ul><ul><li>The nucleus contains protons and neutrons . </li></ul><ul><li>All around the nucleus there are negatively charged particles = electrons . </li></ul><ul><li>The mass of the electrons is much smaller than the mass of the protons and neutrons. Thus, most of the mass in an atom is located in the nucleus. </li></ul>
- 14. Protons, Neutrons & Electrons! <ul><li>A neutron is neutral ; a proton is positive ly charged, and an electron is negative ly charged. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nucleus is positively charged – why??? </li></ul></ul>Moves around nucleus -1 0 Electron Part of nucleus 0 1 Neutron Part of nucleus +1 1 Proton Location in Atom Charge Relative Mass Particles Comparison Of Particles In An Atom
- 15. Atomic Number <ul><li>The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons in its nucleus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Every carbon atom has 6 protons. This means its atomic number is 6 also! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The number of electrons in an atom is equal to the number of protons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many electrons does carbon have??? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An atom is electrically NEUTRAL because it has the same number of protons and electrons. </li></ul>Carbon = 6 Protons (+) and 6 Electrons (-) = ZERO CHARGE
- 16. Atomic Number Carbon – Atomic Number is 6, which means it has 6 protons and also 6 electrons! <ul><li>Every atom of the same element has the same number of protons . </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons – the periodic table is organized by increasing number of protons ( increasing atomic number ). </li></ul>
- 17. Mass Number <ul><li>Number of protons and neutrons in an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Number = Protons + Neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Neutrons = (Mass Number) – (Atomic Number) </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium (Na) has 11 Protons and 12 Neutrons – What is its Mass Number? </li></ul><ul><li>Mass number of Na = 11 + 12 = 23 </li></ul>
- 18. Atomic Number & Mass Number Na 11 23 Mass Number (Protons + Neutrons) Atomic Number (# of Protons and Electrons) <ul><li>Na has 11 Protons, 11 Electrons, and 12 Neutrons. </li></ul>
- 19. Problem #1… <ul><li>Which element does He stand for? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helium! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How many protons does He have? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How many electrons does He have? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How many neutrons does He have? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two! (Mass number - Atomic number = 4 - 2 = 2) </li></ul></ul></ul>He 2 4
- 20. Problem #2… <ul><li>Which element does C stand for? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How many protons does C have? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Six! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How many electrons does C have? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Six! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How many neutrons does C have? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Six! (Mass number - Atomic number = 12 - 6 = 6) </li></ul></ul></ul>C 6 12
- 21. Models of the Atom <ul><li>A good model helps us understand something we cannot see – the atom ! </li></ul><ul><li>A good model must explain all of the information we have about the atom – as our information changes so must our models. </li></ul><ul><li>Niels Bohr created one of the earliest models of the atom (1913). </li></ul>
- 22. Bohr Model of the Atom <ul><li>Bohr’s model had a central nucleus with electrons moving around it in defined paths or orbits. </li></ul><ul><li>Why would this model also be called the Planetary Model of the Atom? </li></ul>
- 23. Electron Cloud Model of the Atom <ul><li>Improved Bohr’s model (1926). </li></ul><ul><li>In this model, electron’s move around in an area called the electron cloud . It shows the region where an electron is likely to be (it is impossible to determine an exact location). </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons are more likely to be closer to the nucleus than far away – this explains why the cloud is denser near the middle! </li></ul>

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