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BTEC National in ICT: Unit 3 - MIS Features and Functions

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BTEC National in ICT: Unit 3 - MIS Features and Functions

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BTEC National in ICT: Unit 3 - MIS Features and Functions

  1. 1. Information SystemsFeatures and Functions of an MIS
  2. 2. Functions of Information Systems• An information system has four main functions – Input – Storage – Processing – Output• There is often a control or feedback loopso that the system output can affect futureinput.
  3. 3. Information System Showing Feedback Input Storage Processing Output
  4. 4. Input• Input to an information system has two parts: – Detailed data which is stored and processed and forms the basis of the output from the system – The user must tell the system what sort of analyses they want from the system (sometimes hidden from the user and the IT dept. sets this up)
  5. 5. Storage• Data should be stored at the most detailed level• IT department may choose to store various summaries of the data• IT department should take regular backups of the data• These backups should be stored in a different location in case of a disaster
  6. 6. Processing• It’s what turns data into information – Simple: i.e. adding up all the individual items sold by a supermarket and producing totals by store, by product, by time or by day – Complex: i.e. computer program performs complex calculations and makes assumptions about any missing data
  7. 7. Output• Output can be in two formats: Graphical and Textual• Graphical often used for seeing ‘the bigger picture’, usually presented as charts, diagrams, graphs or pictures• Textual used for when it important to analyse the detail, often presented as characters, numbers or text
  8. 8. Control and Feedback Loops• Control or Feedback loop is what happens in the organisation as a result of the output from an information system• It should have some effect, direct or not, on future inputs to the information system
  9. 9. Closed and Open Systems• A Closed Loop system: the user has some choice about what to report on, but they are limited to predefined output formats• In an Open Loop system there is often great flexibility on what to report on and the format in which the information is output
  10. 10. Types of Information System• Marketing Systems – sales performance• Financial Systems – costs and investments• Human Resources (HR) Systems – staffing and professional development• Management Information Systems (MIS) – decision support
  11. 11. Features of an MIS• MIS is a decision support system• Input queries and response is predetermined• Used to ask the same questions repeatedly• Example – List the top 10 sales by product type for this month, showing the percentage change against previous month
  12. 12. Key Elements of a MIS Data People Hardware Software Telecommunications
  13. 13. Key Elements of a MISData• Accurate• Stored in the most logical way• Storage often different to how input• Needs to be summarised to create useful information• May not be most logical, cheapest or easiest way
  14. 14. Key Elements of a MISPeople• Capture the data• Extract the information• Important people realise importance of data to the organisation
  15. 15. Key Elements of a MISHardware• One PC or runs on a server• Internet or intranet access• Do not usually need specialist hardware
  16. 16. Key Elements of a MISSoftware• Simple system – standard software• Most use specialised software• System configured to match data and information needed• 1 – 1000’s users• Simple to complex• Cheap to very expensive
  17. 17. Key Elements of a MISTelecommunications• May be delivered across the internet but could lead to security problems• Can be delivered via an intranet within company firewall to prevent unauthorised access• Can be a dedicated telecommunications network to provide high level of security

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