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  1. 1. Why do places need re-branding? Explain how the decline of primary and secondary industries and subsequent growth of tertiary industries means that places need to rebrand Understand the concept of rebranding and how regeneration has developed over the years
  2. 2. Task <ul><li>Note using p.251 the reasons why industry has declined in the UK and its shift to tertiary industries </li></ul>
  3. 5. What is rebranding? Rebranding is the way or ways in which a place is re-developed and marketed so that it gains a new identity. It can then attract new investors and visitors. It may involve both re-imaging and regeneration. Re-imaging is the remodelling of areas to counter negative perceptions and provide “post-industrial” functions e.g. retailing, leisure and tourism. Regeneration is a long term process involving social, economic and physical action to reverse decline and create sustainable communities.
  4. 6. Brief history of regeneration <ul><li>From the 1970s deindustrialisation = redistribution of jobs between different sectors and places </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial concentration of manufacturing and traditional heavy industries = unemployment, disadvantage and deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Urban regeneration looked to address these interlocking problems to reverse the processes of decline and social exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>2 decades of huge array of government led regeneration programmes e.g. City Challenge and Single Regeneration Budget </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 main regeneration funds identified with current government = New Deal for Communities + Neighbourhood Renewal Fund </li></ul><ul><li>New emphasis on tacking both physical decline and local economic and social infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing involvement with other NGO/private agencies – transfer council housing to Housing Associations </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing community representation </li></ul>
  5. 7. Flagships to Rebranding <ul><li>1980s + USA started trend for flagship regeneration projects e.g. Baltimore’s Inner Harbour </li></ul><ul><li>Used to create and sell the image of economic revival, entrepreneurialism and competiveness in an era of increasing globalisation </li></ul><ul><li>21 st C in Europe shift from ad hoc marketing of individual flagship projects to more holistic wide scale integrated rebranding </li></ul><ul><li>Tourist authorities often at forefront, championing culture e.g. EU European City of Culture </li></ul>
  6. 8. Why the shift to rebranding? <ul><li>Lack of trickle down? </li></ul><ul><li>Social – benefits of flagships are not enjoyed by all residents </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial – concentration on specific spaces (based largely on profit potential) increases differences between parts of a city </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance the image of the city </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst for further economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>New and exciting spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Attract new residents, businesses and tourists </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits to locals </li></ul>Criticisms? Expectations of flagship projects
  7. 9. Which types of places are re-branded?
  8. 10. Plenary <ul><li>Rebranding glossary crossword </li></ul><ul><li>Homework – define all key words in a glossary to put in your folder </li></ul>