MIS Tools• Databases• Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems• Internet• Other e.g. Data Warehousing, Data Mining, Predictive Modelling
Databases• An organised body of related information• In computing, a database is a structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer• Data is organised using software• Queries are used to get answers to questions• The records retrieved become information that can be used to make decisions• A schema describes the objects that are represented in the database, and the relationships among them
Database - Uses• Databases are used in many applications, spanning a wide range of computer software.• Used by multiuser applications, to store and coordination data between users• Individual users find them convenient• Electronic mail programs and personal organisers are based on standard database technology
Artificial Intelligence & Expert SystemsSome definitions:• Artificial Intelligence (or AI) is “the area of computer science focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that humans consider intelligent. “• An Expert System is an "application that uses a knowledge base of human expertise for problem solving. Its success is based on the quality of the data and rules obtained from the human expert”.
Artificial Intelligence & Expert Systems• Expert systems are types of artificial intelligence.• AI and Expert Systems have rules• Rules may be changed to reflect the business• The computer systems can perform tasks that would otherwise be performed by a human expert.• Systems can also help human experts perform tasks.
Artificial Intelligence - Examples• Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organize operations, invest in stocks, and manage properties.• Hospitals can use artificial intelligence systems to organise bed schedules, make a staff rotation, and provide medical information and diagnosis• Financial institutions have long used such systems to detect charges or claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human investigation
Artificial Intelligence - Examples• E-mail spam filtering (unsolicited bulk emails)• Robots common in many industries Used for dangerous or repetitive jobs General Motors uses around 16,000 robots for tasks such as painting, welding, and assembly In August 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated financial trading competition
Artificial Intelligence - Examples• Toys and Games: Tamagotchis Giga Pets Furbys Aibo – robotic dog with intelligent features
Internet• Most systems have internet access• Public or subscriber use• E-commerce (on line trading)• Many organisations use websites supported by a database• Database used to provide management information, stock movement, buying trends
Other MIS ToolsData Warehousing – A data warehouse is a central store for all or significant parts of the data that a company’s various business systems collect. – Historical data – Well organised – Stored safely – non volatile
Other MIS ToolsData Mining System• Finds patterns in sets of data (e.g. from data warehouse)• E.g. supermarket analysis of sales and customer buying patters• Has drill down functionality so that the data can be investigated at lower levels• Software usually has advanced number crunching and statistical analysis, report-writing functionality, and can be used with most database software
Other MIS ToolsPredictive modelling• A technique used to predict future behaviour and anticipate the consequences of change• Examples: How much money a customer will spend on your products How likely someone is to respond to an offer How likely someone is to stop using your services